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OUR GARDIiN FLOWI-KS 




HOOKS MV IIAIJMIKT I, K!:i;|.j.;|, 

'■""" > '"\'!'l:,SS.'l!li;M:!;,s,.,,N,s 

Our (lardcn llimim. (>. Svm, 
Our Norlhirn Shruhs. Cr.Sy,,. 
Our \a(i\c Irvcs. (>. Svi. 



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OTR (iARI)KX 
FI.OVVn'.RS 



a Popular fetnti;' ot Ud^lr iI5atibf 
lanuo. Illjtit mtt liiotorifo. 
ann U()rir i^trurtunil atUiiatioM 



Hy iiAkkiiiT L. ki:i<:li.:r 

.M I IKiK 1.1 ■■ ipl l; \ M IX |, | |<| | s ,\Mi 
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TO RON TO: 

M. CLI:LL.\\I) .\: C.OODCIIII.I) 

i'r iii.i>ii 1. Us 



►- iV ic :S: y 



JUN 4 1162 



C'crvKiiirr. ir)i\ by 
:H.\ULKS SCKlIiNKKS SONS 



rublis'.iid May, lyio 




TO 



ADELIA A. F. JOHNSTON 



PREFACE 



This hook is the outconic of a lilVIoiif,^ search for a vokinu' 
with \vhi( h one mi^'iit make a little journey into the j^anlen, and 
i)CC()me ae(|iiainte(l with the dweiiers therein; their native land, 
tlieir life history, their structural afViliations. 

Amon^ the many species of a genus it has often been necessarv 
to select hut one for descrii)tion. As a rule the choice has i)een 
either the typical form, or the one lonj^est in cultivation, or the 
};reatest favorite. 

While it has hecn the aim to make the hook a fairly complete 
study of all the annual and perennial llowerinfj; herhs comnionlv 
found in a hardy ganlen, it is l)y no means intended ti: he a cata- 
lofjue. 

The half-tones are from i)hotof5ra])hs, of which the larger num- 
her were made hy Mr. Xathan R. ( Iraves, of Rochester, New ^■or^. 

The outline drawings, with the e,\ce])tion of the few that are 
marked, are the work of Miss Mary KetYer, of Lake Erie College, 
I*ainesville, Ohio. The following list names the hooks which 
have heen especially helpful in the preparation of this volume; 

"Cyclo|)edia of American Horticulture," I.. H. Hailey; "Favor- 
ite Flowers of (harden and Cireen house," Friward Stej), F.F.S.. 
and William Watson, F.R.H.,S.; "The Flowering Plants of (Jreat 
Britain," .\nne Pratt; "Plantes I'tiliores, or Illu>trations of 
Useful Plants Fmployed in the Arts and .Medicine," M. .\. !5ur- 
nett; "Manual of the Flora of the United States," M. L. Hrit- 
ton; Cray's "Xcw Manual of Hotany," seventh edition; (Irav's 
"Field, Forest, and Garden liotany," revised edition. 



CONTENTS 






PACl 


Preface 


vii 


Genera and Species 


xi 


Illustrations 


. xxvii 


Description^ of Garden Plants 


1 


Sweet Herbs 


. 317 


Glossary of Botanical Terms 


. 533 


Index 


, 537 



jji 



GHNFRA AND SPFtCIRS 



\ \J\1)\( I.K . 

.1 pmioi^iidu (lisliii liyinii 



V INKWII i> I'wm.N 
CaiK- I'linduccd . 



Akackk 

Kulitii'diii iijri((iH(i 

CoMMI LIS All K . 

'I'riidisiitnlia 7'iri^iiiiiHhi 
I'riidcsiiiulia /In mi in ii si 
/(hriiiii pdululii 
C'liiiimcl it'll iiiiilijlora 

PoNTi r)i;Ki \( i; v. . 

Poult di rill dtrdata 

Lii-iAci i: 
l.iliiivi . 
l.iHiini ciiHiliditiii 
/.ilium luiif^i/liinnii var 

imiiiii! 
/.ilium philiidclphitHin 
/.ilium cli^iiiis 
.'.ilium .sprriiisini! . 
/.ilium iiuralum 
/.ilium li^rinuiii 
/.ilium supvrhum . 
/.ilium caiuidciisr . 
Tulipii iirsiicriiina 
Tulipii siunroliii^ 
/■ritillaria mclca^ris 
/•'rilillariit im p'ralis 
Scilla sihiric'! 
ChionodiKxa lucilicc 



. .\k\\\ V\\\\\.\ 






. •('alia Ijly . 


5 


SiMDI kWOlM I'WIIIA' 




. SpidiTWort . 


S 


V W'amlcrini,' Jew 


10 


W'aiiiKrinj,' Jew 


iO 


\\ aniliriiii; Jiw 


lO 


. I'k KI Kl 1. \VI 1 II I' will. V 




. I'iikiTcl weed 


13 


. Liiv I'wiii.v 




Lily ... 


14 


Madonna IjIv 




if) 


r. ix- 






I",asi( r Lilv 




i.S 


. \V..u(l I.ily . 




20 


r[irii;lil Lily 




20 


Jauainsi' I.ily 




22 


(lold handed I.ih' 




^\ 


. -I'i-cr I.ily . '. 




2() 


'I'urk'.s ("ap I.ily 




•"7 


Meadow I.ilv 




27 


("ommon Tulip . 




2(J 


. I-"raf,'ranl Tuli]) 




.S4 


. ("lu'ckcri-d I.ily 




,^4 


. ("rown Ini|H.Tial . 




,V1 


. .Siheri;!!! Sijuill 




■fi 


. (dorv of the Snow 




.i7 



.\1 



I 



GENERA AND SPECIES 



Lii.i\(iK_c •,,„//„,(,,/ 

(hnillini^iiliiin iimlxlliiliini 
Miisrari holryoidis 
II yaciniliiis uriiulalis 
llyniiiilluis tiiiiilidiiis 
l-tinkia siilHiirtlatii 
llcmtriHallis julv.i 
/Irnitnxiiltis /l,iva 
hiiip/iii/id aluiilis 
J iiiiii filtimoiliisa 
Allium tiniKum . 
Allium (I- fill 
Allium sdtduopriisum 
I ritlium ,i;riiiu/i/li>rum 
A.s/),inn;uy offuiualis 
Aspanif^.ts .Sprni,t;<ri 
Asparagus plumosus 
Asparagus mairoloidcs 
Coiiviilhiria majdlis 
I-'.rcmurus rohustus 
Paradisia liliastrum 
Hiilhocoi/ium viriium 
Colt liit urn oulummilr 
Tricvrlis liirla 

DldSCORKAflM.: 

Did SI- area Jivdricdid 

A.MARM,l.inAf PK 

y>'iircissus 

Xanissus pseudo-mmissus 
Narcissus bullmcndium 
Narcissus iiu-ompardhilis 
Ndrcissus porlifus 
Xiira'ssus Idzrlhi alhd 
A'anissus Idzclld oriaildlis 
Nanissus tdzclld 
Xariissus jom/uilld 

('iildntlius nix'dlis 

daldiitlnis lilursii 

I-cuutjum vcnt'im . 

PoHantlics. luhrrosa 



■ Star of Mcililclu-ni 
(ira|K' llyad'nti) . 
ilyaiiiiih 

■ SiiriiiiuT Uvadnili 
• I'linkia 

. Day I,ily 

l.imon I,il\ 

'ronli Lily 

^'ll((■a 

Wild Oniiin 

Conimoii ( )nii)n 

(■|ii\cs 

Wliiti' 'rrilliiim 

(larili'd .\s|)ara|,'iis 

Ornanu'iital Asparagus 

« )rnanH'mal Asparagus 

Smilax 

I.ily of the \-alii.y 

I'lri'nnirus 

St. initio's I.ilv 

Woolly Hull) 

Meadow Saffron 

Toad Lily 

N'.AM Famh.y 
Cinnamon N'inc 



Amaryllis Family 

Narcissus 

TrumiR-t Daffodil 

HoopiK'ttiroal I)alTo( 

Su|htI) DalTodil . 

I'oil's Xarri^^ij-, 

TapiT White .Narcissus 
("liinc: Sacred Lily 
I'olyanlluis Xarci.s.sus 
Jon(|uii 

Common Snowdrop 
I.ars^'er Snowdroj) 
Sj)ring Snowllake 
Tulitrose 



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42 

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50 



61 
(u 
66 
66 
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6„ 
6„ 



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7f) 



xn 



GENERA AND SPECIES 



IkiiiA(i:i: 
Iris 

Iris n<rni(iuii(i 
Iris fiiimihi 
Iris .\ipliiiim . 
Iris xipliinidis 
Iris liivij^^dtii 

Ciltlditillls 

( 'rm IIS . 

Crciiis siiliviis 

Ixiii 

I'i^riiliii piivmiiii 

liiltiiiiitiiidii < him II is 

I'riloiiiii iracDsiihrjldrii 

SciT.\MI\A( I i: 

Ciiniiii liyhridii 

OKI llIDAl I i: 

C'yf>ri/)i(liiiiii 

rKTlcAi i: i: . 

Iltimiiliis liipidiis . 
Iliimiiliis jii poll ii IIS 

AKisroi.ocm \<i; i; 

Aristoloihia iiiiirrupli vl/ii 



r(ii.vc.()\Aii:.K 

Polyf^oniiiu Siihiildi 
I'olyf^oiiini! sdiliiiliiiriisi 
rolyiiioiiiim hiildsiliiiiiiiidiiii 
Polygoniiiii orinitali- 
l'<i.K<'pyriiiii fsculiiitiim . 
Rlinim rlutponliciim 





PAu>: 


Iris 1 am my 




Iris 


7"^ 


(iirinan Iris 


Ho 


Dwarf iris . 


«,< 


Spanish Iris 


«.^ 


lin^'lish Iris 


S4 


Ja|)aiii'M' Iris 


«4 


(iladiolus 


W) 


S|iriiii,' Crodis 


ik) 


Saffniii 


9' 


Ixia ... 


<)2 


Ti^iT I'l'iuiT 


02 


HlaiklRTry l.ily . 


''5 


Miiiitbrttia 


'/' 


Hanaw 1 amii.v 




Caniia 


Q7 



( )H( !!..> I'AMII.V 

Lady's Sli|i|iiT 

N'lrn.i: I'a.mii.y 
("nmninn I lop 
Jaj)aiU'sc Hop 

HiRTIlWOKr I'.XMII.V 

Dulcliman's !'i])t' 

lil < KWIIl AT I'.V.MII.Y 

lUishy P()lvi;.)niini 
Husliy l'()ly;,'()niim 
Twining' I'olyjjonum 
Prince's I'ValluT . 
HuckwlH'at 
I'if Plant 



lOO 



104 



lOi 



107 

loS 
108 
ICX; 
no 
III 



CUKMII'ODIACI .I'; . 

Hctii viilf^uris . 
.Spiiidi id olcrdi 111 
(.'III liopudilllll Imlrvs 
Kih'hid sioparir, 
Boiissiiigdiillid hiisilliiidis 



(iooSI'FOdT P'amii.y 
lU'ct . 
S|)inaiii 

I'catluT (iiTanium 
. Mock Cypress 
Madeira \'inc 



114 

"5 
".S 
116 



li£f[ERAANl) SPKII ES 



i^'llli;, /I, ,n 



\>ii'i>. mills ,, III, I. till, 

\iii,ir,inl!i\ 

iiii'ir.iiiliis lri,,,/,,r 
i'")iif>/ir,n,i .J,,!,,,,,, 
t-'ilo^l.l ,rixl,,i,, 
T'l'liltlhr.i 
Irrsiii, IhrhslU 

Mir.ihili, i:il,,f,,i 



M>r, 



'III. I iiiiih,ll,ii,, 



( 



l^i'inlliiis /i,it/,,,/„, 

l^'hlllllllls ,/lill,IIM\ 

ni'i'ithus V'./)/,v///n 
Ihaiilliiis />/ii„!,,rii,s 
/■\'<''nu\ ,/i,i/,,,/,„i,;,, 

Ivdilli : ril/i.ii;,, 

l.^iliiiis I'los niiiili 
■ I.C^'v/, );//,,, loroiuirut 
SiUiu .irniirui 
S'ipon.iri.i „;■;;, i ,,/i, 
(■'_\'pso/>Jii/., f>„r:,i,/,i/,, 
<■ ■■r,isii:ii„ !,,mrnlo:;iii: 
■'^'f'l/iiri.i •:■. ;i,i 
Slill,,ri„ llolosi,,! 

K<>s.\(i i: 

lynilill,, uni.uliiisis 
I'olniiill., ,ir,^vr,>p/i v//„ 
( 11 ion /ri;foriii)i 
(.,'iiaii iliiloriisr 

''"Kin \( \( 1 v: 



I'orliil. 



I'll i;ri!ii(/i;!i,r,i 



l''<rtiil,u;i i>l,r,in;i 

•VvMiMi I \( I i: 

A yiiiplKf.i ,H/,ir,i/,i 
.\ilii„ihiiii)i iiidira 
-\ 1 1 urn hi inn liiinini 



\m\K'\\||| I vmiiv 

'''■ill"''> l'.;|||„.,- 
I-"W- I.ir, MIccliii- 

.l"M|.ir> (■,,., I 

<i'<'lK' .\m;ir.iiii|| 

^''•■'■ii.imiIk 1,1 

■ At In r.iiiilii's 

■ ''"'H"'Cl,.MK I \M,,V 

Ic.iir c."( •!,„(; 

\l>rn|i;;, 



■ ''l^K I VMIIV 
•'"".vl UillMiii 

riiin.i I'ink 
('•irii.iiion 
(ianlcn I'ink 
Mallfsc Cross 
(■"111 ("(.ikli' 
l'!:ij,'L,'ti| Knl)in 

M.illcin I'ink 

•"^"ffl Uilli.nn (■;„( 

nciunriiiL; lui 

<;y|is,i|l|li|;i 

M"usc Kar Clii.kut 
Cliickufiil 



■ ilv 



t'li 



XIV 



'-losi: I'AMir.v 

('in<|ucf(.il 
<ianlfn I'dhmilla 
I-"".!,' pliiMH'd Awns 
("li!i;-.n (W'lini 

I'lKSI.AM, TwiIV 

l'"rlulaca 
I'urslanc 

^Vaiik r.ii.v Immiiv 
^Vhiti' Water I.ijy 
!^:iir((l Hean 
UakT C'a'nquaj.iii 



i>Mr 

"7 
\\i, 

II.; 
Ill; 
l-'O 
Ml 



l-'i 
Ijfl 



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1 10 


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i-4f) 
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'47 



149 



150 



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.■'.i 



GENERA AND SPECIES 



k \M v< I l,\( I I; 

l'i(i>ni,i Inhriilii 
.li/iiiln^iii viilj^.iris 
.li/iiilii^i,i i,tniiili n\i\ 
.\i/inli ji;iii jiiniiiis,! 

■ \i/iiili f;i,i niriili,! , 
Aijiiilixi.i <lir\s,iiilli,i 

■ \i/iiiln;i,i Skiiimri 
/>i I fill ill ill III . 
Aioiii/iim 11,1 p, tills 
( liiildlis viri;iiii,iiiii 
( 'lil)liili\ : ioriiii 
( liiihilis l),ni,!i,iii,i 
< liiihilis [),ini, iil,ii,i 
i 7iiii,iti\ Jiiikithiiiiii 
. \ii' iiiDiif (ornihirid 

liiiHidii, liarli iius 
Aiiniioiif jiiponiai . 
Aiiimoiir piilciis 
.iiii iiiiiiir HI iiinrDSii 
Aiiniiiiiir piiiiisyhiiiiiui 
A III III, lilt 11,1 llhiliitroiilis 
Irnlliiis iiiropiiiis 
Troll ins ,i\i,iii,iis . 
Kaiuiiiiiiliis ii,ri\ v;ir. /Ion 

pinio 
'I'liiiliilniiii ,ii/iiilii;ijoliiuii 
llipiitiid III iililohit 
A lion is vrniiilis 
Ciillliii piilustris 
1 1 rllihonis iiij^ir 

■\ if^illd ildllUISiilld 

Hi :Rm:R!i>.\( i: i; . 
. 1 kihid i/iiiiiiil,i 
/■'.piiHCiliiiiii iitdirdiilli mil 



I'.AP.WlKACi: K 

I'dpdvir siiiiini/iriiiii 
I'dpuvir rliu-ds 
I'apiiiir luidiidul,- 
I'apdvcr 111 pi II II III . 



CKcpWI mil I \M1I.S 
l'«iitu 

( 'iliimhinc 
l\i il ( uliitiiliini' 
\\«>li III ('iiliii)ilijii(' 
<'i)|ipr;it|<. Cohimliiiif 
• iip|i|< II ('i)liiniliiiu' 
Silxriiiii ('(iliiniliinc 
Mr\i(,ill Culliiiil.iiic 
l.aik>|iiir 
Monk^liiMid 
Willi Clcm.ilis 
l.iMlliir Ic.tf ( lcm:iiis 
Hush Clfmiiiis 
Japancsf Clciniiiis 
l.ar^'c lluwiri i| Clcnial 
l'"|i|)\ Aiuiiiunc 
< iardi'ii AncDioiic 
Ja|)aiusr Ancmniif 
I'asi|i!c riiiwcr . 
\\ i"ii| Ancmoiic 
I'liinsylvaiiia Aiunioiu 
Kiif AncinoDc 

(Jlllhc I'liiWlT 

(ilohf !■ lower 

Doiililc liiittcrcui) 
Tlialidrtini 
llt|)ati'a 
Spring; ."idonis 
Marsh Marif,'i)l(l 
Christmas Rose . 
NiKflla 



Hakhi Kkv I'wm.v 

Akfliia 

l-arj,'i' lldwtrcd Harrcnworl 

I'lii'i'V r.\.\iii,v 
Common Poppy . 
Scarlet I'oppv 
Icelari'' ' -..n- 
Ail- / . . 



xv 



|(lO 

lAi 

I^l 
.6; 
\t>l> 

\i,(t 

"'7 
ifiS 

170 
'7' 
17-' 
17-' 
171 
'71 
'71 
'7=: 
'7'' 
i7f. 
I 70 
176 

'77 
•77 

.78 

'7') 

'7') 

1.S2 

1X4 • 
1 86 



1 88 
I8<; 



195 



"""""''I n,r,l.„„ ■ 
■^'"">»i'i nrrhos,, ' 



''"•'■'V r/W„r,; 

,■;"""-'" I'innns 
'"^^^'o, olrr,„n, 

' '"'K'l oil,,, 

• '; '''■> "iphu, 
■^'''•':ii" >iriioi,i..„ ■ 

''>'•"■ "tthus rluiri 
Rr'NKI>.\(,, ,. 



• ' '•'■"•i.Imu. '• 

""••iilr.i 
'*''<ii(ra 



•\\i 



• """•'■ t'a-'lviuf, 
,^",';'' •M.vs.s.in, 

i/oncsfv 

i^'"'«■•^'u.s,a^| • 

• Kock Cress 

• "■'"■""^MJra.ss ■ 

■ .:'t ^^"" Oc-s: ■ 

■ ^ "mnion W.-,,,.- /. 

H" 'III r t rc>;< 

\i; ' wir; \- 



">7 

JOO 
JO I 

JOJ 



J04 

206 

20S 



^to 



• ^'5 

■ :?ir) 

■ -'- 

• 2/,S 

■ -',,; 

2U) 

21,, 

2U, 

21,) 

220 

220 

220 



224 



-'i^j'ru 



GENFRA AND SPECIES 



Siilum lih />liiunt 

Siiliiiii inri- 
.Siilinii \f>ii liihih 
Sidiim lirtiiiliim 
Sinipir, I. Hill tiilorum 

S\\in<\<;\<i I. 

Sii\iiriii;<i riri^iiiinisi^ 
Sii\ijrin;ti trdwijuliii 
'iiiinlhi inrdiji'li'i 
llniilh rii s.iiii^iiiiif,! 

l.HA MISDS i; 

Liitliyriis i>ili>rii!if< 
l.alliyrii^ Idlijiitiiis 
( iiilrosiiii.i •iin^iiiiiiiiiiiii 
J'isiim uilivinii 
Hiifiliui iiii'^lriilif . 
Iri Jul ill III pratritsi- 
I rijuliiiiii ri pill'' 
Trijuliiiiit li\hrii!iiii! 
'irijoliniii (ii;r(iriiiiii 
'Irijcliiiiii iinrii^f 
'/'riioliiim iiuiirihituin 
Lrspiiii'M Siihi'lili 
l.iipiiius pulypliylliis 

MililolUS illhd 

( 'orciiillii Viiria 
J'liiisioliis vulgaris 
Polirlii's liihliih 
.l/»/i'v liihtrosd 
Oiidiiis roliiiuliji'liii 
Vii ill iirohoidi s 
I'litrdriii 1 l:iinhiri;idiid 
\\',\ldrid (iiiiirsis 
.\[iilirdi;(> sdli'i'd 
Cassid jhiribmiiid . 
Ardiliis liypoi^d'd 

LiN.vi i: 

l.iiiinii iisitdlissiiinim 
Linuiii perniiif 



i )HI'IM I \MI1 S 

l.ivc I'lir «Mr 

Si'iiu' Cruii 

Shdwv Sidiirti 

Sciluni 

lli'ii ,iihI (liii kinri 



■'■'7 

3iO 





S\\iik\<.i 1 wiii.v 






\:i\r\y Saxilrap' -'i-' 


'I'liirk liavfd Saxilrap' -' ;-' 


Tiarilla .... .',;s 


Ilriulura .... i.vi 


I'l \ 1 \MII.V 


. S\MTt IVa 2V> 




I'.virla>liiiK iVa 




2;.S 




Hutttrtly I'.M 




2.V» 




(iardrn IV.i 




-'.•;«) 




Kapli^ia 




-■\o 




Rid Cluvcr 




2\2 




Wliili' Clovr 




24.5 




,\lsiki' Clover 




2;? 


III)-' ('li)Vir 




244 


Kai)l)it foot CloviT 




244 


llalian Clowr 




244 


IxsiKilr/i 




244 


Mail) Ifavi'd 1 .i|>iiu- 




24^' 


. Swtrt i lovcT 




247 


. ('onmilla 




24» 


. Ki(lr:'.'y lU'i.n 




240 


Hyacinth Hran 






250 


(Imiinil N'lit 






25' 


Kot Harrow 






• 252 


IVa lik/ Wtili 






252 


Kii(l/.u \ine 






• 252 


Wistaria 






252 


.\lfalfa 






• 254 


("assia 






• 254 


I'l'ainit 






• 254 


. !'i \\ I'wni.v 


Common I'la.x . ■ 256 




IVrniiiial I'ki.x 






• 257 



:.-j^ - 



GENERA AND SPECIES 



( )\.\i.ii>A( i: i: 

Oxiilis vid/iirnr 
(Ixiilis (uddsrilti 
( hiilis striria 

CJi:ka\ia( I, i: 

/'r/iiri^diiiiini hurliiriini 
iiiraiiiiiin wiuiildliini 
( icrdiiimn Rdbrrliiinitw 
rrdpudliim ma ) IIS . 
I'mpiroliiiii prr(\i;riniiiii 

RiT\(i;i: 

h'lilii i:^ravidl<ns 
Piitdiiiiiis dlhiis 

ClI.ASTKACK.i: 

( 'ildslnis .SKUldills 
l-'.iioiiymiis rddiians 

luPlIOKIilACI: K . 

/■'.iiplidrhid liidriiiiKild 
I'.iipliorhiii Cdnil/dla 
l-'.iipliorhid pidilnrriiiiii . 
I'.iipliiirhiii liilirdphylld 
Nil inns idiniiiiinis 
Pddiysaiidra prdciimbcns 



SAPixnAci; t: 

( \inliosp,rmiim liiiHrdiii/iiiiii 

nAI.SAMIWCl i: 

Iwpdiiois hiilsdwili'i 
Inipdiicns siilliiiii . 
Inipiitims jiilvii 

\'lTA<K i; .... 
.1 nipildpsis ijiiiiuiu. jdlia 
Amprldpsis ViiUliii 
litis viilpiiiii 
1 ills Idhniscd 



Wood .Sokki I. I'amii.v 
\i<ilil Wood .Sorril 
Wliilf Wood .Sorivl 
Sli(:t'|)'s Sorri'l 

(JiKAMiM I'amii.v 
(iardin (k'raniimi 
Wild (uTMiiium . 
Ilcrl) RohiTl 
■N'a.siurtiiini 
Canary-I)ird I'lowir 



l\i I I'amii.v 
("oninioii Uuf 
Cas I'hiiu . 

Stai r Tkij; I'amii.v 
("liniliini,' MiitiT swirt . 
Climliini; Kuonyniu.s . 

Si'iRci: Famiiv 
Snowoii tlu'-Moiinlain 
\\ liilf tlowcTi'iii,' .Spurge 
I'oiiisciiia 
.\ninial i'oinstitia 
("istor-|{('an 
•Mountain SpurLjc 

SoAPHIKKV F.\MII.V 

Balloon X'iiif 

'I'oK iiMi \"oi I'amii.v 
(Jardcn Mal.sani . 
."Juliana 
Ji'wclwird . 

\im; I'amii.v 
X'ir^'inia ('rci|HT 
Hosloii |\v . 
KiviT hank ( InijK' 
Xortlicrii l'o\ (Iranc . 



258 

25.S 
258 



250 
261 
261 
262 
265 



266 
268 



269 

26(J 



272 

274 
274 
275 



276 



277 

2 78 
278 



280 
2S1 
2S3 

2S3 



GENERA AND SPECIES 







l'\(.K 


M.AIA \(i;.i; .... 


Mai.i.ow Family 




Altlurn rosea 


II..llvll.Hk . 


2,S5 


Alllura offubtalis . 


Miirsli Mallow . 


2SS 


Ilibisnis mosthculos 


Ilihiscus 


288 


U ibistiis trionum . 


Fldwcrofan-Hour 


290 


Ilihisiiis rsrnlciiliis 


(hiniho 


2()I 


Mdlvii mosihata 


.\hi>k Mallow . 


2(J2 


Miilvii rotitmlijolia 


Common Mallow 


2(>2 


Miiha sykrslris 


Tri't' Mallow 


2'),? 


(idssypiidn hrrhiuritm 


(^)tton 


2<A^ 


iiossypiiim arbonum 


'I'rcc Cotton 


2'>,^ 


/.(ivalcra Irimcslris 


I.axatcra 


2(;4 


Mdlopr trifidii 


Malo|K' 


2<J4 


Cdllirrhiv iiirolihrala 


l'o|)py Mallow . 


294 


Ti:r\stR(KM1A('i;.i; 


TiA Family 




Attinidiii 


-Actiniilia 


2(K 



IFVI'I.HK A( 1: 1: 

H y peril ttiii ituisiriaiium 



. St. Joiin's-wort I'amily 

. (Jolll I'loWtT 



296 



CiSTAC T.i; 

Ifiiianllnniiiiii viilf^,irr 



RocKRosi; I'amily 
kockrosc 



298 



\i(iL\(i:i: .... 
I'idia lri(()/(ir var. Iivhridii 
I '/('/(/ oilorala 

Viola ( omnia var. Iivbridii 
1 'iola I IK iillala 



X'lOI.lT I'amily 
I'ansy 

Swit'l N'iolct 
lk'(l<lini; \'iolft 
Common I^lui' X'iolct 



299 

,>02 

3°5 



I'ASSII I.ORA( 1; 1: . 

J'assi/loni iiKdniala 
Passijlora cariila . 



Passion I i.owir I'amily 
Passion {■lowtr . . ^506 

. Pa.ss'oii I'lowtr . . . 208 



Loasaci:.!: . 

BarUmia aitrea 



Foasa I'amily 
Itartonia 



.509 



Lytiikac 1: 1: 

l.yllinini saiiiaria 
Ciiplua ii;ii(a 



FoosisTRiii: I'amily 
.^wam|) l.ooscsiriU- 
I'iL'ar Plant 



■^10 



GENERA AND SPECIES 



Onaoraci: i: 

(I'Mollura hiciiiiis 
(Kiiolhrra jntlicos,} 
(Kiuitliira tiiiui)ui . 
l-'u(iisi,i miKrostcniniii 
Epili)hiuiii (ini^ustijoliu)), 
Cidiirii f)(in'i/<)/iii , 
Clarkia ilr^iins 

HoRAf;i\A( i.i; 

Mcrlciisiit virninicu 
Myosolis ptiliislris 
/■'(ilium viili^iirr 
Bonii^o officinalis . 
Ptilmoihirin siiaiidnila 
Hdiotrnjiiim prnni.iiuim 

rMUKI.I.IKKK.i; 

IhiiKiis rarold 
PdsliiiiKd sdlix'u 
.ht^opoiliiini podoi^rnrid 
Eryiii^iiim dinclli \stium 



PUMHAC.INACK.i: 

.S7<7/7(r Idtijolia 
Armcrid vii/i^dris 

Pr.nni.ACK.T; 

Primiild vdridhilis var. 

dntliiis 
Primiild offuiitdlis 
I'rimuld (idtior 
Primidd dcdiilis 
l-ysinidiiiid viilf^,i ^ 
l.ysimarhui quddnjolui 
Lysiindchia nininiiii/drid 
Dodcauliion Mvadid 

rir:\TiA\A(i:.F, 

Ucntiand (rinita 



poly- 



I.i:ai)\V(ikt I'amh.v 
Sea Lavfndtr 

Thrift 

Trimkosi: Family 

Polyanthus 

Cowslij) 

O.xlip 

Primrose 

F-ysimachia 

W'horit'd Lodsistrifc 

Money 

Shooting Star 

Gkntiav Family 

Fringer! Ccntian 



KvKMNT. Primkosi: Family 

Fvening I'rinirose 

Sundrops 

(Jodetia 

I'uciisia 

(ireat Willow lurh 

<!aura 

Clarkia 

HoRAci: I'amily 
■Merlensia 
I'orget-nie not 
\i|KT's Hugloss . 
("oninion Horagc 
ni'dileliem Sage 
I:eliotro|)e . 

Parslly Family 
Wild ("arrot 
Parsnip 
Hishop's Weed 
l'>vn<'ium . 



rsr.y, 

,-i'5 

.•;iM 
:-,2o 









,5.54 
3,55 



,?J8 
,5.59 
,5,59 
,540 
,542 
,542 
,54,5 
.54i 



345 



;*^.;'S;^ . 



GENERA AND SPECIES 



AporYNArK.j; 

I '/'«(■(/ minor . 

\'iii<(i mil lor . 

Vuuii ro.siii 

Xrriiim oliaiidcr 

. I msoiiia tabcrnamoiiliiita 

A poryniim (iiulrosdmijoliiim 

Asci.iiMD.u i: K 

Asdipias luhirosd 
I'iriplodi i^nna 

Cowoi.vii.Aci; K 
Ipoindii liyhriJd 
I pomaa hoiid-iiox . 
I pomwa paiiditriitit 
I pomaa i/iidmoilil 
I pomaa batalas 
Convolvulus scpium 
Convolvulus japonica 
Convolvulus tricolor 

I'oi.KMONiAci: i: 

Phlox paniculata . 
Phlox Drummondii 
Phlox divariiata . 
Phlox suhulalii 
Cohwa scandius 
Cilia tricolor 
Polcmonium rcplans 
Polcmonium carulcum 

HVDROI'irVM.ACK.K 

Xcmophila insii^nis 

Vi:ri!i;\A(i i: 

Verbena hybrula 
Caryoptcris mastacanthus 

Labiat.k .... 
Salvia sphndiUs 
Mouarda didvma . 



Dogha.m; Family 

N'iiua . 

I.ar^tT iVriuinkU' 

Kosi' \'iiua . 

( )lran(liT 

.\ms()nia 

I)i)i;l)aiU' 

MlI.KWI 1 I) I'NMll.V 
Uullirllv Weed . 

Silk Xiiu- . 

Cowoi.vn.rs Family 
-Morniiij^'-dlory 
Moon-I'lowcr 
.Man-of-tlu' Farili 
("vprcss \'iiu' 
Swirl -I'otalo 
("onvoK uliis 
California Rose 
Triiolond CoiivoImiIus 



Phlox I'amily 
I'cTi'niiial Phlox . 
.\nnual I'iilox 
Wild ['hlox 
Moss Pink . 
Colxia 

Tricolorc'd (iilia . 
Crcrk X'alorian . 
Pilue Polcmonium 

W'AiiK-Li AF Family 
. .\omo|)liila . 



.^47 
,54« 
,54« 



3.=; I 

352 



3,Sf' 

3.^7 

35» 
3.^0 
360 
3 to 



3^'2 

364 

364 

36.. 
,?6S 

3^J 



. \'i.Kv\i\- Family 




N'crlx'na 
Hkie S])irta 


■ 372 
374 


Mint Family 




Salvia 


^7^ 


Fragrant Balm . 


376 



jmi^i^ 



GENERA AND SPECIES 







rM.r 


1 , Mil \ 1 r ( 'otilniui'l 






\L'i;.}itl.i 'i^luli'^.t . 


Will! n('ri',,imiit 


MX 


ri!\s,'\li ij.i -.ii yj)ii,iti,i 


l'livs(isli",i,i 


■ ,w'J 


( ','/i/(> li'-!'n,/,: 


( i.mll tl ( nll'IIS 


,vs,^ 


l\i'siiuiriiiu^ 


KllMllllll \ 


■ .^Xn 


1 inrihluli} :'<;.; 


SwccI 1 .Mvciidcr 


.^'^l 


A 1 /u I.I i^lii IiiHii,! . 


( lliUllllI 1\ \ 


■ .^^^ 


/ iiiitiiini iii,h iihitiiw 


Dr.l.l \illlc 


. S'^-! 


S!ih h\\ liUhllii 


llcdp- Ntlllc 


. ^S2 


Sm \\ Ml r ... 


Nli.lMSII \PI I'XMIIV 




/'< /(();/.; i:\'l'>i,!,j 


I'ciuiii.i 


■ :>x^ 


Siilftif^ltiwi^ stiiHiilii 


SMl|>ii;lti.ssis 


■ .vH; 


Xiiotiaihi .il.il.i 


\iin|i;m;i 


■ .^«.s 


n,itiir,i l,i\liii's,i 


l>;ilui;i 


• M)o 


liriKCdlHii ilrwi.^s,! 


Uiiiw jlli.i 


• .■;'.-' 


/.Vi /;(;)/ ;7//t;.)r<' 


Malrimoii\ \'iiu' 


■ .^'H 


.Vi lii:,iiilliiis pDniitlus 


I>nlUrll\ I'liiwns 


.m 


1 \; of^( ).\i, nil! (M ;(/( iitiini 


I'omMlii 


,^<).» 


SoIiiiiHW liihcrosiim 


I'oKllo 


,>''7 


SoLinuni iliih twuii.t 


. Xi-lil-lui.li' 


■ ,v»s 


.\ iiri wl'i rt^ii) 


("ll|> I'IclUCI- 


,^<><» 


/V,'VA..'//v ''U-cL-iih^i 


('iliuind CluTlv 


,<<)<) 


( '.;/'v/' in<} lUniuuni 


Ki'd I\'|i]u'r 


:>•)') 


Si>!,iini<r ii:(l,'iii,i>ui 


. Iv- I'l.nii . 


400 


S,'ii}iiini; pstittlo nipsuum 


Jtriisiilcm (luiry 


400 


S( Korm 1 \K'i \( r i: 


. I'iC.WOK'l' I'WIll V 




AiUin Itiiudii niiiins 


. .'^napdiMu'Dii 


401 


. 1 iitirrhiiiini: I'hiuiwndiouii s 


M;nir;indi;i . 


402 


l.iihirui villi;. 11, s 


. T.Md riax . 


. .|OJ 


I \<lliiisi,i riiUii 


{"iillin>ia 


■ 405 


l^if^it.ihs pHipiiria 


I'llNUloM' 


■ ■\(''> 


( '111 loth- ohlhjii.i 


("lu'lolU' 


40') 


lorcnhi I'onniuri . 


Tiirinia 


.}io 


Pi nsUinon ili^ilulis 


I'l'iisli'UKin . 


411 


\ 1 r,>iii(ii !<<iti:i'!i'rii 


X'lroiiiia 


• 414 


ki i-i\<i i: .... 


M APPIK I'\M1I,Y 




ii.unoi: ».','//,'/ i,'ii 


Cialiimi 


4','; 


. Is pi riiid oru utalis 


AsiKiuhi 


4>6 



(lENKHA AND SPFCIES 



1)1111)1(1 iiiilii(nn 
liii'irvilliti IhliiV'ivi 
i iiliimjiili^ 

A< W I II \( I i; 

.IdlUlllll'' llll'lll\ 

('\i'i;ii III I \M I 

l.iniiiirii j'ljxniii 'I . 
I.oiiiicrii s< mji)rririii\ 

\ Ml i;i \\ Ml i: . 

Villi I iiiiiii ii;.ii iihilis 
( 'iitiiullni\ riiliir 

('!'( ' K'lil I \( I i; . 

( 'ill iirliilii /" /" , \.ir. iii'i\iiihi 

( 'ill iirl'ilii /ii fill 

( 'nil inhilii I'l p", \:ir, nvijita 

( 'ill iiniis \iilirii\ 

( III iniii^ nil lo 

( 'ilriillii': riili:,iiris . 

I'.i liiiioi \-slis liiliiilii 

(■ wii'Wi I \i I i; , 

< iiiii /iiiiiiilii iiiiiliiiiii 
( 'iiiii/hiiiiilii ni/iiiiii iilniili 
( 'iini Ihiiiiilit fiirsii ijdiiii 
( 'iiiii jhiiiiilii iiir piitii (I 
( 'iiiii/iiuiiilii /ivriiiiiiil'ili'' 
( 'iinipiiiiiilii roliiiiilijoHii 
I'liilyi iiilmi i^riiiiililliiriiiii 

Ldiiii.i \( i: i; 

l.ohiliii I riniis 
l.oliiliii iiiriHiiidis . 
f.ohiliii syphililiiii 

Dii'SNf \c 1 r. 

Sdihiosii iilropiirpnriti 



ItlCMlM \ I WIII.V 

'I I iiiii|i( I r liiucr . 
Ihi .\r\ illr.'i 

( ',ll,IIll|Mlis . 

\' Willi, I WIIIY 
'I lilllil" I ;'i;i 
III ;ii ' , r.n I ( li 



,,i;s 

,||i; 
1"; 



,|.'0 
■J.'' 



Hum \ .1 I 1,1 1 I will V 

I lulus ^l|l \.\*- ,\7?. 

'I'l lllll|irl I Inlnv-'ni kjr ,\2 5 

\' \l I I'l W I WIII.V 

X'lllffi.lll .... .\2() 

kc'l \'.iliri;iii ,)2S 

( iiPl I'll I will V 

I lillili.inl Si|ii;isli . \2') 
l'iini|ilsiii .... .i.;i 

(iuiirij . . . 1^1 

( 'ill iiinlxr . . \\2 

Minkini'luii . . i^^ 

W'lllrllncliill . -til 

\\ ilil ( III iiiiiImt . . . .\^^ 

|{| Ml I.OVVI li r Will A 

('aMliTl)iirv lirlU .\ ^7 

('nr|iinL; I'.rllllnurr .} ^S 

\:i; Miw lc,i\c(| i'.cllllu'.Mr .) lo 

{'ariialliiaii I'.illlluui-r . .\yi 

Cliimnrv ('ainpaiiila .} \'> 

Ilanlirll 112 

l'lal\i miiiii 4-4.} 

I.iil-.l 1. 1 \ I' WIII.V 

liluc l.iilirlia . . . 4.j6 

Cardinal riuwcr . . .'\.\- 

(ircat I,(il((lia . . . 44S 

Ti \-i I. I wni.v 

Swccl Sialiiiius . . . 450 



GENERA AND SPECIES 



("(IMI•(I^1 I v; 

llili^iiillnis iiuhkus 
lliHiuilhm dihilis 
lliliiiiilhtis .linifiii,ili,\ . 
Ililiinilliiis liil'i riKiis 
llilitip\is liirvi'' 
l/ili Ilium iiiitininiii.'i 
Kiiilbn kill Luiiiiiilii 
/■'.(liiihiiiii f)iir/}iirr,i 
l.ipiitliys piiiihil,! . 
Ailiilliii fiiiinnii,! . 
Dahlia rari.:'-i/is 
( 'lirysaiithi iiiiini i ik < iiiimii 
( 'lirysiinllii itiiiiii lariiiii.'iim 
( 'lirysiinlli, iiiiiiii , i>roiiariiim 
I'lirysaiillii Diiini hais,tmit,i 
C'lirysanflii Diiiiii .S(};(lin)i 
(.'lirysanlli, iiniiii auniini 
Clirysaiitlumiini jnitiwims 
Chrysanthniiiim iilii^iiiDsinii 
( 'hry.^aiilluwuni li iiiaiillinniiin 
i 'lirysaiilliniiiiiii 
Clirysanlliniiinii pailliniiuni . 
Anlluinis liiiituria 
(.la Hindi a . . , _ 
Arrto/is ri <jiiis 
('a/riidiil.i . ',,'7( /;/..'//< 
'/'ai^ctrs iriila 
'i'ai;rti's paliila 
Conopsis laiicrolata 
( 'orropsis liiuloriii 
Callisli-pliiis (iiiiunsis 
Asirr . 

Hollmii,: aslrroidrs 
I'niilia jhiiniiua 
Bc/lis prrniiiis 
/■iniiliyaniir ibiridijolia 
Zinnia r/,i;aiis 
Cosmos hipiuiiatiis 
Solidiii^o ... 

Cnilaurra cyaiius . 
Cnitaunii inoschata 



('oMi'osni I' will V 
. Coriimon Siinlloutr 
. Small Sunllowcr 
. I'lrciiiiial Siinilducr 
. JiTusali'in Ariii liokc 
1 Icliiipsis 
Ili'li'itiiim 
l\ii(lli(( kia . 
riirplc (\»u- ri(i\\rr 

l.cjiadiv.s 

The IVarl . 

Dahlia 

l'yrcihi-iim . 

Simiiiifr Clirvsanilii'mum 

(larland l)ai.s\' 

("i)sliiiarv 

Corn Marh^iM 

Ciiildfii I'caihrr 

.Mai>;iUTilc . 

Ciiaiit Daisv 

< ).\cyi' Daisv 

Hardy ("liry-anllicmnni 

I'cxcrfiu- 

N'.'ilow ("liamoniilc 

(iaiilardia 

.Xrdoii.s 

Mari^'ojd 

African Maiii^'old 

IVciuli Mari^'old 

("ori()])sis 

('()ri'o|i.sis 

Cliina .\.stcT 

A.ster .... 

Uoiloni;'. 

Ta.'i.st'l ["lower 

Kn,i,'lisli Daisv 

Swan River Dai>v 

Zinnia 

Cosmo.s 

(ioidcn-rod . 

CornllowcT . 

Sweet Sultan 



•J57 

.|f)0 
.1()0 

.|fn 
!'•-• 
I'M 

166 

170 

171 

17-' 

I7-' 

17- 

•17,^ 

I7S 

I7.^ 

171 

•17> 

»75 

.176 

•177 
.17S 

.(So 
4S2 
4S4 

.4S4 

4S5 

4Sf. 

4SS 

.|S(, 

400 

4U1 

4<)2 

4<M 
4C)6 

4<W 

S02 



X.MV 



GENERA AND SPEriRS 



Vo\}V(tsiT v.— Ciiiiliiiiird 
i 'iihorium iiilvhiis 

■ i.i;rr<iliini ((luy.niili'i 
llilii liry\iim lirin /nilniii 
.]iiiipli,i/is iniiri^<iril,iiii, 
AiHiiuihiiiw III, till III 

/■'.(IlillcfiS IXll/lillllS 

/■'.iipiilnriiiin fiiirpun iini 
I'.iipiilariiiw f),r;,'/i,ilii))i 
i.iipiilnriuw I'l^o-iili'ii/i s 
l.i'ilris ... 
Ihirmiidiw 

■ Irti inisiii iihrnliininii 

■ \r/(nii\iii ulisiiilliiiini 
Sinilnlina dhiniiK vpiiri\ui^ 
'J\in<a/uni viilj^iirr 



Swi I r 111 KISS 

Sdlvid iifjidiuilis 
'riiyiniis vtilj^iiris 
Orii^iiiium miirh'raihi 
Siiliinia linrlcnsis . 
(hiimiiii hiisilii iim , 
Mnillhi prprrilii 
Mrulliii 7'irii/is 
/•'iriiinilinii 7'nli;(in- 
And hum i^nnrn/nis 
Canim pctrosclinuin 



('lii((irv 

A.L'ciiiitiin 

• ii'l'ltii Irnniorlcllf 

I'i'arly l-lwrlaNliiiL; 

W'inj^cd Arnninliium 

( iililic 'lllisllc 

jnc I've Uird 
|{<ili(Srl 
l''ii|i.il'iiiimi 
lUa/.iiif,' Siar 
l-coinird's Mane 

SollllurilUdnij 

WurniwdiKJ 
l.a\cn(lir Cdiidn 
Tan.sv 



I'M. I 

50., 
5cf) 

507 
510 

.SI I 
5'2 
5" < 

.';'•» 

5'> 
.S'4 
.SI.) 

=;i6 





• ^:'Ki' . 


520 




'rhyme 


521 




Sui'cl Marjoram 


■ >22 




Summer .Savorv 


■ .^2^ 




Swicl Basil ' . 


■ >^\ 




Peppermint 


524 




Spearminl . 


■ ,=;2.^ 




Sweel Fennel 


. 52f) 




Dill . . . . 


■ >2I) 




I'arsley 


■ SJi 




■kl 



,"].£■ y. 



IMISI l< AIIONS 



• ■■"'I' " Will . .' I |.. I Imii.mIiI. 11,..., .,1 

< M" l'..1»I.M..t. I , ,1 .,>,,| .,|„ ,1, 1), II, .,1,1 ( I,, .. , ,.| 

' l"'^' I "I . I II,. .,. |., II ,1 !i,,i|.,.|,i, I |,, 

« ,lll,l I ll,, I I..V-, , ,,) ,, .,1 

■I'l'l' m,,il. I h.u, 111,,, 1. .1, ,,l ., |',„ I' \,,,, , ,, II,,-, , , ,,| 

U,l,i.l, ,l,,i, |, n, ' ,|.,.l\ .,| I, |'.,l .i,ii|,,i ■,,, II,, ,,, 

I'l, I , M I \\ , I ,|, I ,1 .ll ,ll,i| |,,l . I. Ill . ,1 

"I I ; |,,i,,|iiil, I 1. . I .1,1, 1 I,,,, , 

M,i'l""ii 1 I |l^, I I"-'. I' M, ', ..|i..|. . I I.. ,,,■,, I'l ,,,! 

"I .... I / i.iiiii' ll.. ■ llil . , I I.. ,. II 

l',i I I I il\ , ll,.,.M I ,.| |,, I. ,,, .,1 

I pHr.iii I ll,, I I.,,,, I ..I , ,, 1 ,,|„,,. , I I,,,,,, ,,, 

.|,i|'''i'' '■ I il^ , I l'"\' iiiir, I. 1,1 ( ,. ii,,,i,i In , I |,, ■ , I ,.1 



,1 



(..•I'l I'.iii.liil l.il',, .iii,,|i I |., ,i I 

'llJV I I ,li\'. I I. ,',M I nil" M, 111 , .1 

Ml, III.. u l,iK, I |.,u, I . .,1 

•I'lllip.. II. .'.Ml , ..I .... 

Cllr. 1,1 II. I l.lh, , I |.,-,M I ,,l, 

( '|. iVVII I llljirl l,ll, I |. .\\, I 111]^ ll III 

1,1' 

S, ill. I, I lllllr I'l, ml ..I ... 

< ii.i|,i' I l\.ii '.Mill, I'l, ml ,,l' 
IK.ii inlli, I'l.i I ... 



* ■|,.mi ll I , , , l|,, , , I , ,1 

I'l'., I , \h ■ .,1 

(. I, I'll,, III , II..,. nil,, .1. ■ 
'I'lMi;' ' I . hr.iili ,| I'l. II 

I ,1.1, 11,, • , I 111)' llIM ,,l 
I H'M'll.l, I I.. ■ ,1 ..I 

I'.l.i, 1 1,1 I.'. I.il-,-, Iniiil ,,l 
M'irillii. Ii.i, I i,,.,.i I . ,m.| I 

\'< ',1 . 

;') ( ■.mil. I, II,. ■ , I ,,f , 



■I 

■•■■ I 



I,, I ,,-, 



'I", 



II ( ■■, l,nj„ .liiiiii, I |,, •. , li,,;- I, III 

l\', 111, III ll\.ii mill, I I'.'.'., 11,11' |.,j..m, . I|,,j,, |.,,i|,,t 

■■''■'" '•■ I ■ ll'll' Imillir I'li,, , l.,-i| .,, 

I'lllll.l,!, I huM I ill|^ '-lllll .1,1 II I |,,, , I ,,| 

i,riii..ii i.iu. iii.u, I .,!,.. |i. I'll i|. r.,i.i„,iiiiii , I,, r ,,. 

r .11 ll i.iK, 11,, ',1 1 '-|iii,i ,,i |- 1 1.,,...,., .,f 

Sill 1,1. I l,,u,niii. I'l, II, I ,,| . . |., I'm,, ,.■ , I , ,ii|,,... I I, ., , 

Willi I )lli,,ll. I iiiImI ,,I . . . - , |,i|,,. , ,,|- 

Ulllli- ■r-lllilllll, M,,\\,lili;^ lilli l.'.\lir,ll, ||.,v,,|i,|.. I', I,,:, 

•^trin.,,! ;i ,,f 

.\.|,,ii;i(:il , S|,r;iv ,,!' .,,,-, I, III,,,- (,, r,,iiii|,,,. [., ,1" ,1- 

l.ilv ,,| llir \',illi\, I 1, , wiling Iniiliii'^' I'liiii, li ,,f 

I'l'llll "t' -,^ I'lilM, • . I r.illi.r, I i,, ,., ;r 

{''irmiiiil ,, I' |.,\M-riiijr I'laiil .,!' . -- ^|iiii,.f 

( 'illli:! 111. .11 \.'i,,,,, I.. ■,!'.. .i!!'! (ilr.l::- \ iiiiMir^l !; [!.,...: = 

l''l<i\V.-|.~. Ill" :;., Ilr.lil , ' ,f 

,\ \ \ i i 



.1 I'. I 
I'l 



r.-; 



''•'I 



I iS 



JL 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



*''■''"'•'• ''""'''"^ ''!•'"! "f • '-■' (■..liloM.i.. I'u|,|,v l|.,url,.,| 

All.Tli.iMllirr.., I.r.ilv M,.M1 of . ,j, I'l i. klv I', ,|,|,v , I- 1, ,„, r , ,f 

Ai li\ r. inline, l.i .ur, <i|' . . . i .. . 

T'liir ii'( 'liii k, Miiuiiiti)r Mnuof i ..(, 
Swnl W illi.ini, Miiwi riiin Shiii-. 

of 



Mr.r 



lil<riliriv; llc.irl, llouriitiK 

'-•" ;^pr..v,,,f ,,^j. 

I'll iMilr.i. I Iciuir .if .... joii 
i-i) hiMiilra. l.iMl .111.1 l|..u<rinK 

'^l''"' "f :oh 

S'liiiml C.iii, l.ciiM-, ami 

M.iw.'ririj,' Siiiii, ,,f , . _ ,^, 
I'i.c'iiira, I'll AMtiriK .'^Iirii .if . -'oS 
A'MiiiniM, l,.a\,-, anil M.iucriii^; 

^""'- "'■ 2n(, 

Sill, k, I- 1. n\ Clint; -^li'iii .if . . Ji i 
CainlMufl, llMucring llca.l , if . j, . 
i.v'^ Sui-ci Al\»uni, ILiufrinj; K.i- 
',ii> I (inc if 



China I'ink-. lluwiTinK M,ni> 

.'"' ■ l.i. 

< i.liili II I'iiik, ll.iwi I iiijf Stems 

i.f . ,, 

■ ■ ■ ■* 1 
Si arlrl I ijjhinint,', llnuirin^ 

Sicni iif . . . I .,, 

Mullrin I'ink, I'l.iu.r .if . . i ^- 
SuiTi Willi, nil Call lill\, i'loucis 

iif ■. , 

liiiiliu in^ Itii, ll.iuiTs ..f . .,, , 

«ivi.-.i,ihila, ri.,w..r>.>f . . . ,;, l.unaiia, 'r!iu.r'an'lP,„i,if ' l\l 

( .•raMiiini, Muuv, m^; Slcn-, .,f ,,. Suci k.i.k.i. |-|, iuit .if .,- 

I'.irlnlaia, !• luu.-i mn St.-in ..f i 4.S Wil.l ( -aMian., I'lant ..f mS 

•uNanr, l...afySl.-m.if . . . , ,„ Mit;„.,n.tU-, ll.iurrinK St.in ,if . L. 

WInl.' Uat.r- .ilv. Il.i„..r,,.f . ,5, I'i,. lur i'iani, ILiuriin^ Tuft ,il - = 

N.'lumliiuin, 1.,-al, Ikiw.-r anil I.iv.-f.ir-.'vrr, 1.,-af ,if . . ...,. 

, 'V'," 1!'^ , '^* Sl"M.' Cr.-ii, Mnuviini; Sinn .,f jj,S 

I)..u.l,- Kni nny, Miiu.Tiif . ,,; Sclu.n, BiuviinH Plant .,f . , ... 

SmKir Wl.iU. IViiny, n.m.r .,f , „, I I.-n an.JCIn, km., k.iMtt.. .,f .;o 

..IuimIimu., M„«,.rinKSt,.n,s,if ,,„ [[.■u. luTa, I..af an,l ri,iu.rin« ' 

KnI '•i.UiinliiiU', lliiu.TinK Sinn,.! 

r^T'\'.\ •,.• ■,.,■ • • • '"^ ^"•■'■' '"'■^'- M""vrs'.,f" ; ; ; ;;„ 

.iil.l.n ..hunhmo. Il,iu..r,.l . ,,,6 Kscrlasiinn I'.a, I-l.iw.iinK Ua- ' 

I.arks|iur, M,iu..r> ,if . . . . h,s ,,,„„. „f _ -7 

M..i>k>h...Ml, Kl.m.r. .,f . . .,„„ Car.l.n 1',,,. M.iu.rinn Sprav 

C li'inatK, ri.iuc's .>f . . . . i-| ,,|- , 

rU'inali., Fruiting S,„-av, if . .,;, Iiapti>ia. li,,.,;..,;nt.'spi-av .,f ! 24? 

.|arkinan>Clrn.atis. FkiuiTMif i;^ RniCl.ivcr. Leaf ,,f ' .4, 

Ja|iam-,cAn.iniine. l-l.iw.T.if . ,75 Whiir . 'I.iv.r. I I.m.I ,,f .' 

I.rat.ia, llnw.rinKTuft.if . ,Sr Ma„v L..av..| Lupine. FIhw.t- "' ' 

( hn,t,na-k,,M..ri,iu,.|s„f . .^s,, in^ St..in> nf . . ,.. 

NlK.'.la. Miiwer ami IVuilinK r...spni,..,,. Leaf ami Ll.iuer.uf .4(", 

M ;'•'"■ ,''"i ', .■, • ■ • ■ ''^' ^^^'■'■1 ("'"ver, Fliiw.Tinjr Stems 

Akeliia, Le.if ami M.iwers iif . iSS ,,f 

C'.imin.m l-,,ppy, Fl.nversin va- ("..ninilla, Leaf ,',f '. '. '. \ ', \% 

., ''".''•^' „ i^f Ki.lnevliean, Leaf aii.l Fl.ivvers 

.Sariel Tuiipv, Flower < if . . i,,; ,,f 

IrHaml I-oppy. t-apsule of . .,„^ Ilya.inth liean, ' Flowers ami''*'' 

Oru-nla! Poppy. M.iw.-r .,f . . u/i p,„| of 

Plume Poppy, Leaf of . . .,,,- Ku.l/n Vim- I , ■,[ i.f ' ' ' 'V^, 

Bluodroot, Leal atul Ilouer of .yy Uismria, Flov.cri.igKucen.e.of .5,'^ 

x.wiii 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Alfiilf.i, riuw.riiiK Iliad . if . .-54 WiM rarr-.i, r.iavi>, I|.,uit-, 

Miiu.ririK lla\, lluH.r^.if . . ..;; ami I r\iil ..f , ^j. 

\a>liirliiiin. Hall ,1 I Inw.r of . jf^ lti-liM|,', \\ ,r,|, |,,.;,|- ,,f , ,q 

( 11111111.111 Uilr, Leaf .if, . . . _•(.(. I.nnniiirii, M,,«,t lica.L.r , ;;.. 

I»i. laiiiiiiK, IJ.iU.iiiiK Sinn, i.f .;(.; Mali. .■, ri..«.-ritn,' M. in ..f i]\ 

(■Iiiiil>iii« Ilill.i-MM-.l, Irnilinn I lir ill, Ltavis an.l I I, ,u. 1 li. a.l 

S|.r.i> ..f ...... . j(m; 

Sti..« -i.n-liuMi.unlain, I mw- 

c-i iii^; Slim III' jj I 

Sn.iu iiTi ilii-M.iunl.iin, Siri^li- 

IllMlllll r.ll ( i|..ll|. ..f , . . J-J 

Ca-I.ir llca-i, Lralnf .... j-; 



,;i'. 

I'iil\anlliu-, I.r.iM - ,ini| I l.iwrr- 

iiiK Sum, .,| (.- 

( '.i\. -Ii|i, I- l..ui-r iif . . . . ^ p 

I'riiniiiM', M.iui-rint' V\.iin <<i ;\\ 

Minus, III. urrinji; Slim III' ;(; 



li,illi«iil \iri.-, [..■afaii.j Iruil.if j-(, I'riiij,-..! » M-nli.in. |- 1, ismix .il' 



(ianliii llaKain, Sinuli- lli.urr 
uf 



<!' 



I.ai^rr I'rriuinkir, l,r.i\i'^i,f , , jS 
Ki.M- \ in. a, I luuii iin> Si' m- 1 if ; (.) 



jiuiluivil, il.iu. r i.f . . . j;.S Hull. Tllx WriMl.Sjn^jr M,, urn. f <^.' 

"i-uiJuiTil, I'Miilinj; (a|.Mili> M.iriiiiij,'.( ;l..ry, II..u<ts ..f , ;.;q 

"f -7'/ M11..11- ll.n'.rr, lli.uir.if . i^i, 

Virginia CriviHT, l.i-.if .if . . jSo Cvpn-- \ iiu', i.r.nr, ami 



Ml. -I. .11 l\y, l.i.iM- an. I j-ruil 
"I jS I 

il.ill\li... k, M.iwi-iini; Sli'ins.if . j.Si. 

Ili.llyii... k ( '.iluniii .if .Viiihir^ . .vs- 

llilii--iu-, I' 1. luiTJnj; Sii'iii iif . jSi) 

I'li.ucr-.if-an-lliinr, il.iuir ami 
l.cavr^ .if ji)| 

.Miwk Malliiu, |-i,,NMT a)i.| 
I.caM-- .if :t,j 

.\. tiiiiilia, l,faf .if . . . , 



l-lnwcr .if (-S 

I!i'.lt;i- Hin.lui'i-il, l.iaf .iinl 

Mils'. IT .ll ^;,, 

'llirrr C.il.irr.i ( '. ilu.ih ulu-, 

I l.iu.'i'^ .if ^()0 

I'lTfiini.il I'll!.! ,, M.iwcrinj,' l',iii- 

i'l'-"l yn 

M.>>^ i'lnk. l-l.iucrinn SIi-uk .if ^(1^ 

("iiUra, I.raf .-iiiil M.iucr .if . . !,(>i, 



-';5 t .ilia, I'lnwi-rlnt; Sic.,,, ..f , 



>"7 



C.il.l l-'l.iwiT, |-|.,\v(Tin),'Su-in .if j.)(i I'.ili-ni.iiiiuni, Sini;li- IJuM-r .if . \(h, 

I'aiisv. l-liiwrr .if ;oi .\rni..|iliil,i, M.iuir- ami I.ra 

Hliic \ inlcN, i'l.iwirini.; Tuft uf ^o^ .if 



^as^illll I'l.iui'i', MowiTinn 



>]iray ..I 



N'rrliriia. {■ I. i\MT ( 'lu-lrr> . if 
.',T''J Srarlii SaKia, Mnwi'iin^; Slrni> 



Suaiiip 1,11. iMNirifi-, M.iwiTiii^; of 

^''■'"^ "f .Ui I'Va^ram lialni, ll.isMT h.a.l .if .;7,S 

{•u|iliia. M.iwrranill.iavr^.if . ^u l'h\ ■.. i-irj;ia. l-lnwcriiiL; Si.m . if ^71, 

ICwniiij,' IViinr.iM', I'l.iuirinj,' ('.iirii~. i.i-af.if ..... \so 



Stciii .if 

(I-ai.ithcra, Sin;^li' |'|, luiTiif . . 
I'll. !i>ia, l-'LiwiTJiiK Sprav .if . 
(laura. Fl. iwcriii^ Siimii uf . 
("larkia, I-'luwrrin)^ Sli-iii uf 
MiTlin-'a, I-'l.iui'rin^ Sirni- ..f. 
I'.irf,'cl-iiii--n.i|, l-'l.iurrinn Sti-ni 

.if 

li.iiagf, [■'iuufring.Suin.il 



!•'- 

v'^.^ 



1,1 l.avcriilcr, l.cavi> nf . 
15 ('ir.mnil Ivv, I.cavr^ uf 
17 I'i'lunia, l''li)U(T~ in vai ill \ . ^S^ 

U) Sal ]ii^;|. )>>!-., T'Liu.-r ..f . . . v*^7 
-I N'ii.iliana, I'luui-i- uf .... ySi; 
:;,, Datura, I''!.i\mt> ..f .... ^i;i 
lir.iuallia, I'l. lUiTiiif^ Sii-ni ..f ;.)j 

^Jt Matrini.iiiv X'inc, |-'l. lurriiii; 

.^-'5 ^I'fi'.v of .svj 

xxi.Y 



■4 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Ptr.K 



FJilllcrlly ll"ucr, ll.iuiriiin I Illinium, Miiwi-riMn Siciii nf . (dj 

l'l'"il "f >'i^ f ii|'l>' <'"iu- ll.uvir, IImu.i- 

'riiliuil'i, I Ion (T-. Ill' .... ii;'l lll-.nl of 

I'lllalil, lluVMT-. I.I 



• ^||•, 

. i'l'' MI-.IU III )(, . 

■ .iM7 l.i|iiii li\ >, lloui r litaij uf . I'l) 

\inlll-.h,iili-, ri.iurr^ .Mill liiiil Wliili- Taiisv , !■ |,,uiriiin Sli-iii of ('i:; 

"I .il)H A( IlilllM, l|ilUl'rilll{ Slciiw n|' . |(.- 

\I,iii:;iiiih.i, l.i.iM - .mil IJMUir D.ilili.i. I Ihmt- in \ai ii ly . . t'.i; 

"' t -• SiinitniTCIirysinlliiinuin. |■|..^^- 
Sn,l|.l|l.|^f,,n. iJiiuriinK Sii-niNiif pj IT lu'.nl ..f |-| 

'liml lla\, lli.urrinK Sj'ikr <<( .»o | (i.irlanil l».iis\, ||,,uri lir.nl ..|' i;.- 

lnVKJiivr, iJiiwcrinK S|,ik.-uf . ,0; ( luMrn liiiilur . i.i mI' .iml !■ |,,u - 

(" iiiin', Miiwiriii); Ml in ul' , ( g ii-i>l' 1- ■ 

'!'. ircnia, Muutrinn Sti-m III' . |ii ( 'i.-liiwm , {■ luuii inn Sicni uf . i;^ 

I'rn^li'miiii, l-liiufrinj.' Stem III' . ;i^ iVvcrlcw , lli,uir> ami l.i-.ifnl'. (75 

\'.Tiinii.i, riiiut-riiiK S|.iki' III' . (i; (miIiJi'ii .\I.ir;^iiiiili-, ! luucr 



(iaiiiitn, !■ Iiiui-iin^; S|iiay 111' . )i^ 

.\-|iiTiila, riiiutiinn Siini uf . (id 
rruin|irl iJDUir, I'luuiriiin 

S|iray of ji; 

'rhunlKTuia, I'luwrr of . . . \;o 

lli)nry>iii kU-, I- jnwir- uf . . 4J2 
'rruiii|H't llnniv-ui klr, I'luucr- 

iii).^ ^|i''i\ iif .(.'^i 

Ciinimiiii \',ilrrian, !■ jnwiriii^; 



aiiij l.raM > ..f (-0 

An lnli>. 11. .WIT liiail .inii l.ial' 

."f •, .7^ 

(laillanli.i. II.iwim > in \.ii irl\ . |-i) 

Mariniilil. lliiuiT- lifail III' . )Si 

.Vl'iiiaii Mariniilil, II.hmtn in 

\aiiiTv ^s^ 

('iircii|i>-i^, i'linMi-liiaiJ uf . . 485 

Cliina .\>li r, Ijuwir-. i.f . . . .(S; 



^K'l'" "f »-'7 White A>ltr, lliiuiiiiiK S|.ia\ 

lliililiaii! Si|ua>li. i-l..uiTiif . 450 ,,f '. ,ss 

('ill uiiiliiT. lii.uiTiii.nanii rniil- It..||i.nia. II.iuit hrail .,f . . 4S1, 

i'lK ^'•■I'l "f JSi ■ra>-i-l Ili.H.T. l|,,u.Tinjr Sinn 

Willi CiiiuinliiT, I'i'ixMTinn df , ,-, 

^l"'-'^' >''' I.i'' Swan Kivrr D.iiNV. i-|.i«ir-liiail 

(•|ir|iinn I'.rllll.isMr, ll.iuir of 4iS ainll.iafi.f |,,. 

CiiiKtIiuiv ItrlU, Ijiivvrriii.^ /.innia, {•luuciv-. in variilv . . 41^^ 

^•'•"1 "f \A>) ClMllii-^, MnU.T-luail lif ' . . |l,(, 

\arri>w Icavi'il liiilll.iuiT-, i'lmv- ( ;.,|ilrn-r. .i|. lloui riii^ Sicnw ,,f 41,7 

ciin^ Sum I.f tji Ccnlaurra, lii,wir-in \aiirl\ . 501 

ilarulifll, |-|i.\virin}i Sli'iii^ uf . |(.. |)u>ly MilKr, Lr.ifnf . .' . 50J 

I'lalynxliin, I-'li.un i.f . . . (j, Sui-ct Si'llan, !• luwcr licail i.f .50.. 

LiilK-lia. [•'li.wcrinK Sicm of . It'i ( lii. ury, !• I.iwi rin^r Slcin nf .505 

CanliiKil-l-'iiiwiT, MnwiT ..f .4(7 (;,,|,|,.n linm.irti'llc, I'liiuvriiig " 

tirral l-.ilicli.i, I'lowning Sli'iii StiTn^i.f ;;o() 

"f H^ I'raiK i^MT-la-tinfi, I'ii.wciinj,' 

.Srabi.iiH. l-''..\v,T-lirail I.f . . (50 Spray uf 5,0 

SunllouiT-, I-'iiiwiTs in F,,iir \\'in>,'i-il .\niinul.iuin, I'luwrr- 

^':'K«'> 4.=;4 luMil- uf 51 , 

C.r.-at SunlluwiT, Muu-.T licailuf 455 (iiul.c 'I'hiMlc. liii»iT--licai| uf 51J 

IVri-nnJu! SuMlluwiT. lU,v.vr- Wliit.. 1 ■..5 ...!,,; j;::,;, M,,,., ,.,:.,;, ' 

''^■^''- "'" 45'* Sum uf -, . 



ILLUSTRATIOWS 

SoullurtuMMiil, l.iaf of . . .511 Siiiiunrr *>aMir\ , 1 iourrmn ^U 1:1 

l^iMiiiUr (oiiiiii, S|irav of . . 511 nl q.'j 

I^>ii|i,ii'!'-. Mam-, lliiwrrinn S«i-,t lt,i-il, M..,\rriitK >!rir, 

SICIII-. Ilf ^, 5 of ,...,.., . 5.'( 

Siim'. l,iaM>iif 5i(j S|Hariiiiiil, l.rafv Mim ••{ . ^.-^ 

Thyiilf, l.ial'y Siriil Ml' 5.-0 Swiii Iriiiirl, llnuiiiiiK .ii»l 

Swift Marjiirani, Liih ^|ria\ Iruiliiiu I'liilKlof .... s,:j 

Ilf 5.M Dill, l'iuiliii|{ I inlal <i| . . , jji, 



XXXI 



h. 



»>:•• 



w^'m. 



OUR GARDEN FLOWERS 



?^?l.^. 




(jardeii Walk ul the Country Home of Miss Slicrwin, 
at (iatfs Mill, C>hio 



.f:5.. 



r'A' 



NAJADAGEyE-PONDWEED FAMILY 

CAPE PONDWEED. WATER-HAWTHORN 

Apimogi-ton distdchyum. Polanw^iUnt disl.Uhyum. 
Ap(»u>f;elnii, neighbor to water; in allu>ion to it-, lialiitat. 

A hardy, a-itiatjc plant with lloatinj: leaves; niltivated in water- 
Ra>-(icns. .Native to the Cape of (iood Hoi)e. 

Rools. Tiiherous. 

/-f,nrs. rioatiiiK, oblong or lance-shaped, round-based, lonu- 
[)etioled. " 

hlnwers. Fra<;ran>- white in effect; borne in Heshv, forked spikes 
which consist ot Me row of alternate, thick, white', wax-like bracts 

on a ihicK white \t tlrst the entire intlorescence is enclosed in a 

tai)erinf,' spathe \> forced off as the bracts develo]). 

.SV,7Wf;M. Six to ei.i^hteen, with short filaments and reddish-brown 
anthers. 

Carpels. Four to si.x, with short stvie and simple stigma Seeds 
four m each carpel. 

This Pondwecd, with its pretty floating leaves and curious 
(lowers, is perfectly hardy in the water-gardens of northern Ohio. 
The usual fault found with it is that it sprearls too rajiidiy. as 
the ripe .eeds fall to tlie bottom of the pond and <iuickly germinate. 
Although llie plant cannot compare in beauty with \vmph;ea 
or Xelumbium, it has its personal merits and is worthy of culti- 
vation. 

The inllorescenre first appears enclosed in a tajjering spathe 
which is forced off as the while mass of bracts develoj). When 
in full bloom the flowering axis and the bracts together make 

3 



Vry.x 



PONDWEED FAMILY 

a white, waxen ma», in texture n..t unlike that of a tul.en.n^ and 
ver^- fragrant. The l.raet. are ahernai.. ; ul .acl, >uMain. and 
protects a little group of brown ant here, -iamen>, Mirrounding 




Cape P.inihvci-it. ,|/.„„„^.,/,.„ ,li.t<„ hyum 

a Rroup of carpels. After fertihzatinn of the (lowers, the l.racts 
l>ceome green and look like tufts of leaves among whieh the large 
beaked larpels will be found. 

This Pondweed was introduced into English water-gardens 
in 1788, and the fragran.e of the flowers gave it the common 
name of WaterTIawth.,rn. There is a varietv known as La- 
grangci with violet bracts and leaves violet beneath. 



ARACE/K-ARl'M FAMFIA 

A IK. uliar inllo,v>crn(r marks all tl,. Arums. TIk- tl.nvcrs 
arc borne, on a tcT-mnal ll.^hy axi. . allcl a >,Kuiix, .ar.lullv 
wrapped al...ut by an enfolding l,ra. t uillc.l a >pathc. Tl.i. sp,,),;. 
IS u>ually lar^r,. M.nulnm.^ beautiful, an,! alwav> pr„,crtivc. m 
the bu.ls. The individual llnwer. , nusi^, of .tamens, or of p^.tik 
-r ot boll,, and fre,|uentiy are al.M.Iulelv destitute of raivx and 
n.rolla; sometime> these are present in the form of a feu'srile- 
I he root> are tui,erous. The most familiar example of ,he familv 
m eultivation is ti>e C'aila [,ily: the be>t-knoun wild .pec ie. a ' 
Jack ni-the-Pulpit and the Skunk Cabba-e. 



are 



CALLA LILY. LILY-OF-THE-NILE 

Riclidrdiii nfri, iiini. 
RUhardi,,. i„ l,„„„r,.f L. c. „,,,„„, ^^ ,..,,.„,,, ,,,,,^^,^.^^. ,..^_,^^,_ 

_ The familiar Calla of Kaster decorations; .n.wn at the \„r.l, „„lv 
m Kreenh-n^es. as a windou- plan,, or partly suhmerKed in a,,uariun,;. 
southern Atrica. 



Root. A ,hick rhi/.iinic, 
Leavt 



perennial. 



I^ives. Radical, variable; blade about twice as Ion- as wide cor.lat.. 
sjK,t.ate at base, cusp.date a, apex; p.,ioles Ion-, snnU, sh:;;;;;;;;' a^ 

/-Wv. Moncrcious, both staminateand pistillate borne on a s„adix 
at he suinmu o, a scape, an.i wrappe.l about bv a larKe wl iu I r ct 
called a spathe; the pistillate .lowers at the ba.se of the M a ix an the 
stam.nate above; there is neither calvx nor corolla ' 



Th 
slende 



e spalhe i.s broad, spreading, above, convolute at base around the 
stamen;,, below with ovaries, each imperfectly three-celled. 



a:ium family 




Calla Lily. Richdrdia ajricana 






?S>»>^aM; -'^rMJjf kL. . 



^1-.', 



ii~.-*.--!' 



CALLA LILY 

A-A/^m/M „/./...„ wa> intn„lu.v,l |„„. |.;n.L,n.l fmn, .lu- (■.,... 
<'f <...n,| ||„|K. in ilu. vrar ,7,^,. um-Kt tin. nam- of ( •„//, j.;!,; 
ol»'a In ul.ich ii i. „il| known in many ira.!. li^s thou,-h h'ha, 
..>nj,' btrn rcniovfd from thr jrenu-. (',;//,/. 

The. ll-nvcTin,!,' <olumn >tarl> from ih. H.^hv root. pn.u. u,I hv 

.- .nn.ll,„, -.f ,,M..au.s, which i, nnallv'ou,.,n,., i„ lu.i.lu 
A. the- ^pa.l.x r,..s an.i matnrr., thr .|,a,h.. nilar^r.. ilaiicn. 
''>'<! l-n<l> iKHkwani, luromc. rream-whit.. in .olor, l.u. .,ill 
^^•^'|.^ so Hose- al.om i,s IrcaMirc's that onlv thr to,, of a H.lk. 
-ktmn su,,c.>t> tlH. woaUl, of >tamc-ns an.I pistil, in.l.l.n within 
S|'--t> with .louhk. and tri,,!.- >path., often o.rur. Th. M.crics 
has van.W mto many forms, both >tan(lani an.I .Iwarf. 



GO\I\inF.INACF/E-SPIDHR\VORT FAMILY 

SPIDERWORT 

Tnulrsfiiiilia r!r,qiiu'i'iiia. 

Xanu.,1 in l.„nnr „f John Tradesman,, ganl..nor ,o Charlr. .hf 
rii>l (,l l-.n^iarul. 

A native iHT.nnial. iransiVrml to ihc Kurd.n. .New \urk, X'inMnia 
and westward. May August. ' 

Stem. On. to thnr iV.t tall, creel, lealv, munlaKinnns. 
/.r<ny . Alternate, parallel-veine.l, lancedinear, k.rle.l ten tu four- 
teen inches Ion-, slieathin- the stem at base. 

/•7.;<.m-. Showy, v„,let l.lue, rarely white; I.orne in manv-Howere.i 

S£^';;u.?u:"^'^^- ^^'"^ ^^""-"^■" •'>• ^^^^ ^^^-^-^^^^ --; .^-h^' 

Srpah:- 'I'hree; ovate, acute, orol.tiise, villous. 
tinC^'Siite''^'"''' "'■'''"''"■' '"^'"^"^ ^^'"' "'^' ^^'I'^''^: '''"^■. «<"^e. 

(h'ary. Ohlon.^r, three-celle.l; style thread-like; sti^-ma cat.itate 
C <ipsi</e. Three-celled, .several -steded. 

The .S,,i,lor\v,.rl is rather an unusual .vjw of flower The 
l.Iossoms are at tlie sunimit of what l.,oks like an iris stem; usually 
two or three are open, hut ni..re drooping' l.uds are clustered be- 
tween long, blade-like bracts. The rich blue petals, the brilliant 
orange anthers set upon a cluster of blue bearded filaments and 
the dark-green sepals and leaves, form a pleasing c.mbin'ation 
ot color. The plants are robust, strong-growinij. and form den=e 
clumps. 



&r 



tf-^Wi 



JsaM(^^LJiJiBe:Aimsaasia&sss!i 



Tflf^y.'isi'CyTr*.. 



SPIDERWORT 




Spidcruort. TriuUscdulia vir^inidmi 



fW^TW^^^ ^^>-'i:s=--.-"-'^ 



■•.-.,„. • . »*.s:; "''"••■. ''i^ a 



SSSli-^A.: 



SPIDERWORT FAMILY 



WANDERING JEW 

IVrnmials; ui,.,, ^n.^n in wat.r as |,.,t,s.. plants, ..u.i.val.l.. for 
n.nr sinnm,. s.r,...., ,..au., Sp.a,! l.y hra,ul.i„« an,l u..,^ ...^ 
•Native tn South AtiRTua and Miwi,-,,, 

Sicm. J'rustral.-, trailinK, l.rand.inK. mutiny at ih. joints 

I.V ""wMSlnlcr" ■ "-^ ' -'-'-. «"l- 

.SV/)(;/.v. ThrtT, ovate, acute. 

/VA//.V. Three, hroad . vale; while, red, or l.hie. 

St,ima,s. Six; Olaments l.earded- 
anthers conspici'Mus. ' 

Or,irv_ ()b|o„fr, three-relied; stvie 
Ihread like; stij^nia capitate. 

Capsule. 'Ihreet.lied, many seeded. 

WaiKJerinK Jfw is the (ommon 
name for ihnr forms of Tr.idcs- 
'iii'lia, ail alike in essential charar- 
tfrisiiis, tli()U{,di varying in minor 
l»'ints. They dwell primipallv in 
tlif (jin> h\rht under greenhouse 
benches, yet often appear in hang- 
mj,' liaskets. They are remarkably 
tenacious of life; a small hranch 
put into water will root and jjrow 
\\an,i.TinK jfw. Cmmih,., m.diitora '"''^'fin'tel}' in the temperature of 
, tilt- ordinary living-room. The 

lea^es of well-grown plants shine as ,f dipped in silver- 

h^v" "; T "'^: ''^"^' ^'^^>- ^'^ «-"'-' -hen thev' 

and re ?■■ I T"-^''.'' ""■^' '^"""^ ^''"'^^"^ -^i.e or cream, 
and red-purple beneath. Both stem and leaves are .uccu- 

lO 




\Wr^^:':'\' ■'^*-i';m^^mm'^w^^^sM^^BmM^'m^^.\^mi£mi^Bsm 



WAKDERIWG TEW 

';■"' ^';;'' •;'«■ l'"^"" 'm..i Ik.v.. an al.undan... n| „,.,iMurr to 
do will. 

rr.idis,a,ili„ jlnmimnu. i, icndtr; ^luMtli^ of ih.^ Law, 1. nrv 
at thf tup an.l il,r ilnw.r^ uhitr. /.rhrhu, fn-mlnl, i. aUn t.n.K.r' 
the- ^lu.aths hairy at tlu' tup and thr llnurr> n.>t-ml. ( o„u,„li,M 
"'xhflor, i, ,1,.. Inirdy fnrm; ll... ,hcath> a,v Klahna.^ an.l tl.e 

IIiiUlT> Mill'. 



II 



^p^miL^'^itiM'MsstEmj'mmfmssi 



. W- 



PONTEDHHIACF/K PICKFRHL-WFri) 
HAM 1 1/' 

A family nf ,.rruu.ial I,„k plant, havii,;; u^ualK lar^.- ihkk 
Ij;iv.., Man.l.MK up udl al.uu- ,|,. n.u.l an.l watrr ..„i..n« pctiuk-, 
"U' lIuwcT, arr pcrloi. m,.r. ,„■ 1.., irr...ul,,-. an.l !...r,u. up„n a 

N.a.|,v that ,.>iu.> fn.m a .pathr ul.i.h i .„ .,ut,M-.,un. Tlu. 

la-.nhar I'i. k.Td-u.v.l ..f ,|,allnw, . U,.,- ih.vinK. nnr.lurn Mna,n> 
.^ ll.f ..!,»■ spiHie. iraii^tVm.l Imn, i,, uil,i h..MU' u, tlu- -anlm 



PICKEREL-WEED 

J'i)ii/nt,n',i inrd.itii. 
Nam.-I in h-.nor „f , WMlio l'„„„.,|,.,,., ,,r„f,.,,„ „,■ ,„„,,„^, ,„ ,,_,, 

.i.S;;„„wt^:Ev;:;';i;t;,'"' '-*■ '■ '• »^'" ""™' 

a|,|™,i;,K>.s, ra.li,al fe.vc, l„nB.„.,i„i; ,|. '"" "'"' '"">' '"'"■» 

.S>I./;.v .j«,/ hijhreunur. <;iuiHiij|ar-|,ul,csa-iii 

/''•;';'"//'. I'unn..|sl,apc(l, tw,, lippc-.l, iuIk- .sl,>;litiv cum,!. n,„„.r 

1:!:.:':;:;^ i.!;ir' ''- """■"^' '"''^' '""^-'^ ^^' •«-- •.'■nir 

ihnTTIu ^'■''' '"!•■"'•,''», "n^'qi'al -listanas „p„n the perianth tul... 
tl. u' of them oppus... th. lower lip; the others 'oppo.Mte'.h.. up, J t' 

into tPstvIe I^h''""''-'"' ;^"' ^^rl^'' •""' ^"^l-'^- "'^'""«. '^I'-nnK 
imo ini st>le; .sti(,'ma niinutelv toothed. i h 

/•>"//. -Lnciosed in the thickened base of the perianth. 

To one uhn, as a ehil.i. plauc! and tl.hed in northern stream, 
the I ickerel-wecd sufrgests iong summer davs, dear .I..w-tlouin« 
water, trout and pickerel hidden among the -.vccd. cf the bn.ok- 



PICKEREL-WEEP 

>\(\r XT puiiil. 'flic |il.mi -lill -l;ini|> in it- .iiu iml \u>fin\ Iml '<( 
lalf viar- il Ita- aUn (..me iiiln tlir uairr nanli'ii and niailt- llu 
ari|uaintantr n|' i i\ ili/.alinn. Il i- an iiitirc-lin^ inalurf, lifting 




I'iiklTll unci. /'.iH/i </.>;. J i,U'l-ltit 

Up above the watrr and llic wtrd> npf lartrc Muni arnnvlirad of a 
leaf on a -tem rrowned wilh a -howv >[)ik(' ^f hrijiht-tiliu- oijlumcral 
blossoms l)luc from ti|) to toe- jK'riantli l.luc, filament-, an- 
ther-, and -lyle, all blue- wild Iml one tinv da-li of yellow within 
eat h o|)en ( up. 

The tlowerinji sea-on i- Lm^;. bej^'inninj? in June, and ()iinl)er 
is toward its eiose Jjefore the en(i tomes. 



LILIACE^ LILY FAMILY 

Tlu- Lily Family is one of the larf,'e holanical groups. In it 
the (alyx and corolla so nearly reseml)le each other and are so 
often more or less united, that they are usually called hy a sinf,'le 
name— perianth; that is, tloral envel()i)e. This perianth has six 
divisions. The stamens are six, one ojjposite each division of the 
perianth. The ovary is three-celled, always free from, and in 
position ahnve, the hase of the ])crianth. The fruit is a pod or 
berry; Usually many-seeded. 

The family includes the Lily, Tulip, Hyacinth, Sciuill, Lunkia, 
and Yucca, together with other genera not so well known. 



LILY 

Lilium. 
1 iliinti. an aiicicm I,atin name .if unknown mcani?ig. 

The genus Lilium is the type of tlie order Lilinfccr and contains 
about forty-five .species of perennial bulbous plants mo.stlv native to 
the north temperate zone. The larger i)art of our best garden species 
come to us either from western .\sia or from Japan and China. None 
of the American species are especially successful in our gardens. 

I-cavrs.' .Mternate or in whorls, variable in shai)e, often bearing bulh- 
lets in the axils. 

/•7()«rr.v.- Funnel-form or l)ell-shai)ed, nodding or erect. The peri- 
anth is a combination of .sepals and petal.s, three each; the sepaloids can 
be detected by their habit of overlai)ping the |Htaloids; there is often 
some slight dilTerencc in form; all are nectar-bearin.i;. 

Stamens. Six, attached mori' or less to the ba.se of the segments; 
filaments long and slender, bearing at their tips the swinj,'in« anthers 
heavy with pollen. 

14 



LILY 

Oiv/rv.— Sii])(Ti(>r, that is, ahovi- thi- base of tin- perianth; tlirct-- 
alii'd; stylo Ion;,' and slender; stigma elul)sha])C(l, three-lobetl. 
I'ruit. A lliree-celled, many-seeded eapsule. 

Lilie> are not so extensively ( ultivated a> tlieir heaiity would 
seem to warrant, and the explanation, doul)tle», is that in se-verai 
re>|)eets they are pet uliar |)lant> and re(|uire esi)e<ial treatment. 
The hulhs differ materially from tlu bulbs of tulij^ or hvarinths. 
in that they are composed cf many overla|)pin<i; Heshv >(ale>; 
that is, the bulb leaves are i)roken off, <lo not wraj) round eaeli 
other I losely and make a compact ma^>, but are separate and 
loose. Fience, in a way, the heart of tlie Lily bulb is o|)en to the 
air and is easily injured l)y careless ex|)osure. Furthermore, the 
Lily needs a moist, eool root-run and that is one reason whv it 
is well to plant it amonj^ shrubs. 

In the ease of most bulbs the fibrous roots start onlv from the 
base; this is jjlainly seen in any hyacinth forced in a k''1^^- '^<Jt 
when the Lily bulb l)ecomes otablished it sends out roots from 
above as well as from below, and it is these roots that feed upon 
the surface soil and these arc the ones that suffer most in heat and 
drought. Failure to understand this characteristic is at the bot- 
tom of much failure in Lily culture. 

The i)ooks divide the Lilies into six grou])s or sui)-genera; five 
of wliich have re|)resentatives among our familiar garden s])ecies; 
tile sixtii i- a central .Asian grou]), rarely cultivated in this countrv. 

In tlie first stand the Madonna and Faster Lilies, marked I)y a 
funnel->hai)ed |)erianth, with obianceolate segments which re- 
curve only at the ti|). Tlie second find' a representative in our 
native Wood Lily, I.Hiiim philadclpliuiim, whose upright cup 
takes in the sunshine unabashed. Tliis group is marked bv either 
single or umbellate tlowers, tlie i)erianlli erect and spreading; 
the segments recurved only in the extended tlower but not rev- 
olute; the stamens diverging from a straight style. In the gar- 
den, L'llhtDt rli'i^iins is one of the be^t of this tvpe. 

The third grouj) includes the well known and liighiv prized 
Tiger Lily, as well as the two beautiful Japan Lilies, Liliinn 
.\pai(isiiiii and Liiiuiu iiiinituDi. Ii i> marked in a fuiiiiei-form 

1.1 



LILY FAMILY 

|)eriiintli whose segments finally sprcarl or twist anrl hcromc 
distinctlv rcvolute; they are usually papillose within, and the 
stamens diverge from a curved style. 

The fourth grouj) is well defined by our native TurkV Cap, 
l.iliinii siipcrbiinu witli its strongly nodding (lowers, its very 
revolute ])eriantli segments, and the stamens diverging from a 
I urved style. The beautiful Meadow I.ily, l.iliiim cumidcuse, 
which in midsummer lights uj) our northern lowland meadows 
with its nodding hells, is our best examjile of the fifth group. 

There are many s])ecies and more variants; yet, notwithstand- 
ing all the variations of size, color, intlorescence, leaves, and stems, 
the lily ty])e of tlower ren- ins unchanged. A Lily is a Lily all the 
world over. 



WHITE LILY. MADONNA LILY. 

j'.i/itini (diididiim. 

Native of soiulurn ICurnpe and western Asia; long in cultivation. 

Bulb. — Ovoid, large. 

Stem. — Two to four feet high, erect, stilT. 

Stem-leaves. Scattered, sessile, acute, hract-like alxive. 

Flowers. ~'f)\\ to twenty-five in a ra<eme; pure-white, fragrant. 

In the l)eauly of the lilies Christ was liorn ainiss the sea. 

— JuiiA Ward Howk. 

The prcat white lily with his (halite of silver, ihc did lord of the garden, 
the (inly aulhcntii jirinte whose noliiiily dates back to that of the gods 
Ihi'inselves— the iinniemorial lilvl — .Maf.tkrlinck. 



if 



Perhaps it is safe to say that this is the oldest and loveliest 
lily in cultivation; certainly for more than a thousand years it 
has wrought upon the imagination of the pco|)lc of Lurope as the 
flower of the Madonna. Its cxcpiiMte shape, its snowy petals, 
its delicate fr.igrance, have made it the symbol of heauty, ])urity, 
and love. In sacred pictures, dahriel kneeling before the Virgin 
bears it in his hand; smiling angels chant in heavenly choirs 

16 



MADONNA LILY 




Madonna Lilv. Liliiim camiidiim 



LILY FAMILY 

EASTER LILY. BERMUDA LILY 

IMium longi/lonn,, ^ar. rxhnnon. 
Xa.ivc t,. Uu. temperate regions of Japan, China, and Kormosa. 

"'""■ '^"' "• ""-ce [eet hi^h, erect. 
J<-<'vcs. Scaltereri, abundant 

rmil the oarly eighties the Faster I II,- „( \ 

^i-ies of southern Europe Bu he Tl d ", .;^'7;-'^"---' 
kmdlv to forcin..-tlon- K ""' ''''>•''"' ""t 'ake 

•''^•'HiHc..o:H^,:r,;: .;;--^^''^-''--ain.hen 
^^■t ..ne or two weel- ..,'''''''*"'' ""\' ^omc mto nvar- 



IS 



ADg^lTK^ 



EASTER LILY 

The new species had larger flowers and m..re of them than 
he Madonna Lily; it was two months earlier. re,ui ^^ 2 
•.rtec. u.eks fo,- development under favoral.le condition^ n 
>e.t of all, ,t took kuKlly to for.ing-house temperature fC a 
few years ,ts vogue was tremendous, it> position unrivalled It 
adorned the pack of Santa Claus, 
it lay upon the altars of Faster, 
it wreathed the soldiers' monu- 
ments on D.roralion Day. 
Thousands of hulhs were im- 
F)')rted from liermuda and from 
Japan. Hut the effort to comply 
with the demand for early hiaom 
vv.-uught destruction to the Ber- 
muda cro|); the hulhs were not 
allowed time to ripen and the 
entire crop became for a time 
seriously diseased. This, of 
course, was a })assing c(mdition. 
L'nder the general title of 
Kaster Lily there is now offered 
hy the trade not onlv Liliiim 
H,trrisii, which is the Bermuda 

variety hut /.///„;„ lon^^iffonn,,, the original t^p,.; also, ^ .,,,,;,, 
from the PhiHppines. ' 

When this lily is in the shops the flowers are usualiv mutilated- 
n-equently not only the anthers hut all the stamens are removed' 
mere are two reasons for this: one, the al.undant [.ollen which 
would soon he scattered over the inner surface of the flower and 
so mar >ts e.x.|uisite whiteness; the other, that if fertilisation is 
prevented the life of the flower is extended; the florist know, that 
the flower lasts longer even if he does not know the reason wh^■ 
1 here are those who will not buy mutilated lilies, but their number 
IS small. 




Eastc 



I.Uium longijlorum \ar. 
iwimiiim 



19 



LIBRARY 



^^TOH^^i^ 



LILY FAMILY 



WOOD LILY. RED LILY 

/. i/hi III fill Until I ph i,u HI. 

Tlu. only native lily .,f ilu- \urth vhoso i,..|ls an- „„i nrurvcl I'rc- 
t.Ts ,lry ur samly .n.un.l; a.ul ranucs from Wu Kn.-la,,,! suutl, to North 
larolina, anil west to the Mississipi i. 

/<"//'. Annual, rhi/omatous, small, will, iVw i!,i, k, l,ritilc scales 

■S/cw. Krert, leafy, one to three feet hijr|, 

/.n/ro. I,anceolate or lanee-linear, in whorls ,,f live to dVht 

Hourrs. ( )nc to three at the summit of ilu' stem; o,K,,in« u,nv ,r<l- 
h.' SIX segments narrowing to a stc-m-like slen.lernes I'wa I t bis'' 
(oor varymK trom orauKe-searlet to searlet -orange an.l al ' mil 
or less sp„tie.| ^v.th purple-hnmn o„ the inner part of the cup 

The \\nn,| I.ily i> nuf native representative of the .ecnn.l ^uh- 
Kenits ot hlies, „f which I.ilhnn .V<-„;,,v an.l /.///,„;; uin.ohr are 
excellent },'ar(len form-. 

O'u- Mn.ls it .,n mi,i>u.iimer (la>> a blaze of orange an.I starlet 
amid the K'rass and weeds of upland tneadow.. or f,d..win.^ like ■. 
lamp in the shadow of the hill forest. It i> our one lilv wh.we 
petals do not recurve, whose cup i> open to the sun-lilv to its 
heart's ,nmost cre-nevertheles., it neither droop, no^ nod.- 
It is erect, uprijjht, unyieldin<;. 

UPRIGHT LILY 



me- 



I. Hi II III (Ici^aiis. 1 

liiilh. Pirennial, ovoid 

.im^rLnr^iibr '" '"^''- ^'''- ^•^^•'•'- ^''^^^ 

l.cnvfs. Scatters or crowded, lanceolate, fue to seven-nerved 

usiallv''s,'lf -^^' "/ •"'■' n""''"' •^'"•^•^^•'"«; «a'm^-"ts obloHK, spatulate 
doiS 7une. " '" """" "' --•-"«-■«', -metinte. mori or £ 



IMhnu clci^nus i. a Japanese h'ly much <„Itivatec! under a 
variety c.l lorms and of names. In the type the llower is self-col- 



20 



It^W':";^ .-*!..; \ 



UPRIGHT LILY 




I prijilu Lily. lAlium (lii^ans 



LILY FAMILY 



..red in u ranKc ..f ..raiiK't', ydl.m- and ml, with..ut spot.; hut in its 
hyhnds an.l variants it appears m.,rc- „r k.>s >p.,ttc.d. Tlu- ..ne 
fssont.ai >s tiu- poise- ..f the (lower cup; the petals ,1„ not re, urve 
a> the i.los.om opens they spread. The short, sturdv >tent often 
iH'ars live llower- all clustered at the 



summit. 



JAPANESE LILY. SHOWY LILY 

I. ilium sprriiisitin. 

One „f the must iH.a.tifuI „f the lilies of Japan, now appearing in 
manv varieties. ^ 



Bulh. Perennial, globose. 

Stem. ( )ne to three feet hij^-h, stiff 

sli^uir;;e,i£r"^"' ■'^"^^-"^•'^''^ "' "'^'-«' '^^ "• -ven-nerved; 

/•■Wm. Fragrant; i.orne in panicle.l racemes; se^m.-nts refleved 
an 1 somewhat twiste.l; white, suffused with pini<, ami M-oUe I w t h re 
'lots and warty projections inside. l'<'iu(i uim red 

Slamcs. Spreading; with lar^e chocolate anthers. 

Ulium spoiosum with its varieties, ruhnmt and dlhum, is a vcrv 
satisfactory |,!y for the hardy ^^arden. It is thriftv, its foliau'e 
gracelul, the habit of ,he plant self-reliant, and the llowers charm- 
ing in .hape and beautiful in .-olor. The florists' custom of mutilal- 
nvA hl.es, deprivin,^' them of their stamens and sometimes of both 
stamens and pistiU. so <li>nf.ures them that it is (,uite impossible to 
I'l'tain a correct idea of their grace and beautv from specimens 
l-ught in the shops. To know a lilv well one must grow it The 
variety ruhn.m is considered more vigorous than the tvpe, as well 
as more beautiful. 



aa 



JAPANESE LILY 




Japanese Lily. Liliiim .'.piriosii 



m 



l\ 



LILY FAMILY 



GOLD-BANDED LILY 

I. ilium iuiriit,.ni. 

Xalivf of Japan, hroujjht into wi-stiTn cultivation in 1862. 

litilh. I'tTfnniul, nlohosf. 
Stem. Two to four firt hinh. 
Leaves. ScattiTfd, fivf-niTvi'd. 

Flourrs. In a ^hort racenu-, will. I.rartiolau- pr.licvls. sp.-a.linir- 
L-gmcnts rctlexcd an.! .somewhat Iwisiid, whiti', more or li-ss n.;;rkni 




• ■■•111 l..iniliil I.ih. /.ilium aiiniliini 

suilT'!;,'.'^ ;?■";"' ^'"' ''"'" "^ '•'"■'"'■"'■ '"■ ''""-'"^■''; '" ''>^- ^>^^- ti'i'^kly 

sturided with lleshy ixiri'stcncis. ^ 

Slameii.s. Lon^r^ with larj;i' chocolatf antluTs. 
Style. Lunti, with (iet'])-rc(I stij,'m... 

There is in this sple 'id lily that has come to us out of the East 
an air of dlMinction as if iHl:.n-inK to a caste apart. rn.,ues- 
tionahly the most magnificent lily of the genus-superh, regal, in- 
comparable— one may marslial all the adjectives and yet 'fall 

24 



TIGER LILY 




ri^'iT I.ily. /.///;(■;; lii^rniilh 



LILY FAMILY 



ami a ml-,. i ...•..: .' ^\"h /h... ula,. , u|..ru| anlhiTs 



ami a rf(|-t,p,H,| pistil u irtid i 
The plani is a tr-i'' ( 



an addfii (harm i.. ihc lih h,.|| 

•'"inK weil-d.,h« i n'!;'"'":!'""'" '" '"'''-'' "t.i.'wilfu!- 
lH-v..nd Ihr rra.l -. '^ • •'""^' "'"^l-'-«-'H-nd..d-,,...siMv 

I'omc. in ,lH- Wc-s, ""^■"'■--unwilli,,,,. as u., „. n,ake h. 



T' ^^R Lliy^ 



I. ill II 111 (,, »), 



A (horouKhly oldi..,( .un ,| 
Ihrivcs from year ,0 v^ar |., t'^. 
in niiisst-s. China and 



'> 



■fii f. 



;)an 



• li'i I)lan( which iivi-s and 
.wh,.rri|.,i,„ui.l iM'planU'd 

^"/A. Perennial, almost 

always in.Jade i,. Th' A " ' T '■""■''™ """"» 

grca, natural ■lig„i,v a„,l il ,„ '?'"?"''■ '""' ' '"'"' "' 



96 



^Bff^fL-iliP 



1A^JL± 



TURK'S CAP LILY 

TURKS CAP LILY 

I. ilium ^Hpirhum. 

Our m.,s, vigorous an.l pi,,T..M,u,. na.iv.- lily; i,s habitat exten.i ; 
r m ( a„a.la i,. (.....rK.a and w...st to tin .Mi..si.sip,,i. Shuul.l U. . uiti- 
vatnl ami .UK' shruhlRTV. 

/<»<//' I.arK'f, rhizomatous. 

•V/fw. Three t.. six feet hi^h; tall, erect. 

lanceolate, acute, stnmxiy recurved. »*Kmtnts 

The Turk'. Cap Lilv fs found rarelv enough in its e.Men.I.-d 
habuat to make the rm,lin«~certainiy the f.rst tindinK- an 
event. I o .ome up.m a .lender leafy pillar cr.nvned |,v a s,..re 
"f n.Hl.hnK l.ly Lells in a fence corner whos.. possibilities vou 
thnuKht you knew absolutely, is like fmdinK an alerf ivorv-billed 
wo.Klpecker under the maples in your citv lot, or a tired loon in 
your country barn-yard, or the (Jrass of Parnassus when vou are 
«.u or (.oldennHl, or a bright blue violet in late N.nrmber 
All these th.ngs happen, an.l the day they happen is n, morable' 

Ihe segments of the mature blossom are greatlv rerurve.1 the 
brown anthers swing free, and the half-n-nlding' orange .up i. 
freckled w,th brownish-purple spots. This is our best repre^-nta- 
t.ve o the Martagon type of lily, and is worthv of rultivatio, It 
should be planted among high shrubs and it will cimb .,. h.d.t 
and sunshine. 



MEADOW LilY. WILD YELLOW LILY 

Lili ini niiiadi'iise. 

frI^V""f *■' ""'f "' '"-■ "' ""'■''^^^" "^'^^'^"^^■^ ^'-^ ^->^e extends 
frn^ Nev- !3run.s.v.:k t., G.-o.^.a an.l west to the .Mississippi; prefers 
moist lowlands. June. July. i"«^icrb 

a? 



LILY FAMILY 




Meadow Lily. uiu„„ au,ade„se 



COMMON TULIP 



Bulbs. —Rhtzomalous. 
Slem.~T\\o to five feet hif,'h. 

m,*l""h,,rlir''"''' """-"'■"•"I. "'"m, a„.l ncn-., „,„,.h. re- 
the Wood UK-, Inu i, |,ears i,. ,,' **"'^ "^.'l''^ «'"^^'"S color of 

.a. a„,, ...„,,,,,::,-;;;— ,«-»--;;^^ 

■• - ..ur „„,, „a„v„ a.„rosc.„.a,lvc. ,.f .he r,t,h;ub.g™„. IfiSll 

COMMON TULIP 

7 'h'pd (I'rsiicriiina. 

Jj'l". Tunicate.!, the outer tunic often hairy or woolly on the inner 
Leaves. Linear or iiroarl 
AW .... Three to th^.y incites hi^h, usually one-flowere.l 

/"'/. Oblong; seeds many, (lat. 

in T:X;':;:^T- ,"r tri "f *■"■' ° '■ ■ - '■• "* « « 

seed, ha^,ng been .,,u or brought to N'ienna in 1554 l.v the Aus- 

29 



i fl 



I , 



LILY FAMILY 

trian ambassador t.. the Sultan ,.f Turkev. Aftc-r the f.rst intro- 
ducfon the plants rapidly increased and were distributed verv 
generally throughout Europe. A careful description as well as 
several drawings of the plant were published bv Konrad von 
Gesner a Swiss botanist, who saw it growing at Augsburg in 
1559- Lmna^us m 1753 simply grouiK-d all the garden Tulips he 
knew under the name Tulip. Gesneruuui in compliment to 
(.esner; but th,s name never represented a primitive form it 
mcTdy designated the Tulip as it then appeared in cultivation. 

The wanderer made its way into England as earlv as , ,-on 
and became the flower of fashion for a hundred y,;r. ThVn 
a reaction came on and the "gaudy tulip" was relc^Kated to cot- 
tage gardens. That sort of folly finally passed and the Tulip now 
stands simply upon its merits, which are great 

Holland was the pnxlucing centre for Tulips as earlv as ,600 
and the astonishing craze, known as "tuli,, mania,-' began in 
16,4 and lasted four years. This was a speculative cra'e, ex- 
traordinary only in the object selected for speculation; but when 
M,ooo.lorins were- paid for a single Tulip bulb the government 
felt that It was high time to interfere, as indeed it was 

The garden varieties of Tuli,,s are now so manv and so varied 
tha florists have been impelled to group them into classes, and 
so classified the bulbs are offered for sale bv the trade. This grour,- 
mg is explained by Edward Step. F.L.S:, and William ^^•atson 
of kew Gardens, as follows: "Primarily we mav distinguish a 
division into Early and Eate-flowering Tulips. The Earlv flower- 
mg are dinded into Singles and Doubles; but the classification of 
the Late-tlowermg is not nearly so simple. First, these are 
separated under the heads of Hizarres, livbtemens. Rose. 
Darwins, and Parrots; second, they are divided into Feathered 
Bizarres, Hamed Hizarres, Feathered Bvblocmens, Flamed 
Byblcrmens, Feathered Roses, Flamed Roses. But where Tulips 
are raised fi .m seed, there is an early stage in which ,he flowers 
are neither feathered nor flamed, but are <,f one uniform color 
This first flowering takes place when the seedling plant is four 
or five years old, and its color may be white, yellow, purple, or red; 

30 



COMMON TULIP 




Tulip in variety. Tulipa Gesneriana 



LILY FAMILY 



it is now termed a Breeder. At sone future flowerinR peri.Kl 
—how -iKiny seasons later is ((uite uncertait,— it may 'break' 
into cuitral markings of another color, and these mav'be either 
tlame-l.ko or featherdike. It is now ReetiCied, and is j.laced in 
the Flajped or Feathered section of its class according to the 
character of this variegation. 

"In Hizarres the ground color is either lemon or golden yellow 
and the hase of the (lower is of char yellow. Above this clear base 
is laid the tlame or feather marks of orange, scarlet, crimson, 
black, or brown. If the base is stained with a iinge of green, then, 
according to the rules, all its value as an exhibition plant is' gone! 
" Byblcimens have a clear white ground and white base, above 
which the variegations are similarly laid in violet, i)uri)le, black, 

pale-lilac, lavender, and heliotrope. 

"Roses also have a clear white base, and a white or rose ground 

above it, on which arc lin,i danies or feathers of delicate pink, 

soft rose, glowing scarlet, scarlet-cerise, rose-pink, carmine-rose,' 

or the deepest crimson. 

"Darwins are really late-llowering Breeders, developed in I-ng- 

land and differing from the Dutch Breeders in their numerous 

and striking shades of color, ranging from the lightest to the 

darkest, and in their long llower sialk-. 

"Parrots or Dragon Tulips have (lowers brilliantly colored, of 

large size, and the edges of the segments deei)lv toothed and 

slashed." 

Since it was the Turk who developed the Tulip, it is interesting 
to in(|uire what type of (lower was most agreeable to him. We 
Cind tliat the Turkish form was one of pointed segments rather 
than rounded ones, and that the |)referred colors were solid reds 
and yellows. All the variegation has been produced on Kuroi)ean 
soil. The chief value of the Tulij) lies in the masses of dazzling 
color whi( h it can give to our yards, lawns, and parks, while veg- 
etation as a whole is yet in the bud. \o otlicr i>lant can do this 
so well, and coming out of the Levant three hundred vears 
ago it .seems to have started upon a triumphal march around 
the World. 






CHECKERED LILY 




Chcckcrwt l.ily. hrilHKuia mckii^ris 



JSf^i^.fiWKir - 



HfffX^ 



:.r^*«F«rJ®«ar- 



LILY FAMILY 

The Fragrant Tulip, Tulipa suavMens, was discovered growing 
wild m southern EurojH. about three hundred years ago There 
■s no proof that it is a primitive form, the probability is that it 
•s an escape from gardens. As early as 1799 it was di'stinguished 
rom other Tuhps then known by the fragrance of the Ler^ 

the T r'. TV '^' "'""• ''^•"" '^' ''■•^'' ^here were among 
oL IT '" f""' ^'^^'"«"'^hed for fragrance, and this is 
one of the reasons for In-lieving that Tulipa suaveolens is an 
escape rather than a primitive. 

The class of Tulips known as Due van Thol are usuallv regarded 
a descendants of this type. These have, however, became so h^ 
bndized that they cannot now be distinguished from the other forms. 

centuX T^" " ''""''■" '"^'"^ '^' '""^ "^ ^he seventeenth 

HZ . T ^"" ""^""btedly developed by the French, 
probably by selection, as a tendency toward serrate or cut edges 
may be obser^ 1 among our pj^sent garden varieties 



FRITILLARIA. CHECKERED LILY 

Fritillaria meleagris. 
From Fritillus, commonly underst,K>cJ t„ l,e a checker-board. 
Bulb.—Oi few thick scales. 
leat'M.— Slender. 

whJt^S'purpIe."'' ""'""^' ^'"'"^' '■" ^"'"-= --''y ^eenish- 

gland ^''fhel.iV'' "'"■''' "^"^"^^' ''''' ^^^""^ ^ followed honey 
Slamens.^Six, attached to the base of the segments 
O^ary.-Three-sided; style three-grooved; stigma three-lobed. 

Bn am to the Caucasus; producing large, pendulous, bell-shaped 
^Utary flowers, m light colors, dickered with green and purple,' 
and borne on slender stems a foot high. Thev resemble lilies 
m havmg droop.ng flowers, but their anthers are fixed at the base 
while those of hhes are versatile and free to swing. Several 
I'ntillancs are m cultivation, but the common Snake's Head, 

34 



CROWW IMPERIAL 

or Checkered Lily so-called from the curious tessellation of colors 
meld -'-t popular. This plant grows wild in moist English 
meadows and .s reported as easy of growth 

coumry'""" '"" """ '"™ ^"^ ^^^'^"^'■-'>- -'''-ted in this 

CROWN IMPERIAL 

FriiiUiiria imftrhlis. 

One of the characteristic plants of old-fashioned gardens but ban 
shed from modern ones because of its fetid odor. Nativ"'of Persia^ 
introduced mto England be- '-"inve or t ersia, 

fore 1596. April, May. 

5jitt.— Coated or scaly. 

Stem.~Tv/Q to three feet 
high. 

Leaves. — Broad lanceo- 
late, numerous, often 
whorled midway up the 
stem, which is also termi- 
nated by a tuft of leaves 
above the flowers. 

Flowers.— In a whorl of 
nodding bells underneath 
the terminal leaves; yellow 
to crimson; segments six, 
not recurved, a honev 
gland at the base of each. ' 

Stamens.—Six, attached 
to the base of the segments. 

Slyk. —Long; stigma 
three-lobed; pod six-angled. 

T,, „ ^ ^"'■"*" ''"Perial. Frilillana imprralis 

Ine Crown Imperial, for 

nuieMjme. _ 'Paradisus Terrestris." Parki.vso.v. 

s,der.,u,n ParK.ns. n regarded it as the best of the lilies, but no 
one g.ves n that place to-day. In an age that asks for fr^granc"! 

35 




^aE.--iFs«'^ 



LILY FAMILY 

It is distinctly ili-smellinR; in an age ..f careless grace and law- 
less l,eauty, it is stiff and unyielding. Hut should the fashi.m in 
tl'.wcrs drift hack t., stiff and stately form>. the Cn.wn Imperial, 
as well as the Camellia, may regain its imprrium. 



SCILLA. SIBERIAN SQUILL. 

Sclllii sihiriai. 

.S,it'„ is tin. ,.1.1 Crck nanu. meaning, / iniure ; nk-rrhm, it is 
sup|)osr<l, I.) ilu- poisonous IjuIIjs. 

Scillas f.,rin a group of early-llowcring i,uII,ous plants. One of 
the l,est IS Salk dhirica, native to Russia, Siheria, an.I Asia Minor 
March. 

Amr.v.-Two to four, narrow, ascending, four to si.x inches long 
l-Umers. -Deep-blue in the type, home on one to three-llowere.l 
— scapes, horizontal or (lr(H)|)ing. 

I'rrhwth. ()f sjx distinct segments. 

.S7</wr«.v.- Si.x with tlattened filaments and oh- 
long anthers. 

Or</ry.- Three-lohcd; stvie slender, stigma 
minute. ' 

C'a/.i«/f.-Triangular, three-valved; seeds black. 

Of this group of bright little (lowers, Scilhi 
sihiricu has become a garden favorite. Its 
blue stars come early, usually in March, and 
they are wholly, delightfully, persistently blue. 
The perianth is about an inch across, pure 
blue, with a darker line in the middle of each 
petal; the stamens are blue; the stvic and 
stigma are blue; only »he green ovary lies in 
the centre. It should be i)lanted in ma.ss, f( r 
only by numbers can the best effects be pre 
duced. A number of species are in cultivation; among the be.- 
are hifdlui, which can be had in several colors; amihui, very 
hardy and robust, ^ma, a native of .sea-shores, and .luhmnalh, 
blooming in September. 

J6 




Scilla. ScUla sihiriai 



CHIOlfODOXA 



CHIONODOXA. GLORY-OF-THE-SNOW 

CliioiKiJoxii ludliir. 

Chuwodoxa. (IrtTk. gl,.ry ..f ih.- sn-.w; rff.-rring to the .arlv n.."-- 
cntif?. 

A hardy little, hulbcus plant, bearing a raceme .,f three to six blue 

flo«x-rs, shading to white in the centre; I.I.K.minK in earlv spring. 

Native tc, the mountains of Asia Minor. Variable; having several 

garden forms. '^ 

Leaves. - Narrow, ix)intcd, rising from a small bulb 

than X'recurled ""'' "';"'• ''""'^■•' "" ^ '^'''' '"''"''■■' 'h^- '"'^^- shorter 
man the recurved .spreading, acute segments 

Stamens. Si.\; filaments dilated. 

Ch'fir^;.- Three-celled, style short, stigma cai)itate. 

The attractive name of this pretty plant refers to the fact thot 
It llowers amul the melting snows of its mountain home. It 
dwells upon the heights of the Taurus range in Asia Minor, and 
was there (hscovered by the Swiss botanist, Hoissier, at an eleva- 
tion of 7,000 feet above the sea. It has been cultivated since 
1877. 

The leaves are three to si.x inches long at the flowering i,eri,xl 
strap-shaped, and surmounted by a slender raceme of three t<! 
S1.X, sometimes more, intensely blue, si.x-->tarre.l (lowers which 
fade to white in the centre and are fullv a.i in.h across when e.x- 
panded To get the best effect, the plant should be massed; the 
i)ulbs plank'd an inch or two a|>art. 

There are several Chion.Kloxas in cultivation, but /un/hr is 
regarde.1 as the most satisfactory of them all. In color it runs into 
^vhile, Tv(], and pink forms. 

Cl,wn'mo.x., sardams has <n)ail, dark-blue flowers with no white 
eye This genus is very closely allied to Srilla, but differs princi- 
pally- in having a short tube to the perianth; the two hvbridize 
and for garden effects are virtuallv the ^ame. 



> 11 



37 



LILY FAMILY 

STAR-OF-BETHLEHEM 

( )ni itii ligalu m ii mMliilK m . 
An atK irnt wliinwital nanu-, meaning hinl-milk. 

Tlu- (umnKin Siar-ol" Hiihldicm is tin- only npri'si'titativf of the 
Kftuis Oniithoi^alum that is at all lomnion in Amcriian ^'aniens. It is 
a (hvarl, hardy, hulbous plant, which bears umhcls of ^nrn and white 
llowiTs in May. Miditcrrancan ruj^ion. 

Lfiivrs. Several, six to twelve inches lon^', narrow, deeply chan- 
nelled, distinctly striped with while. 

l-lourn. White, striped with ^reen outside, twelve to twenty on a 
scape six iiuliis h\)ih. 

/'friiiiilli. ( )f six .sediments, spreadinj;, with honey fjland at hast-. 

Slamciis. Six, lilamenls flattened. 

(kiiry. 'rhree-celled; style short, slinma three-angled. 

Ciip.siilc- Three-celled, many-seeded. 

Ill the Slar-(.f-lktlilehem the j,'roen and white of the leaf is curi- 
ously repealed in the white and ),'reen of the (lower, which is a 
pretty six-pointed star, opening in sun.shine. 



GRAPE HYACINTH 

Musciiri hotryii'tdes. 
Miismrijrnm the musky scent of one (lower of the .species. 

One of the earlyflowerinj,' hulbous perennials of country gardens, 
escaiiing into lawns and (lelds. Kurope. March, .\pril. 

/,f<i:r.v.- Radical, linear. 

riourrs.- Violet-hkie to pure blue, borne in a dcn.se raceme, on a 
naked scape four to six inches high. 

/Vr/,;;;///. (Jlobular, or urn-shaped, constricted at mouth; violet- 
blue, white at the mouth, six-toothed. 

.S7<;wf«.v.— Six; ovary three-celled, forming a triangular three-celled 
capsule. 

These are hardy little bulijous plants from central Europe with 
very short dense racemes of small, nodding, globular flowers, and 

38 



GRAPE HYACIHTH 

erect Rlaurous leaves. The plant i. well Miit.d for the wild part „f 
the rmkery; naturalizes rea.iily at llu- ed^e .,f w...h|>. Several 
s|)e(ies are in < iiltivation, Imt the one that i\iTvl).KK know, is 
Miisoiri hotryoidcs, uhiih mean>. ••like a l.inuli Of Krape.." It 
k'longs in every garden; its dainty ll(.urr« are a part ..f ii,e wel- 






*:* I 



llniiH' Hvaiinlh. .\lu',(,'iri Ivirwiiln 

come to spring. Personally, I do r.-.t care uhat i u|.,r V.t^k Hva- 
cinths are, so long as they are I.lue; |,i,t misguided gardeners 
sometimes cultivate varieties with white and with \eIlow or lle-h- 
colorcd (lowers— a mistake. 

There is a si)ecies, Musairi commdsinn. rather larger than our 
garden favorite, hearing violet-colored, uhlung tlowers; which 
ha> a variety, iiiotistrdsitm, called Feathered Hyacinth. The in- 
florescence is a i)anicle ma.s of ahoited, contorted, I.Iue i-eta- 
lage; that the catalogues say is of "striking and han „e 
appearance." 



59 



LILY FAMILY 



HYACINTH 

1 1 \'ii iiilini^ iiriiii/.i/i\ 

A IKr,.n,Mal. I.iill„,u. |,lani, .uliuai.,| inm. ,,M.i,„i lim.s; naiiv I,. 
<.nr.v. Halkan |Hni,.s„|a. Asia M,n,„. an,| Svria lAi.„siv..|v L-nmn 
m [lollan.l lur ispuri aii.l o.ii>,-.|iknily kn.ivMi a. llic Duuh n'vacmili 

Hiilh rr.xliK i(i« nianv loii^', iihrnus riM.ts. 

/.'•Kvv. Krnt, ra.lical. ('ij,'lii lu twelve imiu- l,.n;; 

//,.v<rv. H„rne .,„ a siuui .sfa|K', in a ,l,„>e rai.ine mnr i,, six 
irulies liitin. 

/'.ri.,,,11,. \ I.ell shape-l lul.e. swollen al ilie l.ase, v .th six re( Mrve,| 
senmenls. ' 

jj'/""""*. Six insertr.1 un the inhe ..f ,he ,KTianih; anthers pale 
W'il..w; ,«,||en al.un.Jani. Often ,!„ul,|.. in euliivaiiun; e..|nr ratiL-e 
in.lu.ies blue, re.l, purple, lilar, yellow, and white 

Anil ih.- Ilyadnlh |iur|,l,' an. I uhiie an.) l.hie, 
Willi h lluiin I'n.in its |„.|U ,, .„,,., |„..,| .,,„.^^ 
< M' riuiM, s,, ijrli. ale. -.,11. .111.1 iriliMi-,.'. 
Il was fell like an .m|.,i uiiliin il,,- -en-e. 

Sill r 1 1 V. 

Tho iianlen racf of Hyac iiiihs arc at l.ase lly,uinlli„s orin>/,i/is, 

a >juries native to westmi Asia and | il,iy s,,iiil, -eastern Kun.p.'.' 

It i> rvidrnt thai the plant has I.een . ullivaled in the j-asi lr,,ni 
very an.ient tiim's; for it canic into western Kumpe hijrhiy de- 
vfloped. early in the sixteenth century. It wa. then a plant of 
i.olh M'n^ilc an<i doul.lc varieties with l,luc, purple, and white 
(lowers. The other colors have arisen either as sp,,ris ,,r from 
seedlings. The story ^r.n.s that the first lilac variety appeared 
as a sport from a red llowered Imll, in the |)ossessi,,n of a l)ut(h 
f^rower. He was so solicitous le>t s„nie misfortune should over- 
take his precious plant that he put the pot ...ntainin- it into a 
l)ird laKe and luin>; it from the (viiin-; of his room. Fie was suc- 
cessful in its proi)aKation and tiiat Lull. i> regarded as tiie j.arent 
of the present lilac forms. To jret some idea of the extent of 
the early culture of Hyacinth^ in Holland, one mav note that the 
(lardener-.s Dictionary, l,y Philip .Miller, pul.lished in .725, 

40 



.4flr!^ 



HYACINTH 




Hvacimli. If \;n I III litis onciiliilis 



LILY FAMILY 



states that about two thousand varieties were then under cultiva- 
tion by tlie j,'r(>wers of Haarlem. 

It seems as if the hist word had been said resi.eetinK Hvaiinths 
lo such perfection in form and clor have the tvpes 'attained 
tha. seI(]oni is a seedh'nf,' j)roduce(l that e.juals the parent plant 
The group is a remarkable example of a speiies having red, blue, 
white, and yellow varieties, thouf^h the yel- 
low is more of a butT than a true ;,'old. 

There are other species of Hyacinths in 
cultivation besides orinilalis, but they are 
not common nor especially desirable. There 
is, however, a variety, known as the Roman 
Hyacinth of the Dutc h growers, 11 yachuluis 
oricnlaHs var. dUmliis which is alto<rether 
charming and delightful. Instead o? one 
strong dense raceme from each bulb, the 
Roman Hyacinth produces three or four 
smaller but more graceful ones. The bells 
are fewer, hang loosely upon the stem, and 
are the embodiment of grace and delicacy. 
The bulbs can be forced as easilv as those 
of the type and in the oi)en they bloom c -!. 

Hyannlhus uUidiram is a luxuriant, .-..-growing, summer- 
tlowermg species, that .sends u]) tall scapes four to f.ve feet high, 
each bearing twenty to thirty large, white, n.xlding bells The 
mdividual plant is fine; but Hyacinths, some wav, .seem to har- 
monize best with the spring-time's foliage and (lowers, and these 
pretty wa.xen bells are not fortunately placed when surrounded 
by the blazing beauties of midsummer and earlv autumn. 

Holland grows Hyacinths for all the world.' The soil and the 
climate of that country seem peculiarly suitable for bulb culture, 
which has been one of its leading industries for two hundreci 
years. 




RoPKin H\;iiintli. Ilyn- 
linlhus oriiHtitlis var. 
lilhuiits 



4» 



FUNKIA 

FUNKIA. DAY LILY. PLANTAIN LILY 

FAnkia subcordata. Fiinkia graiidi flora. 

Fiinkia, in honor of two im-n; oiu- iianu-d Funkc, 1755-1S01, and 
the other Funk, 1771-1839, both Herman naturahsts. 

The cominon Day Lily of old yards; a most excellent plant. Perennial ; 
native of Japan. Summer. 

Leaves. — With marked parallel veins, hrij^ht-grecn, large, broadly 
cordate, making clumps twelve to twenty inches high. 

Flowers. — White, open, bell-.shaped, borne in a short raceme, on a 
tall flowering stem; bracts prominent; fragrant. 

Perianth. — White, long, bell-shaped, si.x-lobed; lobes more or less 
irregular, and not widely spreading. 

Stamens. —Six; filaments thread-like, bent at the tip; anthers versatile. 

Ch'ary. — Oblong; style slender, bent at tip. 

Capsule. — Oblong, angled, many-seeded. Seeds black, winged. 

Funk'ui subcordata is the old favorite, and still holds its plate 
as an attractive, ornamental, foliage i)lant; the great circular 
clumps of broad, shining, prominently veined leaves adorning 
many a vard. There arc several species in cultivation; all are 
Japanese, all are very much alike, and all easily recognizable by 
the habit of forming clumjjs of radical leaves. While the in- 
florescence is attractive and interesting, the real value of the plant 
lies in its foliage. The flowers are either white, blue, or lilac, in 
the different species, of varying size, but all of the same type. 

Fitnkia sicholdiana has leaves of bluish-green and blue or lilac 
flowers. Fitnkia fortnnei is very much the ^ame, having smaller 
leaves and paler flowers. 

Funkia oi'iita is the common blue-flowered s])ccies, and Fiinkia 
lancifblia, with narrower leaves and ])ale-lilac flowers, lias two 
varieties whose leaves vary to white: dlbo-marj^inata has leaves 
edged with white, ■■nd iindulata is a form with undulate, white- 
margined leaves or with leaves conspicuously variegated and 
margined with pure white. This is a very pretty plant and much 
used for borders. 

4.1 



Saitlii^&itt-; 






wm 



^ 



illl 



LILY FAMILY 




l>ay l.ily. I'luihii 



DAY LILY 



DAY LILY 

IfriitrrdCiillis fi'ilvit. 

Iliiiirriiiii/lis. (.'•ri.-L-k. fidm /(ODCic/, il;i\ , and /////i/.v, luaulv - ln';uili- 
ful for a (lay. 

A lull, nihust, lily likf plant, wliiih lias (•>^(ai>ii| from cullixatinn 
and borders roadsides and streaiii^, lloiirishcs in nicailows and on 
al)andoru'd house >ites. Nati'. < of l',uroi)e and Asia Hloonis from 
June to September. 

Rodl. Perennial, tieshv. fibrous. 

Acinrv Linear, keeletl, ei>,diteen to twenty four indus iuim 

hlourrs In loose rorynibs of si.\ to tweUe at liie -uininil of halless 
scajK's tliri-e to five feet iiij;ii; ta\vny-oranj,'e. o|)eniiiL; for a <lav 

j'rrianlh. Funnel-shaiud, lily-like, the short lube erulosinf.; the 
ovary; the s|)readin<; limb si.\])arted; the sepaloid lobes narrower 
than the petaloid lobe.■^. 

SldDini.s. Si.\ inserted at tln' summit of the |)erianth tube; l"ilamenl.> 
'nnj,' and slender; .>ti,uma club-sha|)ed 
Cdpsulc. Three-celled, many-seeded. 

'riii> plant is not misnamed; its llowers arc beautiful and live 
but for a (lay, yet as the succession is iDnlinimus the t1o\verin<; 
pcriiKl is extended. The books call the biossom tawnv-oranjrc, 
and as you look down into the ( up you see a heart of dull vcllww 
which deepens at the point where the segment- i urve and lijjhten- 
again as the color run- to the ti|)s. The re-ult i- dull nr;inj:e on 
a base of yellow. 'I"he sepaloid segments are readilv di-iingui-hed 
by shape as well as by |)osition. 'I"he long orange filament bear- 
anthers heavily loaded with pollen and the style i- a -lender vellow 
wand four inches long, e.Mending far bcNond the pollen /one. 
F!vi(!ently cross-fertih'zation is de-ired. W hat i- to be done, how- 
ever, nui-t be done (|ui( kly. for opening under the -tiniuKi- of the 
rising -un the blossom die- with his deiiarting ra\-: ;m(l the tlower 
ei-t so lo\ely becomes a mas- of di'c a\ oti the parent -tem. 'I'hi'-e 
tawny lover- of the sun live their own live-, freed both from the 
prolection and the domination of man. Thev gather at the toad- 

45 



LILY FAMILY 



teasel, hey bonier ,ho nuadows; thev mass themseive. in .M 
d.K,r^-ards; they are Lautiful, wild, and free. Ciarden r'r com 
mend them for planting among shrubbery, doubtless I,:...:"" 

their ability to take care 
of themselves. 

The Lemon Lily, 
Hemcrocallis flava, is 
structurally the same as 
Hemeronillis fuh-a, but 
more delicate, with nar- 
rower leaves and clear, 
pale-yellow, fragrant 
flowers. One finds it a 
most satisfactory garden 
plant, on account of its 
beauty, its early bloom, 
and its ability to live 
without coddling. The 
race is hardy, and 
T< ,.„, 1 though this one has not 

a> >et b come a wanderer like its tawnv blood-brother it ma. 
any day leap the garden wall and attain freedom. The tr"d 
offers vanants of both forms in singles and in doubles, and h tt 
are the oldest cultivated representatives of the genus 




Lfmon Lily. Urmrmrillis finva 



TORCH LILY. KNIPHOFIA 

Kniphnfia alotdes. 
t:.,iH,.,fa. „.„o,l in h„„„r„t ,.„,t. K„i,,h„,, „, Erf„„. „„^.,,„, 

»«.-A rl,i/,>„H. „i,l, „„„,,„,„, ,|,icti,,h „„,.(lbrc, 

46 



YUCCA 



nourrs.-'Red and yellow, borne in a many-flowered, terminal spike. 
Perianth. Cylindrical, an inch or more lonu, six-t(K)thed. 
Slamrns. Six, i)rotrudin>,'. 

Ovary. Three-celled; style thread-like; stigma minute. 
Capsule. -Three-celled, several-.seedefl. 

Knipliojiii is one of the nio~i uni(|iie i)Iants in j^eneral ( iiltiva- 
tion, and rejoices in several (omnion names— Red-Hot-Pokcr, 
riamc Flower, Poker I'lant, Torch Lilv-all 
emphasizing the spectacular effeit of its cylin- 
drical spike of blazing blos.soms, a veritable 
llame mixture of red and orange and yellow. 

The genus is African, and although there 
are several species in cultivation, aloUUs with 
its hybrids and variants is the favorite. 

The long, narrow, keeled leaves form a tuft 
from whose centre rise several scapes two to 
three feet high, each crowned by a spike four to 
eight inches long, of |)erhai)s a hundred tubu- 
lar, drooping flowers, glowing in fiery red and 
yellow. 

The trade advertises many ditTerent varieties, 
but at heart they are all aloidcs. 

YUCCA. ADAM'S NEEDLE 

y I'iccii iiliimcntiLM. 




Torch I.ily. Kiiiphofia 



Viicca. an Imlian name without application 
lo tlii> flowiT; given l>v mistake. 

The hardy s|H'cies of Vucca which fruits in cultivation ai the North. 
Xativc to the Southern States. June. 

Leaves. Borne uj)<)n a short trunk; evergreen, long, narrow, spiny- 
pointed; ratluT weak, somewhat concave, with slender, curlv, margi- 
nal tihres. 

Flower-Strm Tliree to four feel high, hearin;,' a liMKse, long-.stalked 
l)anicle of cream-white nodding l)ells. 

Perianth. Of six oval, acute, distinct segments; the three inner 
broader than the outer. 

47 



LILY FAMILY 

V""™v. Six. shurur ,han ihv porian.h 
(hvrv. ()|,|.,„l;; sii^-mas ihnr. si>m|.. 
('>ps„/r. <>l,l,.n,Mhnr-lulH.,l, manv-s...,!.,! 



1 //((. 



/ I- 



^nu,,., .mprinn. a h.u|ilia...,.u,,, Ian., na.iu.„.,lH. 



»nii arid |M,rti,,„-. ,,| tlu- Vuiu 



'' -^lati- and .Mcxi.,.. A iVw 



N'<''H- arc hardv al tlu. \,,nlr Vn i ■ , " ' "^ " "' 

the ku.Lv \I ■, • .-^ ""• '""■' A'/"'"". uliu.c h,.mr i- 

-IH ku.k Mnun.au, n.„„n and ,1,. W.Mn-n Plain. HovuTin. 

N. . . . u ,lu. ,.,. n„M .UMaUnry i„ .,ur X.nlHrn .anl... 

. "•-••■■'"'^'''1 ->^'-l'''-Vu..a..lH.n,,r,,,.c;iv p, ..d 

M'arn.ularly,.,,,.!; hu. ,!,. .,i,T ,nM,i.,d hal.i, „ .. . , "'' 



""l_l'arm,.ni/c will, „,fi,T u-t.,aii,,n. 
II "nc would km 



"•'I liahit ,,r the plain d,.c. 



''''"'•-''•':' !<-- .1- Vu.. a in i,, |,.M .Mau.. .,n. nuM ... i,, 

'' >• '' "-.;nh,h, a,v „-anMi,u,vd and lairlv radia, ■ ..f 
>ilv.Ty!uMrrnnp....il,l,. „, dcM riln- ' ' 

•'■-'-•''HMn,.-,, .. Mranrdinary. a..-. ,f ,!,,,,„,,,,,, ,,,^,,,,,,.,,,^, 

:>'ann,.nanda,lou.r.sn,(-an,p,,Hi',..-,VMn,,..U -- 

'"/"""■^''""""^"^■'' -"- "• "- ..u,h..,-n AUan, C 
;""' "— - garden. Thi^ ,..,.. dcp.-nd, f,., ,.; ' 

^•1- iH'voun,...,. n. .,.d.r,haMh. ,,,..,. nun kVV 

H'that !iH-..vuk.>uili dru.lnp i„„Hhr .vd „ ' ""'"'"' 



;"^"nnM,lu u.r,ili.au.,n.,nlu..,vuK.. I, ,hi, „Hvi.. r V 



■'■- will all re 
all tlu' 
luro in 



48 



YUCCA 




\'ii(i;i. ]'i(n,i fiLnunilosa 



LILY FAMILY 



WILD OKION. ALLIUM 

Allium iiriiKiim. 
■I//'"'", ,lHan.i,.n, l-alin nanu. .,f ,h, ^,„|i, . 
finlh. Voiiud, Diiion-sccnt,.,!, 
/-'•'nr.v. Liniar, llaltc-ncl, .shaq.lv kirl.d 

M-arious spailuv ' '*'' '""^ "^ I""-|>l^' Huwcts, fnlm a 

Ar/.;,,//,. <„• ,i, ,,^,„,,,„^_ ^„,. ^,,, ^^^^1^ 

■V</w«.v. s,v; nianKMUs slnHhT, .,x.s..ru.,l 
07V//-V. (V,,u,l; stvlc slnuliT. 
CapsHlf. CVi.nd, liiRc l<,l,o.l. 

JlH. Alliun,. arc. a ,..nu> ..f s.r..„«-....„u.,l ap.I punK.nt hcH.s- 

•'P|H';»- in a >im|.k. imil.il, ssr^.^nd 
"1 llH' 1)11.1 by a scari.nis si)athc. 

.J////(W icnuinm iV a native spccits 
"flon f..un<l in <ultivati,.n, and the 
llouorin- iinil,,.! at its Ix-st is very 
Pri'ttyjuit there are so man v better 
I''''n>^ •■"r ih'. ^ranlen that' it ran 
never achieve mu, h suaess The 

AniiimilKU i>„suailvfnr,eclf„rthe 
\Mnter trade ,s Allium ncapolit^- 

'""".uhi<h,,rodiKesah.rKeuml,el 
of white llouers. 

Tlie value of the jr^uis is sh..un 
'" "i^' kit.iicn garden where, in 

.-H..p.dwi.h..t;h;v"L::;;:i:;,:;'"'^'"---'^--^ 

' lu' ( oniinon ()ni(in All;,,,,, •./, i i 

50 




WiM <'„„„,. .{///„„,,,„„,„„ 



WHITE TRILLIUM 




While Trillium. Trillium gramiiiidrum 



^!^Ti^^??^^ 



^^^I^^V?!^^^""', ■- :-V,.- ■«'1>^ 



m 



LILY FAMILY 

The onion is nutritious, rirh in unrrystaI!i/.aWc s„gar and a vol- 
atile sulphurous oil whirl, is presc-nt in all memlK-rs of ,he genus 
The hull, ,s biennial, the leaves hollow an.l tapering, the llower- 
stem also hollow and swelling at the middk.. The (lowers ire 
(•••rne ui a large, gloh.Ke, terminal uml,el; the IoIh-s of the .kt 
-anih obtuse- and ho.Hled, no, half .., long a.> the ,tamen>, which 
protrude and make the globe fu/zy. 

Chives or C'ives, Atli.n,, s,h,nidpras,nu, \. a |K-rennial plant 
jvhos.. leaves are um.I in seasoning soup>, .ala.ls, and stews 
It .> also used as a |«>rennial edging plant, well Ctte.l for this use 
>v us halm of growing in clos.- ji.tle dumps; also, krau^e it 
bl.H.ms freely in low, violet-c.lored heads. It rarelv see.K in 
th,s country, but thrives in any g,„Kl garden soil and mav b. 
cut lik-rallv. 



WHITE TRILLIUM. WAKE ROBIN 

Trillium Krnmlillonim. 

Namcl fr„m Irrs, thr.r, all th,. parts bcinK in thr.Ts. 

The (Ireat White Trillium of northern w.,„.ls; a favorite- w,|,| Hnwor 
n..w commg extc-nsively into cultivation. Rich woods from Wrmont 

Aplil mIT '" "'''"'""' ^'''"'''""' ■^"''"""' '"'' ■^"""^■■^"'^- '•'^^'■^•"nial, 
/i?(w/,v/w*.- Short, tuber like. 

en^-™r^„,I^.'e;„S;r'""''' "'"" "' '"' »■"• "-■™"i. 

/'7(mrr5.— White, terminal, large-, .solitarv. 

.VfM'.-Three, lanceolate, spreading, lurbaceoiis. persistent 

/f/a/.. -Three, white, sometimes changing with age to pale-rose- 

.Vamcns. Six; anthers linear on short filaments. 

07.„ry. -Three-celled; stigmas three, .separate down to the ovarv 

trutt.—\ Ix-rry, several-seeded. 

^ C.reat White Trillium, Trillium }^r.,„JiJlornw, i> one of the very 
finest of our native llowers. It loves the open woods and i, planted 

5a 



GARDEW ASPARAGUS 

al)im<lamly wluTi- wild nardi-ning i> praitJMd ^n any lilK-ral Male. 
An ojK'n grove is i.fun dfvoid of inti'rf>t ItfcaiiM' tluro is nothing 
und. ! llu' ircfs Imt nra»; hut >iu h \vo<Klland lan ht- tran>formfd 
into a fairy land -imply l.y ktiping out the tattlt- and restoring the 
herliaieous growth. Nothing i> l)etter to anon.phsh this than 
to hring Iku k the old (lowers that have heeii driven out. ( )f 
iliese, in itorlheiii Ohio, 'I'rilliiini i^riiinlifioniin is one of the heM; 
and along with it, nourishing under similar conditions, should lie 
.Smili(ina, Solomon's Seal, Hellwort. Mitella, Tiarella, Wild I'hlux, 
and Adder's Tongue, together with all the little groundlings that 
will venture Inuk as soon as i onditions are safe. 



GARDEN ASPARAGUS 

.1 .?/)<;>i;i;/(,\ ii[fuiiiiiHs. 

A^P(irii,qiis. the iinrictit Creek name; the meaning Dhsrure. 

.\ i)erennial herb, cultivated for tlie edihle young shoots which ap- 
IK'ar in early sjjring. Kurope. May and June. 

Sinn. Rising from thick and matted ro:)tstock.s, two to three feet 
high, succulent and simi)le with lleshy scales when voung, hecoming 
branched when old. 

Lnnrs. 'J'he narrow, threadlike, so-called leaves are reallv hranih- 
let.s, acting as leaves, clustered in the axils of little scales which are the 
true leaves, These are well shown on the shoot. 

Flourrs. Small, greenish-yellow, in the axils of the leafy branchlets. 

Perittnlh. Six-parted, spreading above. 

Sl,imens. Si.\: lilaments thread-like; stvle short; .stigma three lobed. 
Berry spherical, red, three-celled; cells two-.see(le(l. 

The (larden Asparagus has been a table vegetable for more 
than two thousand years. Native to southern I'.urope and western 
Asia, it was well known both to the ("ireeks and to the Romans. 

Structurally the ])lant is especially interesting, as it gives an 
example of small branchlets which ai)i)ear and behave like leaves. 
The real leaves are scales which are much in evidence on the 
edible shoots and may be seen at the base of the leaf-like branch- 
lets looking like stipules or bracts. 

S3 




.ti'^slttis^al' 



MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 




50 l™^™ 


n^ 


^i^ 


u^ 


: Ui 


Mag 


i^-° 


u. 
ute 






1 1.8 








^ /APPLIED IN/MGE 

^^ 16b3 East Mam Street 

S'.a Rochester. New York t4fi09 USA 

'-= (716) 482 - 0300 - Phone 

^= (716) 288 - 5989 - Fa« 



LILY FAMILY 



In May ..r June the inconspicuous flowers appear; later a 
wealth ot ,rr,,n berries sit> in the axils of the leaf like hran. hlet.- 
hnally ,n late summer these herrie. become brilliant xarlet and 
the aspanifius bed is fair to see. 

Three >pe( ies „f Ornamental Asparagus are in cultivation, tw<. 

named A>paraf,ni> and one (ailed 
Smilax. 

Asparagus Sprai^cri, native 
to Xatal, South Africa, has long, 
slender, drooping branches; the 
so-called leaves narrow, flat, 
about an inch long, glossy green; 
the flowers white and small, six- 
parted in >hort racemes, slightly 
fragrant; the berry small and 
red. The plant is of easy culi 
lire and \ery popular for jxin h 
l»oxes and hanging baskets. 
Professor Hailey records that it 
'.vas introduced to hortii ulture by 
Dammann and Co., Italv, and 
named for their (olleitor, Herr 
Sprenger. 
.l,v^/^,V".v plumosus is the species with line thread-like 
fohage; branciies flattish and horizontal. This to,> i. nio.t 
popular for .iccration, the sprays holding their shape and color 
l'>r weeks. I h,- \aneties niuu, and tniuisswws are preferred to 
the type. 

The llori.tV .Smilax, grown for decoration and sold bv the string 
;>r i.y the yard, is also an asparagus, little as it approaches our 
Idea of nnv~Aspanigm medeoloidcs. It, too, is of South \fric an 
"r.gm. Its twming stem is slender, i,erfectlv smooth, and its so- 
ca Med leaves are an inch or more long, thick, glossv green on both 
sides, strong-nerved, and standing edge-wise to the stem The 
Mowers are small, white, solitary, fragrant; and the succeeding 
l)erries dark-green. 




Ornunirnl:,! Axparunus, Aspaninui 



54 



LILY OF THE VALLEY 



LILY OF THE VALLEY 

( 'iiiiViiHiiria iiiiijidis. 

Ciinviilhniii. ilcrivfil fmni iniiviillis, a vallfv, 

Till' wi'll-known l.ily of ihc \'alli-y. Nalivi- Id iuirtipc, Asia, and 
AnuTica. A sliadc-lovinu ])laiU. May. 

I.cdvcs.- Radical, risint; from an ujiri^'lit nintstMck or pi]). 
Flowrrs. W'hitf, ii(i<ldin.i,', and in a short racciiu', I'raj^rant. 
I'eriaiith. W'liilf, l)i'll-liku, six-loothid. 
Stamens. Six; ovary j^lohosc; style and siij^nia one. 

Lilies of the \'alley are forced into hlooin and sold at so many 
sea.-ons of the vear thai we are likelv to lose sij^ht of the fact that 




I.ilv i.f lllu \;llliv 



they are naturally llowers of May. Xolliinj^ is ]iretlier than the>e 
delicate, fragrant liells nestlini; amon<; their liroad leaves in the 
garden-hed. There i- always a demand for tlowers growinj; in 
partial >hade, and few plants are more sati>factorv for this than 
Lilies of the \'alley. The plants run wild in many okl ' ards, in 
cemeteries, ami along >liady roadsides. 

55 



LILY FAMILY 



EREMURUS 

l.ri' munis rohihtiis. 

Ercnu,n.. i, . (Invk nanu- u-U-ruu^ u, „„• ,all an.l Mrikin^ apn.-ar 
•"i'«-"l ilu. |,lanl ,n ii> .I.-mti I,,,,,,,.. K-'ipar 

AVcAv. { lustiTsoi tlrsliv lil.ri'^ 

.^;^; nS^,f ;:;,:;— ^ 

of ro;;;'';;>r;;;:-uH :,;:;"'"■ '" '"^"- '-^'""^ ^^ ^i''^^' '"-'f'-t i-k. 

^/</w«.. Six; ovury .hr.c-a 11...1; scv.Is on. „. f..ur in .a,l, .dl. 

Krc-nn.rus i. ..no ..f ,1,. n..t s.rikin, ,.lan.> tha, a nonlu-rn 
KanJen can produce Nativ. ,., .he .i...n. ..f TurkoMan, i, ha. 
-■.,u.rc-<i the hal>„ of ,.u„i„, ,,nh trcmendou. uuT.n- fo,- a .I,on 
i..no,l and then rc.>tin, for tlu- ronK.ind.r of .ho u.r ^Mu-n 
s,.r,n, growth i,e,ins there i> an upheaval of tl.e .round al.ou, the 
Menj, the roots are ., stron. and so manv. Lar^e plants ^vill 
,>ro.^.. annualK a ,,,.,,,,„,,,, ,,^,,_ ^,,^^ J^^ 
.h.s u,ll he covered thuk with >,arry hlossom. As this i, a .pike 
and ,t takes eon.iderahie time for ,he .lowerin, impulse to r aeh 
"H" top, the l.^loomin, peri,.! lasts a n.onth. Then the s,,,!. 

mature the stalk dies, he leaves disappear, and alii, over until 
K next year. I he plant needs plenty of water u l,ile llowering, 
m:..ne afterward. As it developed in an alkali desert it is ven' 
^'rate u for wood ashes about its roots, (iarderters recommend 
a muk h of dry leaves for the winter. The plan, i. hardv, intere"- 
iiiK. and ellective. ■ """^-^ 



Amonj,' other /.///,„w in cultivation are , he following varie,i,.s- 
StMiruno's Lily. />,;,,/,,,„ /,v/<i.v/n.., a species' from .ot„h- 

ern I-.urope, whuh sends up from a tuft of ,]a,, radical leaves a 
>e hci 

with green. 



simple scape hearing, perhap. twenty fragrant white bells tipped 



56 



EREMURUS 




En'munis. F.rrmurut riAnhlus 



-Meadow Sa/Tron t' u i ■ 
'—■lit.- •,-, t r ;"" "•■■ ' "■■- .l-ur, ,„■ 

;"«"«'• '-.1-1. »;.,::' ';;;;t"'''''--''''-'--.«^ 

'"'"•" -I'rinK. u,„l „,. ,1,, ™ •, " ."'r "' '- ^' -". ... I,,- 

Japant'K" Toad I i|\- y • • ■ 
'•econtly introduced: ' \ Z^'^^ u!Z \ -"I '"'"'^""'^ '•'^'"'- ''^'^ 
-"' '" late Scp,emlK>r and in ""'" "^ ^•'■«''-" >•-'.-, 

'">f ^ ''"--, crean^u. i, .^ ''7 ";!'-- ^ P-fu>ion o 
"-'Is a lulf-.had.d location. '"'n'l'sh-hnnvn spots. „ 

riH'U' are a numhe.- of n.,,;,. , 
-I S.i,iWna, l)o,.s,...„„ ;;2^^ Pan,s-,,.,lu.ort, Solo.on. 

'^v tlH trad... "'"'" "^■^•'s,on, and all arc- otTered 



58 



DIOSGOREAGE.^ YAM FAMILY 



CINNAMON VINE 



l>iiisi(iriii (livii 



iiiitii. 



Nam...l for Dios, ori.lrs a (irrc-k wriu-r .,n plants, 

_ A perennial iwininK plum, wi.h lar«e farinaee-.us ro,„s. iHarin. shin- 
jn«^p,^ae,.ves;euUivate.iasae..vervine. C.ina, Japan, ^Hi.; 

.SVm.-TvvininK, makinK ten to thirty feet in a summer 

of.^'^bSrinl^ffii:'!:-..:""""^' ^•""'"«' -^^-^ - hal,.ert-shaped. 
lets in the axils. 

FUrwers. Dicrcious, 
white, small, in small 
racemose i)anicles in the 
axils of the leaves. 

/•m'ti/;///. Six-parted. 

Stamens. — S^'w; ovary 

three-celled; styles three. 

/='n«7.- A three-winded 
capsule; seeds winded. 




rinnatiKin \'in 



"ill ili;,iri(,'iia 



The ( tnnamon ^ ine obtains its name fn.ti, the fragrance of it, 
flowers, whKh appear on uell-e>tal.lishe,l plants in August. The 
vtne ,s real y a variety of the yam, or Chinese potato, and although 
AstatK- ,s fajrly hardy in our climate. The large roots or vam. 
are^^no, produce.! unt.l the second year of plants grown from 

The stems are quick-growing, and although the leaves are verv 
pretty the ■nt.m.xies are so long that the foliage effect is scanty 
vvhtch dett-acts from ,ts value as a cover vine. In the axils of the' 
leaves are httle bulblets the size of peas, which will grow if planted. 

59 



AMARVLL.DAce.1. AMARVLUS FAMILY 

Sni.H.il, iH-rcnnial hrrh. will, l.„ii 

-'t ..fa .ape; at .Irs ndXl ' " ' " '" ''"^'^■''^ ^" "^ -'"- 
^-., -uallv regular h"t "i ' T'""'"'^ ^"^'"-- ^'- 

;-'- upon and is a.„a;:'::\;^:;::^ :;;;'•••-' '--.-^^ 
en'wrs:;i:;:;;-^'";-'^H,ies. ^ 

'he three-celled ..varv He^W^i ^ 'li" " "" "^"^^^>- '" "^ '"- 

Kuage, the ..vary is inferior. Struau ^ll . ,'" '""^'"'^■^" 1^'"- 
-leraNe; apparentiv, it is verv ^.1, " "'""" ''^ "'"- 

o^^t;- s'^t':: ri:r ''T'''-'-' ">• ''^^ <--■ 

«-us .,,,.., centurv' Plan, ttrr'' ""'" " "■''^'"' ^^ '" 'f^'^' 
^ti" the character ..f g" ^^ , ^ 'T' ^''^"'^ '''^-^- ''-- 
There are alK>ut four h^ndre , t '" "''" "^ ^h--"'^- 

natives of tropical, suh- S ':;;"" ^'^"'^-^ ^ "-■ Familv, 

ate regions-partiVtilarlv Xninr ;trV- ^^^ "^ '^'"'- 

A few species only are Europ""', ''" "' ^'"'^^ "''l-- 

In general cultivation are the I>,ff n n , 
anthus Narcissus Jonqun Vn i ' "'^ ^'arcissus, Polv- 

In addition to the lard 're "e '''•' '"""'^'^^■' ^"^ tuberose, 
--'•ng into the ..u^^ ^^^T^H " "^' ''""'' ''''' "^ 

--cultivated out of diCi;;:,:::;—-^ 

60 



NARCISSUS 



NARCISSUS 

/.Mtr,?.— IVofluml from a n.atiil hull.. 

.Vr,<A-. KisiMK fn.m th.- hull,, h,arinK' ■"- nr uum- tluwcrv whi.h at 
lirst ari' uiciudod in a memhranuus spatlu. 

/Vr/;/;,//,. 7^,1,. more .,r less . ylin.lriaii, with six ,.nuai wi.lHv 

()v„ry. Thr..c-an«U.,l; the ihrra-i-lik. s,y|.. .-n.ls in a hlunt stiKma. 

'Hu. (ianl.n Nan issi arr rla»ilk-(l int.. thr.r .iivi>inn> a, n,r,lin« 
to the iharai tor of tht- corona, thus; 

Ckoii- I. LonK-crounol. In this yroup the n.n.na is as luni: or 
longer than the sc^nunts of ,h.. perianth The 'IVumpci I) £| 

;^;;:ir:;::.4r"'"""""'^^"^' '-'' "^ ^•^'"""- -" '^y-iiLdif ;:";!: 

C.RorP II. Medium-crowned. In this the o.n.na is one hilf to 
three-tourths the length of the perianth segments. The S .rl N, 
ci.ssus, .\,irassiis imomparabilis, is the type. ' 

I'oef s' V.rlV- „ •'"'^"n-""^^-"^'''- .1" 'hi-^ the corona is very short. The 

l^^\;^:7^'^:r"' """""' ^"' '" '"'"' ''''- '''''^'''''' 

All the Narcissi have l.ull.s which are reallv dwarfed stems 
surrounded l.y succulent leaves. These are underground treasure- 
houses, ,n which the material made l.v the leaves in the spring 
has been stored up and kept intact through summe, heat and 
winter cold. Fn.m this bulh arise the leaves and llower stems of 
the new plant. 

To the family characteristics of the Amarvllids the genus 
^ar^.s.sus adds one that is peculiarly and .listinctivelv its own 
I lie union ..f caly.x and corolla is so complete that botanists mike 
no effort to distinguish them,and call thelloral envelope a perianth 
Ihis^takes the form of a tube with a spreading si.x-paried border 
At the very throat of this tube, at the point where the border di- 
vides into spreading .segments, there develops a growth known 

6i 



AMARYLLIS FAMIT.V 

TRUMPET DAFFODIL. DAFFODIL 

Xiinissits psrmlo-iianl.isin. 
Thi- best -known dalT.ulil of our trardens ih.. iv.., i ,u i 

■n Holland ..r ..,..,ion; not U.^.J^^^'^tC:'''''''' ''"''" 
lixlh. On., and a half to two inches in chameter 
W.V. TJlaucous nc-arly flat, five or six to a sea,.. 

hnanth. ^ d!,,w; scKments oblong, acute at a,H-x 
crisM':„dt.lS." "^ "*^'"^"'^' ■''' '-•> - -'- -ross; marKin 

'I'lH- Trumpet Da^odil is such a favorite amon^ us that one 
>hcs ,t would naturalize here; In. so far the co.m'.n e.x e In 
'- -emed to prove that ,t will not, except possillv in x nde 

"' ' '.'at Ihe secret of having fine datTodils is to renlan. 
■irm,, l„„ m ,h, ,y|,c ,hc !,„i:m,l, is yellow, iIk- l-um, c. crown 

i:. '7,,:: zr^''^' *^'"™'^' """ "« — -^ --^^d 

62 /^ 



TRUMPET DAFFODIL 




Trumpet Daffodil. Narcissus pseuJu-NanhS: 



us 



AMARYLLIS FAMrrv 

''■'»• HovuT has an ,.v,,ui.i,, ,,ra, .■ , L.|„ , , . . 
'h'- ''«-. I. has ,..„,„.. 1 ' ""'"^ «'"'"■"■'' ^' '-In from 

';:"«''>l' .hiMnn .han, in I'n.lM m"'l ""'''■ "'"' ^"""•''••' 
"'^- 'H.n,lml u.ar> a«n ' "''"''""" •"-''^'>- ^s ,h,y did 

;>;..^-.Uvn ,,il,v, J. „..„.,„^^.,, 



Uiih 



^' ■'""'■'■•"'"•"-"■'«-.„ «„«,. 



ShakesjK.arc knew thf dalT.KliJs 



'I'hat ,,,m.> \,v(nrv Ow mi .11,,,, i 
And Mi|i„n wrote- 

A-''la.^..lilli..s,ill,h..ir.u,s,vi„,u.ars 
Uordswoiii) irivcs. ii„, „, 1 

Str.U hoi in ncuT-cn-liMK lin,- 
■\'""K th,- margin .,f a l,av 
i;'-<hou-.an,l.awI.a,a«lan.., 
i-"« ,.u.,r hcuis in s,.n,h„, ,,,,„,, 

Thr waus l„.si,l.. „u.„, ,|an,...|, 1„„ ,„..v 
/'^'''''l.h.s,a.klinKwav..i ;,'.''■ 
\Miat wealth th. show t„ ,„,,,. u 
III nit Had lirought; 

'■"; "f'' "''^ on my n.u. h I hV 

In varant „r in ponsin- n,,.,,!,' 

'h.-.vnashuiH.nihatinwar,|,.ve 

\ h'<h; thol,liss,.fs.,li,u,|,; 
•And then niv hc;irt «Mi , i 
A,„l I ■ pleasure lills, 

AiKl .lanccs with the .latT-dils. 

64 



SUPERB DAFFODIL 







Su{)erb Daffociil. Xnrdssiis imompanibUis 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY 



The variant forms llurti.ato ahnut thv (••„,.• ,1 

'■''- varvin. i„ detail, hut ta"i 1 -'"'^^ '"'" ''"^^ -'"- 

Ourhestdouhloforn ^;,';'r""-"^''^'^-•^^'-• 
n-...r ..f t,. species. 'H. ^1::;. ,;:,:::: i;/;'^' ---' 

' "'''^^ ^•"•'^ "'^' -rona .lisaj.pears a. t 
-I-arate I.kIv and supernumera s^.n nts 
-I-ent. The form n.nv sought C 
d-- -s fat in which the seamen s'e 

"'•''"">: Jl"s douhle dalT.Kh-l has Ion. 

';;--.h.vatedinI.:n„and,whereiti.,nI:n 
" ,''':''7"''^''''''''''-y^/-'-;i. i>, hon-- 

■^""ther attractive species of the lon.- 
•'-m-d .roup ofTered hv the trade is 

'>'"''"iii. Thi. i. railrr;;:.;"? '"f "'"• '^ ""-i-^>"-.at 

'' ^mall l.i.il)andslenderle..vef ,';'"', '" ^''■I'^'^'™^''^". ^^i"l 
-■"^ ^"ach scape. Th " . ' f '^■'' "'"•^' ^^^ "-- <"" f'-ur 
i-'-the verl- pro 1,^ 1 ^" ■' '"•'^'•^->-"<- - all its 

•"^ and insetned at ,,.e base of :\,r ;^;;n'" ^"^' '■^'•'- 
^> -utlH.rn France and northern AfW a ii ,1 •'" T "^"'" 

^lay and runs into n,a,n-.anlenf.:n!"''""'"-'''^''^'-' 
rcco.ni.ed as a .H^tinct s-nvic n 1 '"'"' '"*' ^l'^''"' and 

''^'>^'^'.^'-esuuofai::::.r:h'r'''^''^^^^^^^^^^ 

"uuccnthe I nunpet and the Pheas- 




"■"'I' IVlliaul I).iff,,,lil. 



'i 



HI 



POET'S NARCISSUS 




Poft'.-; Narcissus. .V 



(in issus poi'tiitis 



AMARYLLIS FAMTT.V 



POET'S NARCISSUS, PHEASABf; 



S EYE 



/*«/A.— Ahoiu an inch thick. 
Leaves.^ V\-^i^ somewhat glaucous 
^r.^r.-Tuo-edKci, eight to twelve inches high 

l.Tl l«.r,lc.r wlKre " h '"""'■B'"';" H™- •han in ,1,. ,„l|. 

TIN name ^,„,,v„, i„ nj, „,„ , ' '"''"'■'"^■•■'■""■' *-"-"ng. 
siial «-rittT^„fanli,,,mi- I,,, ' '" "^ "'■" "' ""■ 'I"'- 

:'>--'i»'"- "0..ara;;;'^:::r^::;;;z''^''°r !"'•-'' 

impossible. The i)l-,nf „!,• i , ^Jt'^taclory decision is 

I"-' ..( himsc. f ,":;;■' r™' :"." •"'"'" »■'"■ <«"' 'n™ 

a-' a -n-i .i^o .I „ ', •;;;■. \7 '.•;■ ""^ '• .-"-»-. 

>.".... :.*e J,,::;;:;;— ;::™'"-^^^^^™. 

68 



POLYANTHUS NARCISSUS 

tion is obviously imperfect. Pheasant's Kye of course refers t„ the 
yellow and red corona. 

The plant has lon^' been a favorite. The blooming i.erio(l is 
normally the last of May, though earlier varieties have been 
dfvelope,l. All the varieties are profuse bloomers, an.i mo., „f 
them are har.ly. In the (loui,le form the corona (li>appear. en- 
tire y and the se^nnents are greatly increased in number, tin., 
makmf; the llower pure white. 

POLYANTHUS NARCISSUS. PAPER WHITE NARCISSUS 

\,ircissi(s t,izrtta \ar. ,///„/. 

Sturdy free-bloominK ,,lan,, lan,Jy used for winter forrinK; tolcTant 
of the cond.t,ons of .>nHrarv homes; asks only water an.i h„n to i,loom 
in mass. Heion-^'s to the .sliortirowned j,'roup. 

liiilh. r.arKe, two inches in diameter. 
Leurs. One to two feet hij,'h. 

Flowers [our to twelve in a cluster at the summit of a scane- s,.,r 
ments white; corona white with crispcl and crinkled mLrKin"'' ' 
Stamcus. Six; three near the throat, three lower in the tube 
.S/y/e. - rhreaddikc; .sti),'ma sh>,'hlly cleft. 

The Polyanthus Xarcissi are best kn..wn to us in the varieties 
of \„ms^„s tazetta alba, the Paper White Xani.sus and \ar 
nssus tazetta oriattalh, the (Mu-nese Sacred Lib. Hoth are ex- 
tremely popular for winter bloom. 

The Mowers of the Paper White come out in .lusters of four to 
thirteen. Kach (lower makes a broad an^le with its .tem The 
perianth tube is about an inch lon^, pure white. thouf,d, a little 
greenish where it joins the vividly jrr.en ovarv. It broaden, into 
SIX pure-white segments, three exterior and ihree interior. The 
dowers ..f well-grown and vigorous plants are from an inch to an 
mch an, a half across. A beautiful tiny corona, crinkled and 
^ca!oped. sits upon the throat of the tube, and out of it look the 
yel ow anthers of three stamens; the other three stamens are in 
seclusion lower down in the tube. 
The Paper White can be forced in anv ordinarv living room 

69 



j J 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY 

Ciiven six or eight inilhs, planted in a (ii>h suflldcntlv deep to 
i'll''w coarse gravel ,.r pei.l,le> t.. be pac ked al.out them s., as to 
hold them ,n phue, the bulbs well supplied with water an<I kept 
m a dark, e.,..l place until abundant roots are produced-this is 
a I tiiat IS necessary for success. Uy the time that a heavv mat 
of roots ha.s been formed, the leaves have started. At this' stage 
he d.sh of bulbs >houl<l be brought into abundant light It is 
iK'st m steam-heated rooms to place the plants at the c oldest win- 
Jiow; they are lovers of cold, not of warmth, and too great heat 
Nasts the buds: s.xty to sixty-f.ve ,l..grees is a good temperature. 
ATos hvmg r<.oms are t<.o warm for them; and unless a cold niche 
can be oun.l the bloom may prove unsatisfac torv. Hut with an 
agreeable temperature and plenty of sunlight the plants will bloom 
dehghtfully, hlhng the room with delicious fragrance, \earlv 
two weeks elapse between the appearance of the Crst and the la^t 
.lossoms of an ordinary cluster, an,? ,.s the clusters do no, all come 
forth at the same time there i. a long .lowering perio<|. Though 
th lower looks dehcate, as a matter of fact the texture of the 
I)ctals IS almost leathery. 

X^nissns Inzctia, the primitive type from which the garden 
f..rms of dustere.1 Narcissi are derived, is a species remarkable for 
■ts vanab.hty ..s well as for its geographical distribution Its 
range e.xteml.s from Portugal through southern Kurope and north'- 
ern Afnc.. to Syria, Persia, Cashmere, India, on to China and 
Japan. It ,. very rare to find a tropical plant that so nearlv en- 
nr.lcs the glob.-. The Paper White in some respects well r'epre- 
senls the type, ye, ,he primitive blossom is white with a lenlon- 
yell..w corona, and in this respect the Chinese Sacred Lilv more 
nearly re|)resents i,. 

Xotwiths,anding all ,hat has been said about red and purple 
suK-e the matter is undecided one may be permitted to believe 
tiiat th,s primitive form is the ancient Narcissus, the fl<nver of 
Mohammed's devotion, "wondrously glittering," whose "sweet 
scent caused all the broad heaven, above and all the earth to 
laugh, and the salt waves of ,h. .ea."' • "Fed by heavenly dews 

' " Honaric Hymn t> DumittT." 

70 



POLYANTHUS NARCISSUS 




Polyanthus Narcissus. Aunissiis /azciia 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY 

the nun i>sus M.H.ms m„rn l,y morn with fair clusters cn.wn <,f 
the Kreal g.xkiesses of yore." ' . "" <)i 

it Il'r.f "'T "" "" ""•■ '^' '^''"'' "^ '^' ^"^'-"t ,,.H.ts; 
n .as alM. a decoratue .lower, used largely in connection with 

death and burial. That it was so used he- 
fore the Christian era in the making of 
funeral wreaths is known from the actual 
evidence of specimens of the Xardssu.s 
lazcthi /lowers which after long entombment 
were unearthed in 1888 from an ancient 
cemetery at Hawara. 

JONQUIL 

\iiriissns ii)n</iii//ii. 

One of the long-cultivated species of \arci.s- 
sus; quite hardy in the .Middle We.st. Native 
to .soMtlurn luiropc and northern Africa. 

ru.s^hTk^r ^''"''•'' '''^'■'^■^'^'■™' '-'-'y "^^^<'«-- and 




J"n((uil. 



A iiri i\si{s jon- 
ijiiilla 



FW.v. Two to six on the stem; the tube 
greenish -yellow, .lender, cyiintlrical, about an 

There has been a curious interchange of name between this 
spenes winch is the real Jonquil, and the Trumpet Da.Todil 
whuh ,s often called Jonquil. It is, upon the wholi, best to use 
he- names as the books record ,hem. The Jonquil leaves are rush- 
hke, not Hat; the .lowers slender and delicate, in a cluster, pushing 
out from a common enclosing spalhe. The plant is somewhat 
at a dnadvantage in comparison with the Trumpet Daffodils 
because of its very deiicacx-. 

' " (Kilipiis at ("ciliinus "— Snplioclcs. 



72 



SNOWDROPS 




Snowdrops. Galanthiis 



n! L 


1 \ 




\ 




f 


' ' !- ■ 




\ . ^ 


i \ i ■ 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY 



COMMON SNOWDROP 

Hiihiiilliii'; uii'aiis. 
'■"■•t, «/.,. milk. .,«/;„-,. ,I.„„t: ,1.. ,„ilk.„|„„.,l,„„.r 

"r'^rtr^r,;;,:: """ '' ^■'•— „„.„„„„, 

I^itll'. Small, coalid. 
Tlioo plants ,l,u> f-nav nil,! i„ l,;il,V atui th,. r,!-, ,. r 

Z"'' ■ -' -.»"„,.,, ;:ii;:;;t::;:j;;:':- 

^ Snowdrop's no.Kin, .louor in January, without l.in J .i. .. 

^■11 pc .1, tie clmkweo,i to open its petals will also lure forth 

e whtte he Is of the Snowdrop. ,n ,,o6 the Snowdr w 
I'l-om ,n the .aniens of Cleveland on Januarv .,; ten 
-as true ,n u,o,. A few davs, such as fre.uentiv oe u n 1 

-nu he green leaves can ,,u.h through, are all that is necessar^. 
I he httle nower, so white, delicate, and spiritual tha. ••. ..ems 
"be ^ow organised into .lower form, comes at once to the^ur^ 

of the sun. S.x mches of snow may next dav cover the^e l.los- 

-m^that IS ,>nly an incident in their career; their lover will 

K em out, place them in water, give them a .ool temperatur 

.ha, they mav get tneu" i.arings. an.l after a night of coolness and 

74 



COMMON SWOWDROP 

ri\ircrTH It they \il! conu- into the mornini! >iin>iiiiu' frrsli, hale, 
and liearly.-- "the unnint liinj; Mi()\v(lri>|)." 

The iHKhhiij,' l1()\ver hnik^ a> if it were iikuU' up <if three cinuave 
white |>etal> >urri)im(hn>; a ^'reeni>h tul)e; hut upon examina- 
tion the tui)e i)ri)ve- to he it-«'lf made u|) of three separate i)arl^, 
which are wliite, marked and hloidied with j,'reen. 'J'he stamen^ 
are six, and i'()ii>i>t of >hort ^reen l"ilament> with lon>^-l)ointtil, 
Ijri^lit yellow antiier>, wiiic h (Hs(har^;e their jjollen hum the toj). 

The leaves idme up with the tlowers, attain their full j^rowth 
later, and eommonly die down in mid-ummer. A tine hed of 
Snowdro|)s is ea>ily a((|uired; one needs only to |)lant the l)ull)> 
]»ermani'ntly in a sheltered i)la(e an(' let them alone. They 
will thrive, even on ni'^leet. 

The winter hloom, however, i> only rasual and ineidental; the 
hlo>>omin^ period in our nortiiern i limate is March or April, de- 
pendinji somewhat uuon the season. 

The l)ook> j;ive southern luirope and northern Africa as the 
native home of the si)eiies. AlthoUf^h a child of the lowlands 
it ])osses^es many Alpine characteristics which lead one to infer 
either that it was left hehind in the retreat of the j^'lacial ice, or 
that it has for some reason descendeil from the mountain heights 
into the valleys at their feet. 

Whether the jilant ever pushes its way up through the snow is 
doubtful, though the IVenc h name, I'cric-iicii;r, certainly sug- 
gests as much. The (lerman name, Silnicc-i^lixkcii, refers sim- 
ply to tile form of the llower. In Kngland tlie little creature ha> 
long been known in cottage gardens as "the Fair Maid of !'"ei>- 
ruary." 

The si)ecies known as GuUinthus Kliccsii, introduced int(t Kng- 
land from the mountains of Asia Minor in nSjs, is in some re- 
spects a better gardener's llower than Cinlantlius nivalis, thougli 
it blooms two weeks later. The tlowers are larger, with slightly 
dilTerent markings. The gardeners have succeeded in producing 
doui)le forms — woe worth the dav! 



75 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY 




Vm 



SPRING SNOWFLAKE 

/.fiiidjuiii vrnittm. 

"" tiir (;n.,k, lr„k„s vvhili', 
HM(I /„;, ;, vii.ltl. 



Spring Snimijaki;. I.t:!.:>i,, 



76 



Ihilh Sm;ill. 

/■'■'nr-.. Strap shajH.l, six t.. 
nine inilits Um^, 

/j"f' -^^ix to twilv. inches 

l-lowers. Xoddinff. 

I'lriinill,. Six-parti-fl. 

-VwAv. Ovatf, whid. 
"il'jx'l with Knrn. 

J''"'"!'"' 'I'xl"-. \„ne. 
"loom II) May. 

l.ni,oj„m is a ^-nus ,,f 
liardy l)uil.(.iis plants, na- 
I'"vc's „f the- .Mi.(iiti.rranc-.;n 
ri'Kinn. The spfcifs chiVilv 
lultivatc-d in this country is 
the Spring Snowllako, Lauo- 
■>'">' '^■cnium. h has not the 
< haractfristic jrrace of the 
snowdroj). the stems being 
>liir(h-er, the arch (juite dif- 
ferent in character, and the 
perianth segments all simi- 
lar in size, lorm, and mark- 
ings. 

It hears at the tij) of each 
snowy {)ctal a si)ot of soft 
l>riglU green, exquisite and 
precise, "a snowlUike nith 
green of Jiving spring." 



TUBEROSE 



TUBEROSE 



Pul.iiiitliri tiihiriiui. 



(irci'k, fi'lidj uliili' iir lirilli.inl ■.:;tlli<>s lluwc r. 

Rontstiifk. TuIktous. 

Stem. 'I'wii tn thrri' I'lit hit;!! with ci^ilit tn Iwtlvc nclutcil Itiivcs; 
basic It'avi's six lu iiini' to a sttin, liiuar. 

/'iriiiiilli. Whiti', waxen in Uxture; tiilic Iciri;;, iiarmwly funnd- 
slia|).'(l, ciirvi'd. 

Sr^;mc lis. Short, iinf<|iial. 

Slitmr'is. Six insiTtcd on the iniilillc of llic liihc. 

Ch\iry. 'I"hri'c-ct.'lli'(l, inv at apix; stigmas ihnc. 

The 'I'lihtTDSf i> a llowrr tliat may ln' >ai(l '■> l.avi- r\|)iTii'n( fd 
in is many i haiij^es •"the >liiij,'> and arrn\\> of i>utra>irnii> fori- 
iino." • )n(i' liornc u|)iin tlic vrry cr-st of fa-liion, a»<Kialc(| 
with the camellia in the mo>t aristo- 
cratic period < f that llower's xnial 
reign, it has so fallen that there are 
few to do it honor, either in iioiise or 
garden. Two causes have contrib- 
uted to bring about this change in its 
siK'ial status: its heavy odor and its 
funereal associations. 'I'lien, too, gar- 
den ideals have changed, and the 
stitT, clumpy stalk laden with stiff, 
heavy blossoms, does not and cannot 
harmonize with the tousled l)eauties 
whose sway is now unijuestioned. .\s 
a matter of fad the double Tuberose 
never did harmonize witii any other 
llower; it never was anything but a 
lum]) of cloying sweetness. 

The Knglish name of the plant gives us an interesting example 
of the ease with which a word mav l)e turned from il^ real meaning 
and be made to e.xpress sometiiing (juite dilTerent. To most of 

77 




I uIhTii 



i'>'liiintlii\ (iilHrb>n 



AMARYLLIS FAMILY 

u> TuIht-m. .iim. ai, a|.|.rupriaf namr f..r a l,|u>s..m lul.ul.,- 
in furm. «|,u h ^ivrs f.,nl, a„ .nlnr ,l,at ,na> (..rha, > U-..,WuUn.\ 
rn^v Ilk.-. Hut nn-.lKT th. u.l..- ..ur il.r ,.\nr r.allv ha.l anuhinL' 
'•"'" ^^I'l' thr Miotiun of a nam.. Thr u,„.| ..rininallv wa, ... 
•"'."•"'^•■: u. I.TUM., m,a„i„^, IuIkt likr i„ nUmu', ,„ ,1„. 
thukmMl ruut.t,« k. Thr ,.Iant ua> ihc Tul-rnM I'nlianih.^ 
J'til in >n„„. way J'o/i.n„l„s was ,|ro|,|K-.| an.l tu Iht-..,,. iK.anu' 
luLcTuM, an.l Tul..Tus». i, wiM prul.al.ly runain. IJv anv ..Hut 
nariu' it ilnubllo-, would -null a> >\virt. 



78 



IKIDACi: H IKIS FAMILY 

I 111- i- a family ..f l)riiliani rol.irinK', • "n>i>(injr intirclv nf 

iwrninial IutI... T\w l.a\. , ari-c fr-.m Lull.., ( nrm>, ..r r 

-t.K k>; arv iiarmu fnr their icMK'lii. an. I rnful.! la. ii oiIut in tw. 
rank>, a- if aMridc; a pu^itiun kn..un tfdiniiaih a> fciuitant. 

'riu- lI,.\uT> arc iiMially ^li..wy. perfid, liilur ri'Kular or im'^u- 
lar. fa.li Mil.nn.jnl l.y tu,, |,ra.t>. 'I'Ik- thric |M'laIs an.l ihr.f 
l>rtal iikf M|,;,|, ;,rr mnvuhili' in ihr l)U.|; ilir tul.c a.lrati' t.. ilic 
liirir < illtd „\ary. The Mamen> are liiree, eitlur (li>tini I nr m..n..- 
(lrlf.ii..ii-, ailernate with the |K-ta!>; anthers extrorn-. Stvie 
Hi.^'le, UMially three-eleft. Stigmas three, (ir h\ l)y the parting' 
of the Myle-I.ranrhes. Capsule three eelie.!, manv >ee<! •(!. 

The garden repri-.entative> ..f the family are Iris (V.hus, 
'IVi'Iia. I\ia, (dadiuhi., UhuklKTry Lily, 'and reeentlv some 
fnrni> of iJlue-evcd (;ra». 



IRIS. FLEUR-DE-LIS 

//•/v. 

/ris, ihr rMinl..,v. ati, i.nliy a|.i.;i,-.| |,, ihi. j;cmis .,ti account <,f its 
lirij,'lii and \aiicc| ( ,>l.>r^. 

Alx.ut one hiin.lred and s^ventv spe( ie- of Fris are known 
to l.oianiM^^. Tlu^e are natives <i the .\(,rth 'IVmperate zone, in- 
hahiliti^' A>ia, liiirope, ati<l North Ameriia, -uith a few species in 
nortiiern Afriea. The Iri^s of Kurope are in the main hroad- 
Icaved species, which jjivo way in .vsia to man\ narrow leaved 
forms of wlii.h tlierc are rejircMntatives upon our Pacific slope. 
Spain and the Mediterranean rej,'ions of Africa are the home of 
the bulbou-- forms. 

79 



i l| 



nUS FAMILY 



or 



GERMAN IRIS 

Iris germdnica. 

of ThrrTi "' T^^t" '" "^"^ '^' ^'^''^ ''^ ^""'^"'^^ '» the- midrib 
o the reflexeci pcnanth segment. The (k-rman Irises „f ,he .anlc 

are not s.mply var.efes of Iris ,er,m„ica, hut hvi,ri.Js ..f various ^ 

panSed:'""'' ''"''''' "^ '^^^-'^-•' ''--•"« 'l.nvers. solitary 
Leaves. -Ascending, equitant, i>arallei-veined, sword-shaped 

lutTtX .ii! ^'^eS;r::;:: ""'^' '^'"^^ """^ ^ '"'>'■' — 

heardecio„themidirinnt™/"'''\ ""'"" 'iL^"^''"'^ '■^■"^'^"'. 
the (lower, always'n^^^.iS^tShKtS '""^"'^'"« ^"^ -"'- -^ 

obKi;nmh;;^'r;i;Stl^e;u: "S.^^ ^ -ter se,n,en,s; the 

petal-Iilce branches .,ft;St351;^Slo;,k!:;foC?lr^'^^ ''' ^^^^"^^'""«' 
Ovary. ~ ' • - 

three-celled 
which are I 

or pli>»e under the\')ark"d apex. ' — o—'- ="naee is a min lip 

Fruit. A cai)suk-, containing many shining seeds. 

The Iris has been called the ,,o,.r man's <,rchi,l; certainlv fe 
orch,ds have liner llowcrs than the best of the Iri.- , and in gnlo; 
and dignity the Iris plant far outranks the orchi.l ^ 

Ihe structure of an Iris llower is e.xtremdv puz.ling to an 
amateur because the parts are so grown together. Ovarv per 
anth and stye unite to transform the lower part of the bl.'.s om 
.nto a so t of s em, and the upper part of this stem sometimes be- 
comes ubt^ before it divides; sometimes the division takes ,l!::e 
drcctlj. The perianth divides into six segments of which the 

becoming bearded and many-veined, broad and rdcxed. The 

So 



orancnes ol the style and looking outward. -'"— -K, 

-At the base of the flower nroicrtcr? U^^ ti, i 

nder ,h,. „.,. !i '.' '''•• "''- ^"""^'^"'-- ^"'■l^'^^^' i^ a thin li„ 



w 



GERMAN IRIS 




German Iris. Iris gcrmauka 



\ A \\ 



M 






f 

i i 



i ■ 

i : 

r i 



TRIS FAMILY 

gardener calls these the falls. The three inner or netaloid se.^ 

Looking directly into the flower the observer fails at Hrst to 
d.scover e.ther p.stil or stamens; certainly the accustomed vel ow 
heart ,s wantmg. But pistil and stamens are both present th oZ 
one has taken an unusual form and the other s wcH , Z 
T e heart of the blossom which looks like three additional y^l 
.^> the enlarged and gh.rif.ed style, divided into three arms v hi^ 
se^^rate and curve outward. The stigmatic surface m 

am so ludden that one rarely sees or knows that it is there ll 
a t ,n edge under the divided crest and c.n be detected bvi 
sLghtly shmmg surface or by the pollen which mav ell l to 
adhere to U. From the b,se of each of the outer j.n^ h eg 
ment, nses a stamen with short filament and large anther usua Iv 
of the same color as the blossom, and closelv pfessed a^Iin 
overarchmg arm of the style. The pollen cdls open <.utward 

Th.s flower structure is admirably adapted for cross-fertiliz-x 
.on by bees. In the flrst place, abundant nectar is pour 1 U," 
from the mner surface of the lower part of the flower and th f e s 

arch of the style-arm, and must necessarilv sweep off on her back 
some of the pollen from the anther, which is pla ed in ex c Iv he 
r.^ pos,t.on for this result. The same bei upon enteSg ! 
other flower must necessarily leave some pollen on the stigmati: 
edge, wh,ch ,s placed so as to be most sure of sweeping it off' The 
arrangement .s remarkably perfect and one expects the rcJul 
^vh.cl, follows-all the Irises seed abundantlv 

-^^leu!^'^l ";'"' "' ''' ^'''^"" ^" i^"^^'>- g-den flowers 
^ar.ct,e.s, hybr.ds, sports-inlo whose composition have gone the 
•strams of a score of primitives. Probablv in the begin Jng/ 
,en.a„u;, was the basic plant, but it would be a wi!e Iris th 
.a .>w recogni.e her own children. Yet, since the Jl^^ 
n t b ": ;? ^"'1- """■■ ^"' ^'^^' ^'- ^'■•-^-e of the flower has 
0^v,ng to the great d.versity of origin the varietle. have great 

82 



SPANISH IRIS 

diversity of color, ranging from pure white through many hues 
of mauve, blue, purple, yellow, bronze, and claret. Many are 
most excjuisitcly veined and marked. 

The leaf is erect and without distinction of blade and jjctiole; 
the surfaces which stand right and left are alike. A careful ex- 
amination shows that what appears to be a flat leaf-blade is in 
fact a leaf-blade folded lengthwise. Toward the tip the folding is 
complete and the lateral halves are jjlended, but nearer the base 
they are still more or less distinct and a crevice is there left in which 
are clasped the flower stem and the base of the sword-like leaf 
above it on the opposite side. That which answers to the under 
side of other le cs is here the outside. The clusters of leaves at 
the ground are arranged in what is termed an equitant manner; 
er' h leaf by its folding sits astride the leaf just above it. 

■warf Garden Iris, Iris piimila, is a low species of the ger- 
manic type. The flowers are purple and violet and the entire 
{)lant not more than six inches high. Two native mountain 
species, both dwarf, are sometimes found in cultivation. Iris 
verna and Iris cristata. 



SPANISH mis 

Iris xlphium. 

Long cultivated; native to North Africa, Corsica, and south of 
France. The type is violet and purple; the principal varieties are 
Iris Itisilanica, in which the flowers are yellow, and Ir. sped'ahilis, in 
which the habit is more robust and the flowers darker yellow touched 
with brown. 



''^\ I 



Rootstock.—'RnXhous. 

Leaves.— Slender, half-round, deeply channelled. 

Mem.— One to two feet high; the spathc one or two flowered. 

Perianth-tiihe.—Wdintm^; outer segments with an orbicular blade 
al)out an inch broad, much shorter than the fiddle-shajjed haft, the 
whole two to two and a half inches long; inner segments oblong, clawed, 
a little more than half an inch broad. 

Stamens. — Three. 

Style-branches.— An inch or more long; crests large, quadrate. 

83 



3 





^W' 



^jjR 



.\'>V'~. 



^A7 



jjWTv 



IRIS FAMILY 



rarh ,„ June just as the l>lo,.m of the German Irises is wanin. 
U^ l.^u,y a„c hr,ilianey of ,.,e ,enus passes on t., another ,2 
garden Kroup known as the Spanish Iri.es. Their eolor ran:e i 
onnarveilou. heaut: : white, Mue, yellow, an.l brown in l,e. ^ 
mg con.h,nat.ons. Three forms are in general cultivation; the 

most eonmion that with nar- 
row falls spreading' laterallv; 
the Portu^'uese, fris Itisitan- 
!<(t, with relatively hroaci falls 
which rise slantingly; and 
the old form known as the 
Tlumderholt, fris sp,r/„l>ilis, 
of bronzy (lowers which aio 
larger in all their f)arts than 
the type. The gardeners say 
that these Irises need a full 
sup|)Iy of water in ordiT to 

T' •.,..., do well. The Knglish Irises 

/m «;„,„„,, „,„,,, , ,„^ ,|,^_^.^,, ^.^_|^ an,ru.ep , -J 

-f Knsland hey rcxlvccl ,hc- name- „f thcir foslcr-la,,,! ' Tl, • 




Spanish Iris, /r/t xiphium 



JAPANESE IRIS 

Ir!s l,n'ii;;it,i. Iris Ka-mferi. 

Native to eastern Siberia and Ja,,an. Long cuhivated by the 
Japanese in many varieties. June. ^ 

/?(w/. — Rhiz()mou.s. 

Leaves.- Th\n, sword-shaped, one to two feet high 
noS:'"'"" ^'^^" ^''^ '^^^-' "''-"-'^ -^^'-i, spathc two to three 



84 



JAPANESE IRIS 

Pfna«//i-/«ftf. —Funnel-shaped; outer segments three inches lonj; 
and three to five inches broad; inner segments narrowed and short. 

Slameits. Thrci; style-branches more tlian an inch long; crests 
large, deltoid. 




The flowering of the Japanese group in late June closes the Iris 
season, though sometimes it runs on into July. In general ap- 
])earance this grou|) differs greatly from other Irises. The leaver 
are bright and grass-like; the 
stems considerably overto|) 
the leaves and bear a single 
cluster of two or three flow- 
ers. The colors run mostly 
from white through violets 
and i)urples, though there 
are (jueer pinks and wonder- 
ful blue-grays; marvellous 
markings and veinings a])- 
l)ear in Iiewildering confu- 
sion. The fli iwers seem lightly 
jH)ised on their tall stems and 
the el'fect is in striking con- 
trast witli that of the (ierman 

Irises. In form the flower differs from the common type. The 
falls are wiile and flat, the standards narrow and >hort, and the 
result is that, to a certain ''xient, llie blossom beiomes salver- 
sha])ed. Double forms ap])ear, in place of tliree falls there are 
si.x, but this doubling seems not to lessen the grace of the flowir. 

Though ail the Ja|)anese Irises are referred to a single ])rinv- 
tive, Iris Ucvb^dta, it is evident that the type was broken long 
ago by the Oriental gardeners and that a new species may be 
said to have been cieated. Kxcellent e.xamjjles were sent to this 
country soon after the opening of the Japanese treatv ports, 
but they attracted little if any attention. The jHipulaiitv of these 
Irises dales from ver\- recent times, 'i hey are admirable garden 
plants, nut at all particular ai.'out -oil. I.'u! -honid have .a goiMJ 
deal of moisture in order to do well. 

S5 



A Vkw of Japanese Iris LtmkinK Down uixm the 
I-'lowtT 



IRIS FAMILY 



GLADIOLUS 

Ciliid'tdlu!. 
Chdiolus, La.in, a .laBgc-r; in allus,on ,„ ,ho shape ..f ,he leaves. 

naiists cnitll) of the Cape aiK tropical \friei- onlv r.-. • 

being known in Kurope and western La ' '"'" '^'""^ 

AW,?.— Cormous. 

/.r<;tr.?. Swonl-shaped or linear. 

I-hnvcrs Borne in a two-ranke,i .spike on a tall scape 

tu.lr3;::?a;;te,^;rl;^;;S: '--'-'-'^ --^^'- --"n-i; 

SUw,a,s. Three, in.serted on the [.erianth-tuhe 
J^'-^'"'^' "'^^^-^^"^^'= ^^'^ '''--<-'ik^ with three-parted 
r,;Av»/r. -Three-celled, containing many seeds. 

r.iadiolus as we kn.nv it to-day, is a triumph of the gardener's 

rt. Its forebears are the native (iiadioli that were brought into 

I'.urope from southern Afr' a about the middle of the eij emh 

century Some twelve diKerent species were at first unde cul i 

•-..n by the .elgian, Dutch, and French growers. A fort ^L 

.>s.ng of two si,ec,es, believed to be Gladiolus rardiualis and 

^'/"""/.v psataruu., by the gardener of the Duke of ^re iCg 

<-Iad,olus He famous house of X'an Houtte took up the plant 
and nnroduced ,t in X841 into the wider gardening uorld m 
mediately tne work of variation and hybridisation bega ; w 1 

great beauty and vr.l.ty. To-day, the number of varieties is 
leg.on though bovmicahy the genus is utterlv confused H^n^ 
ever, smce the gardener's ideal has been larg^ (lowers rich infl 
var.ed colors long full spikes, the structure of the bios om s'm 
l>een mater.ally interfered with. As the perianth segments ol 

muldk u,>per s.-gment. Wan them is the long stvle, but its stig- 

86 ■ ^ 



^^ry.ym^k^-,^..>J,i 



GLADIOLUS 




Gladiolus. Gladiolus 



i^^T^s'sns^ 



a 



IRIS FAMILY 

'"•"<>m .,f ,hc- tul.. is a full dr..,, of limpid n ■ n ' 

""n sMlk>. It |> udl to III! some of thf llow.T, fnVI.. f, II c 

i)t nad, then (|uici v cut Mic siilL., .,,,,1 . 
■^'KlUofthelitil..f,.| „ ■ I ''''"'"■'■ "'^•"' '" li'" 

::'7 »'""•■ ■'■'■ -' •>' .'.c- .-".^ ; !,:; , z^n 

« » a complce ,,.,,, „.,he.ma„„„ „h,n, a,„l l,„„. „, „,„,, dCsl 
"->, wra.r,, a„,l wranrfins ™„M .Iwdl i„ «, .,„„m,, " , " ' ' 

<ii<i ii..t .|u,.c r,( ,ih. c„,<i,„„„s „f ,i,„, ,,,„,„„./' ' 

T-i. 1- , ''"^ summtT morniri" 

ilie ordinarv coOr ran-'o indnrl.. .,11 ,1 1 



88 



SPRING CROCUS 



SPRING CROCUS 

< 'ri'x us. 
Crocus, llic aiuiiiil (la»iial name fi.r ^a'Tron. 

Well-known liarticiiltunil tirini]) of early hlooniin;,' ])l;inls; in tluir 
garden forms ehielly liyhrids. 

Crocus vi'niiis, native of .southern l',uro]>e, is the jiarent of many 
of the cultivated lilac and white varieties. Crocus hijlorus, also from 
.southern luirojje, produces the Krouji known as the Scotch ("rocus. 
Crocus wiisiiicus or nurius, ranninj; from Transylvania to .\sia Minor, 
is the i)rimitive of the ^'ellow Dutch ("rocus. Crocus susiiiiius, from 
Crimea, is the favorite yellow crocus known as the Cloth of (ioUl; it 
ai)|K'ars in variants and hylj'-ds. Crocus versicolor, from the mountains 
of .southern France, is tlu ])arent of the purplish-feather-veined crocu.ses 
so common in ^jardens. Crocus salnuis, from .\sia Minor, is the com- 
mon fall-l)looming species and the .source of the salTron of commerce. 
These are the parents of the common crocuses of the trade. 

Conn. Three-fourths to an inch in diameter. 

Leaves. — (Irass-like, rising; directly from the corm, in .some species 
two to four, in others four to ei^dit, forming' tufts or bundles; linear, 
edjjes usually rellexed and a central hand of white. 

Flowers. Showy, in many colors, ran<,'in!^ throujih purples, lilacs, 
and yellows, to while, often feather-veined and strijjed. 

/VWii»////. -Kunnel-shaped and erect, with a very !on>,' tube and si,\ 
nearly equal sej^nients. Spallie one-tlowerid. 

.Shimeiis. Three, inserted at the throat of the tube, shorter than the 
se,i,'ments; t'llaments thread-like; anlhers linear. 

Oviiry. Three-celled; style lonj,', thread-like; .style-branches entire 
at mari^'in, or fimbriated, or forked. 

Ciipsulc. —Three-celled, often more than an inch lonj;, si'eds many. 
The llaming crocus made the mountains glow. — Homkr. 

Our association of early spring with the Crocus and the datTo- 
dil is a memory ac(|uired in j^ardens; for neither is native to 
American soil. To us of the North, s])rin<^ comes in the soft, 
feathery, white bloom of the shad-bush, or the |)ale tints of the 
sturdy hepatica, or the blushing petals of the spring beauty. 

89 



IRIS FAMILY 



•" "• "•«■ (.r...k. wh.,s<. nn.n...s with natun- i, .,il| ,h. „,,rvcl of 
"f "an,.us an,| amarylii. Tlu, ... ,,(,„ >hou. •• H^ ? 

-"-K ..f hk. ...an. of . .,,,_M.H.a«., a„/j..;;::;^ 

•"ily «"i«l(i. Ilouirs that an. to 
I'lirn on iIr. tnrs and lloai on 
llu- ^lr^anl^ of |)ara(liM-." 

'nMcad of ;, Lull, lii-^, „,^. 
<'a<l'KliI the CnKiishas ;, soli,| 
"•rm. uhi.h i> a (lq,n.s>(.,| ;.,„| 
"'i<l<«nr(l Mem. Frnm this 
<.Tm arisr th.' Kra>.-hkr leaves 
I'l ii l.un.lle, thf outer series 
"ra|.|,inf,' the inner and ^ivin^ 
>i"li support loearh other tha't 
">'•> really do d„ty as a stem. 
'I'Ih- llowers and leaves arrive 
>■" I'll' upper u., rid to;;elheran(l 

I'ki- the snowdrop arise earlv in 
llu- year. 'I'lie llouer will open 
wliiii- the sn(A\ and frost are 
still supreme; its own little spot 
must |,e warm, it matters not 
fi"w much .old there is el>e- 
uhere. 

However much the (Vocu.es 
- are hyhridized, the c hanj^es 
*"me .hielly in .i^^e and eolor; 
'■'•''.'. ii.,if„f Enun-i\un ''^^' ^""ucture of the Dower, so 
Tlu. II • ^'"■' ''''^ not licen hrokm down 

. ;::^^:r:;:;rr•'''■'•'^''•^™•'■'-"'•■"^^■'" 
ai>arl ■md on- t i , "'^ Mi«mas l)en( 
!-ar. .md pre- down he.ueen .he anthers in sueh a wav that they 

90 




V rill II 



SPRIltO CROCUS 

(lust thomstlvi's with |)i)IIi-n. Thi- (tvary is hiildin away amonK tlu- 
hast's i)f the k-avt-s and nut until lonsidtralilf nmwili ha> takin 
l)huf is it l)r(>u)j;ht up alMivf-Kmiind \>\ the Icnutlunini; of ihr 
llt)wer >talk. Thi- {'nKiis Invars sinl in miil-umiriT, hut few 
pardon (HHUM-. ari' propaKatrd in thi> way; llif h'lV of thr plant 
passes on by way of the lorm rather than l.y the ><id. Ai the 
hase of each >hoot, arisinj^ from an old lorm, there will lie formed, 
after the llowerinj^ i)eri(Kl, a little eorm. and a> there arc- >everal 
leai-liundles there will lie an e(|ual nuniher of new i orms ilu> 
tered on the remains of the old one. '['he>e, of i our^-, are 
nearer the surface than wa> the parent. If undisturi'ed, the 
eorms of each suci eedinj,' year will he more crowded and le-.s 
(I-eply buried, until at la>t they lie close to>,'ether at the suifa<e. 
Thi> is the reason for the f,'ar(iener's advice to lift the corni-- 
every tvo or thr.-e years. 

The CrcKUs lends itself to a great variety of e(Tcrt> with it- rich 
purples and yellows, its delicate mauve> and whites. The llowcrs 
are Ijcautiful anywhere, hut espec ially upon the lawn in the ^'ra-s, 
because having only insignificant leaves of their own they look tiie 
l)etter for a background of green. 

The cultivation of Crorns s,ith;is is a very old industry. It> 
large orange stigmas contain a strong-scented volatile oil and a 
rich yellow dye. These stigmas and a portion of ihe stvie are 
gathc-red and dried and form the saffron of commerce. Five 
pounds of the fresh stigmas are said to yield one pound of the 
dried. SalTron was formerly of great rejiute in the mulirhi iiird- 
ini, and still enjoys that rej)Utation in Oriental countrio, but i> 
rarely prescribed elsewhere by the jirofessicm. The present >upply 
comes chiellv from Persia. 



91 



,. '.. .'1 I .•! 



i 



IRIS FAMILY 



IXIA 

l.xia. 

wiur lull ..I ilu' riKhl.rtilli nrilurv 'Ili.v I, ar |,,.,.n . r , I i • 

'■"•"■" '•>""■ """"-• -m..v ,i,., ::':,;,;': :;::;:,;;:: ■ 

Kootsloik. \ rorm. 

■V/rw. V nl.raiiilicl. 

/.finrs. Ij'ntar. 

«m.T.. Salvrr ,lu|,nl. I,„„„. i„ ,,,ii,, 

^:::T''l '" ;"■ ",'"■ -'"■ ■■ • -""■ >-■ --■■""•- 

■^I'lmois. Ihric, iiiMTtid III tlKihn.at 
cuiuTsli^nur'"""' '" ' "'"'"''"^^ ^'>'^' -"' "-. ^■'■".i-, ro. 
Tlu. Ixias are a hor.iVuIu.ral ,n.t,p of carly-MoomlnK hulbou. 

- alop as to |,u. parnua,. <.f ,,u. nuny vaLi.. .hows H ar 

;ri>f llowcT. arc. l,onu. in spikes an<l oxhil.i, an c-va,..ion.liv 
-K^ ranKc of n.,or: wlm. vari..! ydlow. oran,/ f n 
P;nk.nn,son,van.ipur,U..n,,.yre.,.pal.,.,„,a:;.;'^ 
Hk- .lowers are uiiu.r of .olMn.Ior or api.ar with an.,: 

TIGRIDIA. TIGER FLOWER 

Tiqrhli.i f>,i:;)iii,t. 

Ti,ri,n,u .iKor-lik..; n.^-rn,,, ,„ „„. ..ailiarly n,arkH n„u.rs. 

A summcT-hloomin. hull,; r,r.., son fn.m M.xi,., „. Spain l,v IKt 

:;;ti 15::; •::;::'■'"'•' ^'-"^-""-" --"-.-"- 

tVm. -Ovoid, an inch an<l a half in .liamcKr 
/.e<;:w.-Lanceuiatc.. about a fo„t hi^h ,,„| ,„ i„^.,. ^^. j^, 

92 






■j^ ./ »T i.':-d\ 



WPBW? 



IXIA 










Ixia. Ixia 










\.y'. 


^^^^^ 




:' ,^> 'A. '^-cSii, 



I i i\ 



Wm^.^f 



IRIS FAMILY 

Sa.pr. Cyli.ulrical, liearing two .,r more rtowcrs at tin- summit 
Hmcrrs Al.cut f.,ur inches across, Imrnc fn.ni a !<.!,« si.ati.c 

ui at tl c base, sprca.l.nK at the top. Outer sennients ..iKHat I rm 
Wintly colore,! an< s,,oi,e.l; inner segments ri-lHic'shape,! sn aTl .'r fan 
the outer, also hriUianiiv colored and spotle<l 

.•hS3osJlE,;l:r '''^"^^"'^ """^" '"'" '^ '"'"K ^y'i'Klncal tube 
0-cV,.y. Three-celle<l; style lonj;, with three two-parted branches. 
7Va'/-/V/./ A/7..,//., has been in cultivation in the gardens „f 

l-.urope fur more ihan three hundred years. It is one of the ten- 
der bulbous i)lants 
of Me.xico which in 
order to flourish at 
the North recpiire 
the same treatment 
that we jrive to gladi- 




oius. Although a 



most unique and in- 
teresting j)iant, it 
cannot compare with 
gladiolus either in 
i)eauty or efTectivc- 
ne.ss, for its (lowers 
are both solitary and 
fugitive. The color 
range of this fantas- 
tic (lower is .s])lendid, 
reaching the e.xtrcme 
hues of red, orange, 
and yellow in combi- 
,r . ,, .. , , nations .so barbaric 

that the tiger and the peacock may well stand .sponsors for its 
name. A child of the tropics, i, rejoices and thrives under the 
neat ol our summer sun. 

In the genus there are some eight or ten species whose habitat 
ranges from Me.xico to Peru and Chili; only one is found within 

94 



Tigri.lia. TifiriJia pavbnia 



BLACKBERRY LILY 

the limits of ilu- rnitcd Stati'-. Tr^ridii poroni'i witli ii- hy- 
i)ri(ls and variants i> tin.' >|)crii'> (nmmoiilv ( iiliivatrd. Desti- 
tute of fraj^raiue, it> value lies in iir inai-vellou> coloriiij,'. 

BLACKB TRV LILY 



l'>(!l!lll(':ill<l(l iliiiuiis: 



■r<!,i 



Th 



OIllV SIiCl'U-S 111 



and meadows. 



th. 
\at 



i,'vnus 



^ '^'^ apt. • 1 



ianli'its to road 



Uive o 



I (• 



ja,., 



line, 



uiv. 



Kodlslork. .\ sliort, stoionircrous rhi/,onn'. 

Sinn. -Tiiree to four feet lii,i,'h, crcet, leafy. 

Lctiirs. K<iuitant, ei,!.;ht to ei,i,'hteen inclus Icm^', alxmt one iiieli 



broad. 



I-'lo-urrs. In loose terminal eorvml 



and i)uri 



T' • three .sc 



i; oraiiLTc, dotle<l wiiii crimson 



lorif^tT liian the three petaloid 



jialoid sejini. tils of the perianth a trillc 



Sliinir 



'Three: sivle slender: sti 



ma thri'e-lohed. 

Cdpsitlc. -More than an inc h loni;; the 
three valves are ri'llcxcd and tlie blaek 
shinin,!,' .seeds clinj< to the central pla- 
centa in a way to sui;^'e.st a blackljerry. 

One meets the HIackherrv I,iiv hv 
the roadside; rarely is it found 
within the garden ,<,'ate. Tlure are 
two reasons for this: the foiiai^e 
th(mj,'h of the iris ty|)e adds nolliin;^' 
to the foliage effect of the garden, 
and the blossom though api);irently 
a lily is a small lily, not more than 
two and a half inches across. These 
blossoms last but for a dav; not 
more than two or three are in bloom 
at one time on a single stem. The 

color 's striking, orange dotted with red, darker in elTect though 
of the same type as the tiger-lily. Hut the petals never achieve 
the curve which makes the tiger-lily so attractive; the llower is 

95 




Fruit of till' lilaikhirry Lily 



QW 



■M 



^•,'^> 



IRIS FAMILY 



, .•-tit' 



alw|.y. a lla.. six-,.ointc.i star. . „. ,-.,n.m..n name ,. ..,....,.1 

i.i,' lall> awav. tlu- round 

^^■t'«ls<lm,irfaM.oilK.,olumn and f„rm 
a clever imitation o|" 
Ijluckijcrry. 



The 

., , , ■ ' ..."rf,'ed ,iMi 

through the ovary, the outside covering' 
)lael< 




ii ri|.e and lu.-eious 

MONTBRETIA 

Mo„thrllia. Trilimi,, (rocosmu lUna. 

Tritonia fmm Tri.„M, a van,., alh„lin.< t,. 
'1.' varial.l,- ,lir.rli,ms ,,f ,1,,. .u^.^-Z i,, 

'lllflTl'lU Sjiccifs. 

AW/.- ]}ulb()ii,s. 

/-r.nr.v. Tall, still, narrow, alnuulant 

/•Wr.^ - In spike.like racemes, oran,...sear!..t 
/'m<;;////— Lily like, six-cleft. 

Thi.s famih-ar Montl.retia is a hvl-rid of 

two South Afriean species an.l is R.^Mrded 

as the best of tiie garden forms. It i. a 

111. , ,• , , , '''"'*'-■' ^"'""i^'r-tloNven-n.^ ,,ull,. to he treated 

ke glad,olus, a though it is said that it n.ay I. ,,ft .,,„,,, ^ 

for the wmter, if given some protection. 



AJonlhrotiii. Trithnia 
crocosmcrjibra 



96 



SCITAMINACE/E-BANANA FAMILY 



CANNA. INDIAN SHOT 

( '(/;;;/,( liyhrida. 

XaiiH- <,f OriViital origin an. I ,.f im a|ipli( alion, so far as known. 

A stout, iinl)ranclud, larKc-lcavnl, tropical plant, witli brilliant 
ornanuntal tlowcrs and showy foliaj,'!.'. Ot' ;,'ar(icn orij^'ii. 

Slem.-VAXQi, simple, three to five feet hi^li. 
Lciivis.- Lar<,'e, oMon^', acute. 

rhnirrs. I'lxtremely irregular, lar^e, i,rilliant red, yellow, „r parti- 
colored, i)orne in a lerniinal raceme or panicle. 

(W.vv ^Of three ol,l,,n-, pointed sepals, normally },'reen, hut in 
the lu^hly jjred yarielies takinj,' on the color of the corolla. 

Corolla- 0[ three narrow, i)ointed petals more or less rolled into 
a lul)e. 

.S7,;;«f;,,s-.- Represented hy t rent jietals, five; two or three of 

ulmh are much len-lhened ai. ened; another is narrowed and 

detlexed and forms the lif) of tlu i . ,-, and one, more or less coiled or 
rolled ujion itsell, hears the solitary one-celled anther, clinmnL' rather 
])recari()usly at one e(lf,'e. 

Ch',;rv.- At the yery hase, small, j^'recn, covered with minute tuber- 
cles, three-celled, contamin^' many ovules. Style is lonj;, llattened 
color of flower; the sti-matic surface extending aijout a (luarter of an' 

Capsule. — Lar^'e, three-celled, many-seeded. 

Caiinas arc favorites largely because they give such freiierotis 
return for the care expended upon them. The higher kinds tiuiVkly 
make a leafy hedge, the lower will give a brilliant bed of color, 
and both will do the thing expected of them in a comparatiyely 
brief peri(K!. Peo])Ie ordinarily depend upon the nearest llorist 
for their Cannas, and these come to hand well started in little pots; 
but the roots can be kept over winter as easily as those of the 

97 



m 



warn 



^bv^^'.-A^ 



BANANA FAMILY 

•'\^';'''^'' ^'"'i ^' plantation once estal.Hslu.I ,ur.| no, I,. lo„ Ff on. 
w^ic. ,o make cxpcrinu-n.s, i, is ,u.a.>arv onh ,o ... „,. " 
and the ..eedhn-s may l,e won.lers. ' 

The l.lossom is marvellously irregular. W. an. ae. uMome.l to 
'l"uMe Holers like ,he rose and the wa.er-lily. ^^. ^i^lZ 

ni'w and then in a llouer the 
forolla disap|.ears and the 
talyx comes forth, l.rave in 
seeminj; and loveK of ,,,!,, r, 
as in the lark-|(iir>; Inil we 
are not (luite prepared to 
have the lilamenis of the 
stamens broaden into aj)par- 
t-'iit l)etals and jiroduee the 
l^'auty and the jrl„ry of the 
(lower, and yet thi- is pre- 
cisely what the ("anna does. 
The history of the j^'arden 
race is well known and few 
llowers have shown more re- 
markable develoj)ment in 
•"^''•■'"t vears. At the orrsi.nt 
- the Cro.y Cannas. so named from Cro.v. C^ 

ranee who mtrodue., t,^^^ 
lopular. rh,s type ,s often ealled the French Dwarf, or the 
Howenng Canna, an,i is marked by a comparativelv h.w . " 
ue and very large and showy .lowers in manv coh.s; whereas 
he Cannas of a few years ago were very tall plants, with sm 
tc, dull-red, narrow dowers, and were grown exclusivelv f . 
Hnr fohage effects. JIow has this transformation come a lou '^ 
In lie .,rst place, it should be said that there are man^• sp c 1' 
and ^.out half a do^en of these were well known to ga ^^i 
n .800 About t8,o they began to attract much atten 
rom culfvators, and the original species were soon vari 
hynd.ecl Crossed seeds and seeds from the ^u...J :^. 
erat.ons ot hybrids intr.Kiuced a host of new and variable forms 

98 




Oinna. Chimi hyhruhi 



jallnl s.aminrKha , /,, j.s ,|„. ^um\n..Vu that 
Wms.lu- hpnf,h..,1„w..r; /, is ,l„. an 
.linKm« .0 ,lu. si,k. „f ,1„. r,f,h Manun,,,!,: 
<•. IS Ihc sul,. : rrr, ihciKtals, ,v, lIu.aKx' 



^lii 



Si? 



u:i.'r.., \: :■'. m 



I ■•v\ 



Hi 



CANNA 



Thr rir>t (li>iinrt fa-Iiinn nrnis tn Iiaw \>vvn for tall, latc- 
llnwiTinj,' forms. In i,S4S. .Xniu'c, a nihivator in rraiuc. -owed 
scT(l>^ of C<iiiihi .\r/),iln!.si.s, a tall Imlian -jKiic-, and tluTt.' 
sprani; ii|) a race of i>laiit- which haw >iiuf Ik'iii known a> Ciiuiiu 
Aniiifi. It is proltalilf that thi- Ciiiii,! Xcpalciisi:^ had laidm- 
fertilized with other s]ie(ie> L^rowinj; in .\niue'> lolleition, very 
likely with C'liiimi i^It'iuci, from tro|)i(al .\nuTiia. .\t any rate, 
this race of ("annas became i>oi)iilar and svas to it> time what the 
Flench I)warf> are to the |)re:.ent day. The |.lant> were freelv 
intHKliiced into parks, he^inning ahoiit iS^d, Juit tiieir u>e be.nan to 
wane l.y 1S70, or before. l)eMendant> of this type varioudv 
crossed and nKMlified are now fre(iuentl\ seen in ])arks and ).;ar- 
dens. 

The l)ef,'innin},n>f the modern race of dwarf, lari,'e-llowcred jilants 
was in iSO;;, when one of the smaller-llowered Costa Rican 
s|)ecies, i'liiDui \\ ,irs(f:,'i, :ii. wascro-.-ed u|)on a lari,'e-tlowere(l 
I'eruvian -pecies. (',/;/;/,/ iriili/loni. The offsprinLr of iiij^ imion 
came to he called Caini,! Elunuhnn. This Inhrid ha> been 
aj,'ain variously crossed with other s|)ecies and nioditied bv culti- 
vation and selection, until the ])resent com[)o-ite t\pe i- the re- 
sult. .Seeds jjive new varietio; and any scrdlini,' which is worth 
savinj; is thereafter multiplied by divi-ion of the root and the re- 
sulting plants are introduc-ed to commerce. 

Since new forms are so ea>ily obtained, it i> not surpri>in.<,' 
that our <,'real llorisls so frecjuently place new \arieties u|)on the 
market. Jiut the cliarac teri.-tic > of the race are well fixed and the 
plants fall into certain detinilc j,M-oup> rej,'ardless of hi,<,di->ound- 
ing names. In habit they are either -tandard or dwarf; the foliaj^e 
is either green or bronze; the llowers are self-colored, siM.tted, 
blciichcd, or edged, all brilliant and all beautiful. 



H 



C9 






... . ■ ,-_—— ,— n— ^— ^ . - ^ - —- -3 



-tF;:: 



ORGHIDACF^ ORCHIS FAMILY 

Ordiuhura- ar. a .mt,,, .,f perennial ,,lant> ., ..pKanizcI as to 
Ix- abs.,lutdy lependenl upon inserts for fertilization. Failin.^ 
of .nseet iielp .hey eannot mature see.ls. The flowers are alwavs 
■ rrcguiar and often fantastic in >hape, on the phu, of tl,ree The 
I.onanth has three sepaioid divisions uimh are outer and three 
petal.Hd segments whieh are inner. One of the inner set differs 
more or ess m form from the others an.l i> calle,! ti>e hp. This 
l.|' .s really the upper petal. In,. In a twi>t of the ovarv it is c-m'- 
•'"'"ly 'lim.ed fnrwanl and .lownwanl. liefore thJ lip is the 
column .ompo.e,l of one stamen, or of tu,, stamens and a ru.li- 
ninu of a , bird, variously l.nrne on the Myle, or thick, lleshv 
st.gma. I he fruit is a one-celle.l, three-valved capsule f.lled 
wall mnumcrable minute .seeds appear, ng like fme sawdust 



^' 




CYPRIPEDIUM. LADY'S SLIPPER 

(-'ypi-ilndiiim. 
Cyfripcdiitin, thr .^lipinT <if Venus. 
Roo/.~Of many tufted fibres. 
^^; 's 'n • "'"'>:"^7''' ^""' !''-'«'. ^h-thing at the base. 

in« .^. .a,., sac,,. .■>^.:':^^J^;^;^:^j;^:-^z:;^ 

.^^5//^;«</. Terminal, broad, ob.scurely three-lubed, moist and rough- 



P«//cw.-Visci(!, adhering t<j whatever touches it. 



>/ a!f*Nrt •• .:' JKEii. r'rt • ^ei 



LADY'S SLIPPER 




Lady's Slipjjcr. Cypripcdium 



t <1 




i^'.: 'Ui^-'^--- 



ORCHIS FAMILY 

Six s,,on\.> of (•y,,ri,.,.,|ium ar. f,.,„ul wi,hi„ n„r nnrtlu-rn 

S..1I; an. oiu-n ...un.l In l„w. „,..., ,,. Tlu. .liin.ui. i,.: 

^lKmuUenstK-.,ulwn.kc.,lu.nM..n..ahk.i.nK.su.h^ 

""• ;' '" ':';''^ '^ •ran>l..rnu..l. TIk- ...Iut ,w,. pcal. |„..k like- 

>crur. IlKT.. arc. ,u„ .,Hri... ,hat uill ,|n wdl in th. .anl.n 
very l,cam,ful yellow l,lo..om upon a downv, l.afs Mom 



URTFCACR/K NRTTLH FAMILY 

COMMON HOP 

numuius lupidus. 

Hiiuuilus, a lalf Lalin name nf 'IVutonic origin. 

A perennial, twining; vine, native to luirope and North America, 
lonj; eultivated for the hops, whieh are used in the lirewin^ of beer. 
Native to river i)anks and thickets at tile nortli. 

.SVfw,?,- Crowipi,' twenty-tlve to tliirly t"eet lonj,' in a sinjjle season; 
rough, hairy. 

I.finrs. ()pi»>site; ovate or ori)icul;ir-ov.;ie in general outline, pal- 
mately three-lohed, sometimes mori', or the ui)|)er leaves not lohed; 
margins strongly dentate; |)elioles long. 

/•7('-u;'(T.?.--r)i(i'cious; staminate flowers with five erect stamen.s, and 
a five-parted calyx, in little, drooping, tassel-like racemes; pistillate 
(lowers with an entire perianth closely investing the ovarv, which hears 
two long stigmas. The llowers are in jiairs under large overlapjiing 
hracts, these making a conedike catkin. 

/•>»//. Is the enlarged and mature pistillate catkin, ohlong or 
(ivoid, loose and papery; straw- . How; often two inches or more long, 
glandular and fragrant. Seed is really an akene. 

Tile Wild Hoj) is found trailing and climbing over the bushes 
and in the thickets of river banks at the north liiroiighoul three 
continiiUs. 

The fruit is a beautiful straw-yellow sort of catkin, called hop, 
abundantly si)rinkle(l witli yellow resinous grains which give it 
the bitterness and aroma that make it valuable in the manufact- 
ure of l)eer. 

Pliny mentions tliis as one of the garden i)lants of the Romans, 
who, it apjKars, ate the young shoots as we eat asparagus. It is 
said this is still done in some parts of England. 

103 






IT 



^ 



IWf 



KTT 



NETTLE FAMILY 

Tin- Hnp i> (..sinti;illy a lul.l ,.|anl; yet it has a real value as a 
n.viT vim-. lK-.au:,c nf its .asy . uitivatiun. luxuriant -muth, an-l 
abundant foliani-; and in SfptcmlHT llu- ^rrat dnM,,,i^,;r Ih„k|k,s 
r^ — . .A "' '"'"'"■i' (alkin> inv very jjrati'ful 

and attrattivi'. 

Japanese IIoii, Iluiinilns hi/xhi- 
ii'is, the s|Hrit> ofleni-.! found iii 
gardens, catne to us in iSS<, .i:id 
at once ac liieved a jK.pularity that 
it lias never lost. The leaves are 
usually livedohed and oftiii >treaked 
an<l s|,la>hed with white. It is 
tasy of cultivation , \-> a (juiek 
grower, and will make >,'oo<| vines 
from seed >own in the sprin-; hut in auiuinn it lacks the charm 
of the hanginK I'-j.s of //,n,n,/:Ls l„pnl„s, for its pistillate catkins 
do not enlarj^e in fruit. 




iliimutu^ jiifonii ii\ 



104 



ARISTOI.OCniA(:p:.K hikthwokt famiia 

PIPE VINE. DUTCHMAN'S PIPE 

.\rist:ilii,hi,i iiiiiirn/iliy!/,i. .[ ri',1, i/i'n liiii s'if'lhi. 

Aristi'l. II liiii i^ llu' am irril iiainc; sup|Ki~i-i| Im nfcr Im nu'liciiuil 
|ini|iirlir-;. 

A piTcnni.il, ilimliitit:, wui.dy 
vine, fmiiid in rii li woods ironi 
Pennsylvania lu MinnrsoUi and 
south to ("n'orj^ia ami Kansas; 
iiiltivatcd as a trellis and |ior(li 
(■o\tr. May, June. 

StiDi. '{"winini,', nearly j^la 
lirous. 

I.i-iivrs. Alter ti;! le. liriulu 
j;ri'en, lari;e, heart sliaped, or 
re' " ', margin entire, apex 

h'lou'i'rs. Solitary on lonj^ 
I)eduiules, brownish. 

C'lilyx. An inllated, curved, 
vellow ish-i;reen, veinv tube, I'U- I'iin- \ im, \n i,.l,i.lii,i mair,:^liyU,i 
larj^ed above the ovary, con- 

tracte<l at the throat; the llat border brownish |)ur|)le and obseurely 
lhrce-lol)ed. 

Ciirolla. Wantinij. 

S/iiiiiciis. Six anthers and no filaments, in united pairs undir the 
three lol)es of the short, thick sti^mia. 

/•>//(/.— A many-seeded, six lobed capsule. 

This is one of our best liardy ciinihinfi vines for screen or shade, 
as its <;reat leaves overlaj) each other and (jtiickly tortn a leafy 
wall. In rich s(.il alonj; the .Vllej^hany Mountains and on the 




BIRTHWORT FAMILY 

ranK.. fartluT ..uih it , IinK> ... llu- irr.s an.l lurm. .I.n^- maws 
ot fuliaK,': ihr |(avf> M.mrlimcs m..rc llu.n a f....! a. n.~.. 

'rii.- l.lu,M,m> arc hnriu- u„ ,hc n|,| u.„„|. u,i,a||,. ^..li,.,^^ ,„„ 
-.mri.nu.. luo or thrir m^.tlur ,.n 1..,,^. ^I.m.I.t |.ti.,l.~ Th.ir 
'"I'-r 1^ l.rn.|uo..l l.v .ninihcrU-. liiu, l.n.uni.h |n,r|.lr .|,„. 
;'"'l n.lK.- u|.nn a Iku kKn.iin.l ..f .|ul| ..rannc Tl.f i1..wlt i\ 
n..l iK'aiinfiil, |„ii niri.m^ and intiriMiii),'. 

1 Ik' Knui> Aristohuhh, j, a larKi' .-nc, th.,ii^'li ilurr arc hut U^^^ 
s|Hv.cs native uithin tlu' iimii> ,,f xh,- Vn\wA Statt>. .\> a ul,.,|f 
the Knni> is. Iiara* trri/..! I.y ^uM->^^w ll,.wrrs uiil, nflVn^ivr ...|nr 
though tlu- Dm. lM,.an-s I'i,... ,i,„., „„t oiTn„| i,, ,1,1. ri-.u. t 



io6 



POI.'^GONACF.K in CKWHHAT FAMILY 

Hcrl)^ witli allcrnatf tniirc leaver, and >li|>ulr- in ilic fnrin <>l 
slifiilli-> alH.vi' llir swollen jnini- uf ilu' >ti'ni. Tlu' llowtr^ arr 
iTioMlv iHTt'iMl, uilli a miirr "V U-- |ur-i^tinl calsx. 'I"ln' lalyx 
ts lliriT In -i\ ilfl't; (iirnlla aliM-nl; Maiiun^ fmir In Iwilvr in 
siTU'il on llu- l)aM' of llu- raly\; ovary oiu'-itllrd and la'arin^ U\o 
or lliriT >l\lr>or >li^ma^. 'I'lir fruit usually an akcnr, i oniiirr--rd, 
an),'lfd, or \vinn»'d. 

'I'lu' familv include- llu- Hut kwlual of comnHn c, llir familiar 
Rluil)arli, llir Mu>hy I'oly^oiunn-, and ilir I'rinii'.^ IVatluT of llu- 
j^ardon. Io!,'i'|1ht willi >undr\ ami divor^ well (.■Mal)li>lK(l \vi'rd>, 
aninn^' lluin llie Doik- and llu- SniarlwirtN. 

BUSHY POLYGONUM 

Piilvf;iiin(in Siihuldi. l'"lyi;^'iiitiii iiispiil.'iliim. 

An ixalkiU nprcMiilativc ol' llu- |iiiiniiial, l)U>liy, liiiili-^;r()\vin^ 
I)()lynoiuims; ilTcctivc fur Ixijd clTi-ils and doirahU- for ilu' tlowtrinu 
mass it jiroduas in autumn. Xjipiurs in several liyhrids. Japan. 

Polvi^iiHiim siiiliiiliiinisr is a similar plant; more roliust and likely 
to become a pest from its jKiwer to .spread. .\Un from Japan. 

Slew. Slo\it, handsome, l.u>hy, three to five feel high: .lying to the 
ground in winter. 

f.fiizrs. Short -oval to l)road-ovate, irunuile or slightly (urdate at 
ha.se, abruptly pointed, the strong side veinlels uniting in marginal 
l(M)ps. Sheaths >hort and tiaring, deciduous. 

Flimrrs. Small, whitish in ly|)e, very numerous in .slen(ler-|aiiicled 
racemes in the a.xils of the leaves. 

Ciilyx. White, four to five cleft. 

CorolUi. Wanting. 

Sliimnts. I'.ight. 

Oiiirv. I )ne-celled; style three-parted ami fruit a triaiiguiai akeHiv 
surrounded by the white calyx. 

107 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 



The ]hi>hy Polygonum is intcrosting in that it plavs the game 
of now you see it and now you do not. We e.\i)e(t that, of course, 
in the case of ordinary herbaceous jK-rennials, i)ut this Polygonum 

so perfectly counterfeits 
a bush that it is a dis- 
tinct surjjrise to discover 
in the spring that it is not 
a hush, liut the place 
that knew it knows it 
again, for the root sys- 
tem is vigorous,the. strong 
stems rise in numbers, 
curve gracefully out- 
warfI,andinashort time 
the plant assumes the 
poise and character of 
a well-grown bush. 

In late August or 

early September, from 

the axils of the leaves 

on the upper half of the 

stem appear ])anicled 

racemes of small flowers 

which transform the bushy top into a cloudy mass of white or i)ink 

wiiich lasts until snow flies. Then flower' and stem die together 

and the bush disappears only to be renewed the coming year. 

The flower holds its color because tlie color resides in "the calyx, 
and the calyx persists in order to jjrotect the fruit. 

Polygonum sachalhiensc, very much like Sicboldi. i)ut larger 
and more vigorous, has been rather generally distributed but has 
proved itself too much of a weed; indeed, one should think twice, 
possibly thrice, before i)lanting any Uushy Polygonum witliin 
the garden enclosure. 

A twining woody Polygonum, Polygonum baldschudn'uum, is 
recommended as an interesting and showy climber which blooms 
profusely in late summer. 

io8 




Bushy Polygonum. Polygonum cuspidalum 



PRINCE'S FEATHER 



PRINCE'S FEATHER 

Polyqdiium orieiiliile. 

Poly^imum, Circck fi)r many-kncc(l: from tht- swollen joinls of the 
stt-m. 

A tall-growinn, l)ranthinn annual, perhaps ihc best garden re|)re- 
sentative of the jx)!yt;t)nums. S])aringiy escaped into waste grounds; 
native to India. Summer. 

Stem. — Three to four feet high, hairy, liranehing above, bearing 
long, slender, nodding spikes of bright rose-pink llowers. 

AdJT'c.v. -.Mternate, large, ovate, or oblong, entire, i)ointed, dis- 
tinctly ])etioled; with .sti|)u!es in the 
form of sheaths above the swollen 
joints of the stem 

Flowers. Rose-])ink or flesh-color, 
in close cylindrical spikes arranged in 
()])en panicles. 

Calyx. — Deep-rose, four to five 
parted, [)ersi.stent. 

Corolla. — Wanting. 

Stamens. — Seven, exserted. 

(h\iry. — Flat, one-celled; style two- 
cleft. 

I'riiil. .\ lenticular shining akene, 
surrounded by the rose-colored calyx. 

The Polygonums, known chietly 
by two weeds — the Knot-Grass and 
the Smartweed — have few repre- 
sentatives in the garden. The one rrinn's riatiur. Vninonum orUntaU 
to which least exception can be 

made is Prince's I-"eather, an inmate of old-time gardens and 
often self-sown in the nev t)ut rarely ])lante(l there. It is of 
the same type as our native species, particularly Polygonum 
pennsylvdnicum, but taller, with rosier tlowers in longer sj)ikes. 
There arc so many Ijctter flowers, it does not seem worth 
while to give garden space to so incflectivc a {)lant, as it neither 

109 




u i 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 

masses well nor has i, inclivkiual dignity, for however graceful 
a smgle n.Kld.ng spike may he, it is dis.inc.lv at a difad'an 
lagc in any garden grouping. ' "'^aa\an- 



BUCKWHEAT 

fagopyniiii cscutriitiim. 
Fas„pyru,„ no.cs ,.,. n.sc.hlan.. of .h. ,rain ,., .he l.cechnu,. 

hotvIrk'in7l''' 'v "• '''"^'- ''"''"'"^'^ ^ ''-"-"-'V fragrant 

.SVrw.^ Krcct, hranchinj;, slij-hth hairv 

^hii^or al^SkM "S'^L,!:"^ r 'r''"'- '"^""'"« *" f'^"'-"- 
apcx acute or acuminlte ^ '"""'''' "^"''^'"^ ■'^''^htly rulllnl, 

A//r(7///.y. Semi-cylindrical. 

I-l<mrrs.' White, in corym- 
bose panicles, terminal and 
axillary. 

r<;/v.v.---rivc white, pttal- 
like supaLs, closing; v\ lien still 
white around the trianL'uiar 
akene. 

Con;//,;. Wanting,'. 

Stamens. VA^hx, inserted at 
the ha.se of the calyx and 
alternatnif,' with as 'many 
small honey glands. 

Ovary. - Triangular, with 
three stigmas. 

Fruit. ~~.\ triangular akene 
white until full-grown. 

The Buckwheat field is an elysium for bees. Kach little white 
Z^ '^.ssom has a honey heart, as the bees well kn w,^^ 
bac ku heat honey ,s always part of the hive's resources 

Soon after the dower opens, the ovarv develops inio a great 
wh.e, tnangular, baby akene, which grows plum, and still 'a" 
whtte, embraced by the white arms of the calyx.' Finals :i^ 

no 




liuckuhiMt. Fagopfrum escul.-nlum 



BUCKWHEAT FAMILY 

the seed l)CRins to mature, the calyx Ijrowns and the stems take 
on a strain of crimson and scarlet. When the seed is fully n\)e 
it contains an excellent farina which is a suhstitute for that of 
cereals. lUickwheat is one of the farmer's late crops; it will 
grow in poor soils, requires little care, and riiK'ns (juickly. 



PIE-PLANT. RHUBARB 

Rheum rliiifxinlicum. 

Rlui, the Greek name fo:- the spec ies, was the ancient name of the 
X'lil^a River; the first rei orded s])ecimens(.f the |)lant were pnn ured 
from the hanks of the Xolga. 

A strong i)erennial with thick, clustered roots, urown verv j^'cnerally 
thr()u;,'h()ut the United Stales for the succulent, aciil i)eti()!es of the 
radical leaves which arc used in early sprinj,' for pies and sauces. Native 
to northern and western .Asia. Several garden varieties are in culti- 
vation. .May, June. 

/^()()/. -Tuherous, large, reddish -brown. 

I'lowcritiii ,s/fw.- Three to five feet high, hollow, hearing large, termi- 
nal, racemose flower panicles which burst out from large white bracts; 
each leaf has a stipular sheath. 

Radical leaves. \'ery large, cordate-ovate, undulate or entire, acute 
at a])cx, glabrous and .shining above, pubescent on the veins beneath, 
twelve to twenty-four inches long. 

Petioles. -Four to ten inches long, large, semi-cvlindric, fleshv, loaded 
with a pleasant acid juice. 

Flowers. -Small, whitish, borne in tall, leafv, den.selv flowered pani- 
cles; the pedicles jointed below the middle. 

Perianth. Six-parted, greenish with white margins, spreading. 

Stamens. Six or nine. 

Ovary. Three-angled and bearing three styles. 

Fruit. .\n akene, with three-winged angles. 

De Candolle named our Pie-plant the Rhubarh-from-l'ontus; 
its native land, however, is not limited to Pontus, hut includes 
Siberia as well as western Asia. 

Like the celery, the Rhubarb is cultivated for its leaf stalks; 
both leaf and root are worthless; it is the large, juicy, suc- 

III 



PIE-PLANT 

IKcKs oiMa.,, gnnvmg ,n China. This nrst .ame int., Kurope 
l|y u^y of lur ey, thc-n .hrou.h Russia, an.l it is n.nv export^ 

uk leave.. ,s k-hevcd to produce the larger part of the world's 



113 



GHENOPODIACE^ GOOSEFOOT FAMILY 



The Clu'n<)|K)(ls arc a family of homely, weed-like herhs, more 
or less succulent, with alternate leaves and minute, usually green- 
ish llowers. The calyx is |)ersistent, three to five lohed or cleft; 
corolla absent; stamens usually as many as the lohes of the co- 
rolla; ovary one-celled; styles and stij^mas two to five. The fruit 
is an akene or utricle. The family includes several potherbs 
such as IJeet and .Spinach; a f^rouj) of aromatic (loosefoots some- 
limes found in gardens; Kochia, a i)lant hut recently in general 
cultivation; also, the well-known Madeira Vine is referred to 
this family. 

BEET 

Biia i'ii/,t;i)ris. 

Brill, (\ltic from hell, rud; the atuient name. 

The Ciurdcn Beet of cultivation, the original form of which grows on 
the C()a.sts of southern Europe, reaching as far north as the Straits of 
Dover. 

/?(>(>/.— Biennial, fleshy, terete, tapering (lownwarrl, red or yellow. 
/.r<n'M.— Radical, large, greenish-i)urple, ovate-iihlong; jx-tiolcs four 
to eight inches long, succulent, channelled. 

Flower Sinn.- Two to four feet high, leafy, patu'culately branching, 
bearing dense, sessile, axillary clusters, interruptedly spicate. 

Calyx. Urn-shaperl, thrce-bracted, I'lve-v-left; finally hardened at 
ba.se. 

Corolla. — Wanting. 

Slaincns. — Five. 

Style.Short; stigmas two. 

Fruit. — .\n akene. 

The C.oosefoot family is chietly known to us bv a few vilc- 
rtnieliing ueed?> abounding in waste jilaces; but it includes one 

113 



SPINACH 

plant of ,rcat economic value. Bet. vulgaris, th. (iarden Hect. 
N^ e .. ,he Me,luerranean n.,,i,.n an.! cnl.iva.ed fn.,. Roman 
t>mt., tins speces has heen develope,! al..n,' three lines-is :i 
root vegetable, a leaf-vegetahle, as well as a fdiage Ham 

I he root-vegetable varieties cultivated in our gardens e.msti 
U^<n.r .ble Meets. Their color and for. var, rrL !;;:; Z^^^ 
rul to p,nk and whue and from turnip-shaped to long-taperin-^ 

Mangel-^vur^el is a coarse form used for .attle-feedin. Iku inir 
h.rge,. and often very large roots. The Sugar Heet ^ sll 
a form of he common Heet in which the percentage of su-^ar L 
been largely mcreased by, cultivation an<i selection 

The strain of /M„ r.l,.ns which is grown as a leaf-^v-.-table is 
generally known as Chard, or Swi.s Chard. It ],as h" t , 
broad leaf-blades, and succulent leaf-.tems ' ' ' 

The foliage varieties of Heets are grown for their ornamental 
a lue and are used for bedding and for borders where str. l! 
a heavy efTects are desired. The large leaves of the severa 
un,es are ruhly marked with dilTerent shades of red, orange 
wiutc, and mtermediaic tints. " ' 

SPINACH. SPINAGE 

SpiiiiK id I'/craini. 

Z'^' l.oaring a spin.; ..furring ,., tin- pr.jc-cUon on the fruit- 
111};; (al\.\ of one species. 

The common potherb of the garden. Native to south-western Asia- 
now widely cultivated. Annua!. ' 

Ar<r.o-. - Jiadical, soft, lleshy, triangular, eaten for "greens " 

c.^i^s'^fi^,, s:z^'\tj'j:^ '•'•' '"«"' "™^'"« -"-y 

The cultivated forms <.f Spinach have develo,,ed lar-a- radical 
Ieave.s, and the shape of the leaf varies awly from 'tht ;r^ 

114 



"xa \ 4.- i 



, L<n» "j3.fittL>-V 



GOOSEFOOT FAMILY 



angular typi-. It is ;i cool-scasnii |)l;.-it and is in the market 
S|)rinK and fall; the summer leaves are toiiKh. In Mimmer its 
Jilaec is often taken i.y the .New /'ealand Spinacn, whieli is a 
warm-weather i)lant; it, however, is n..t related to the ordinary 
Spinaeh, hut is a 'I'dnii^oiiht, helon^in^' to the iiandcic. 

JERUSALEM OAK. FEATHER 
GERANIUM 

Chouipi'iiliuiii liolrys. 

.S/'-m- Low, spreadiii;;, elanimy, 
puhesei'iit, swei't-sccntid. 

/.(■(/vc.v.— SiIUlaU■-pi^natill(l,>I(•Iull•r- 
petiole(l. 

/•7('7irr,y.-M i n 11 1 (• , almndaiit in 
loosely eorynihi'd racinus; swirt- 
scented. 

Calyx. I'ive-cleft; ovary and utri- 
cle de|>resst'il. 

Teather C.eranium is extremely tv.,iu.rr..ranium. a,r„,.i,b.,n.n. i.oiry, 
aromatie — stem, leaves, llower, 

and fruit all heavy with fra,i,'rance. Tlu' i)lant i> -.nreadin-' 
iialf-prostrate; is weedy in hahii and not often found in modern 
gardens. 




MOCK CYPRESS. MEXICAN FIRE PLANT 

Kiichiii sciip,)rl,i. 

Korliiii. ill hon.ir n{ Dr. Ko.h, pn,fc-;.,,r of Ix.laiiy at Krlant;cii, 
1771-1S49. 



•SVrw.-Two to three feet hi<;h, erect, much branched; liranches 
slender, standinj^ close to the main stem. 

Leaves.-- Alternate, narrow, one to \^w^^ inches lonj,'. 

I'lo'ivers. Xumerous, inconspicuous, jireen, more or less clustered 
in the axils of the leaves. 

/VrwH///.- Orbicular, five-lobcd. 

Stamens.— Vise; stij,'mas two to three. 

US 



MOCK CYPRESS 

Tlu- Mock Cypres is a li„le < lunup.Hl Kn.uinK louallv al...ut 

two firt h,Kh an.l ci,riou>ly rcsc'riihlinK a small, . josc'lv 'shvarrd 

c-viTKrcrn; the f.,liaKc Loin^ a pale l.riKht-«rtrn until Sq.tcmlKT 

when the- entire plant-stent, leaves, fruit-hecmes a mass .,f 

|lcrp cnmsun. The minute ll..wers are l.„rne in the axils ..f'the 

eaves and are f..II,nu..i by small, angular akenes. The plant is 

lar^'ely used fur dwarf hedges ..r tn emphasize a garden path' it 

passes wuh the summer hut makes its exit in a Ma/e „f .lorv 

I he name Mexican Fire Plant, uhieh was f.rsl ^iven it. is a mi's- 

n..mer, as the plant is not lexiean nor even Ameriean, hut is 

native to southern l^uroin; and western Asia. 



1 he ^radeIra \ me, Boussini^ahllu, h.sclloldcs, is a rapi.l-.m.winK 
v.ne pnml for porches an.l arhors. The roots are store,! in the 
wmter and planted out after danger from fro>t is past. The stem 
wdl often reach twenty feet in a season, and in late summer hears 
numerous racemes of .mall white tlowers of deliciou.. fragrance 
It IS a plant of easy culture, native to Licuador. 



ii6 



AMARANTAGEyE AMARANTH FAMILY 

The Amaranths arc a K^ou]> of i)lant>, chirlly hcrlis and hirjjcly 
wtrds, whose inconspicuous llowers are provided with drv, 
crowded, an<l i)er-i>tent iiracts wliich. in the ( ulti\ate(l s|H'cies, are 
l)ri[iiantly colored. The tlowers are always destitute of a corolla 
and fre(juentl\- without a calyx. 

Amonj^ the well-known garden s|)e(ies are Love-Lies- Bleed- 
ing, Prince's Keather, Celosia, and (ilohe Amaranth, together 
with the familiar bedding s|)ecies, Telentiiera and Ire>ine. Tiie 
Pigweed of waste places belongs to this family. 

THE RED AMARANTHS 



Amiiriiiitii^ caHdutua. Amariiiiliis (i(iiii;itinis. Amariuitus tricolor. 
Amaraiiliis, (Irci'k for unfa<ling. 

Leiwes. — Alternate; mostly long-petioled. 

/•Vowfr.T.— Moncrcious or polygamous, in axillary or terminal spiked 
clusters. Three dry bracts at each tlower. 

Ciilyx. Five or three erect sepals. 

Corolla. Wanting. 

Stamens. — Five, sometimes three. 

Oi'ury.— One-celled, stigmas two or three; fruit a utricle, pointed 
at apex, opening transversely, the U|)per part falling olT as a lid, dis- 
charging the seed. 

As has been said, "the Amaranth is a fact and a fancy. It is 
the tlower of immortality, the (lower of love, the tlower of fame, 
and the flower that accomjjanies Hope until she is swallowed 
by Dcsi)air. Amarautus is the unfading tlower, amar, giving the 
adjective to the noun. By a confusion common in the history of 

"7 



PRINCE'S FEATHER 




Prince's IViUiur. Amardntm caiulatHs 



BACHELOR'S BUTTOW 

wonU, ,nn(ir fi;i> \>vvn ((m-irlcR'd •inior and tlu' unfading' Houir 
ln'rciiiic- till' lldwiT of Iiivf." 

All till- .\tnaraiilli> ari' (oarn- anruiaU, ni(»l df ilu'rn iindfsira- 
\>\v we'd-, hm a (v\\ A-iatiV s|ii.( ji-, \\h,„i. |KT>ivii'iit lirad.s art- 
nd and iidt hmun have lavii wrKomrd In ilic ^ardfn. 

I.ovc Lif> Hlcfdinj,', AmaraitliisUitn^ctii us, lifar>tali n^d >|,iki-s 
mori' or li'» l.ram liiii« l.iii hlimt, ihk k, an.! Iiim|)\. 'I'Ir' (oniral 
sjiikc i> l.>nj,'ir than the otluTs and dmupin);, 

I'riiuv'> I'Valher, Awnraiitus oiikLiIiis, i> M'inilar, hut with up- 
right ir-ti-ad of prndcnt inllorestcnce, a sotm-wliat tuar>tr |)Ianl; 
J<)>r|)ir> Coat, Aiiuininliis tricolor, lias foliaj^e niark.d with ml, 
violet, or yellow, and its stem> and stalk> ; r;. rod. It, as well as 
Love Lies lileedinj,', is a variety of Amnrunhis Cuiartuus, which 
also is grown hy the Chinese in America as a potherl). 



BACHELOR'S BUTTON. GLOBE AMARANTH 

itiiiiipliriini i^ldlii'isii. 

Gomphrrihi. a corriipkil an( iiiii natiu- for a siu'.ics of amaranth; 
referring to tlu> highly o.lorrd foh;i-c of sonit- -|if. ii>s. 

An annual, hearing' terminal, globular llower-heads, whose persistent, 
colored brads give ihem the character of evedasting llowers. India! 
July, ( )ctol)er. 

Stem. 'I'sveKe to eighteen inches high. 
Ijiivrs. Klljpiic lo ol.ovale, acute, downy. 

/■limrr-lir.iils. (d.ihosc, about an inch in diameter; bracts per- 
sistent, concave, keeled, puri)le in the ty|)e, hiding the true llowers. 
C'lilyx. I'ive-i)arle(|, |iacke<l in woolly hairs. 

.Sl,imnis. I'ive, lilanunts united to form a tube within which is the 
one-Celled ovarv. 

/•>«//. ,\ one-seeded utricle. 

The (dobe Aniaraiilli ■.,a> introduced into Kn<;land from India 
in 1714 and ha>, from the llrM, enjoyed considerable iiopularity. 
'Flic !]..\ver luad.-> are .-^jduTicai, an incii or more in diameter. 
The per>i>lent bracts arc verv brilliantly colored, and if the head.- 

119 



AMARANTH FAMll V 



••m- Ka.luTnl lK.fnr.. ,,„iu. n, „„ ,n.l .InV.I i„ ,1,.. .1...,. Uuv 

Tlio j,Mr(|fn raif iirodiKts i,, , > ni;,,., i .1 • •• 
-I.Mc-.KoI.|..„,vdl,.w,l,n.u„, .. , an.l ,i„UI., J.' ' 

•■ ' '"If lIlC lui.LjIU nf (he lV|.f, 

'*'' '• -■ ■' link' I.M.sli will, .larkn.l 

lli)\ r Ii , 




\ '1 nf l|, (• t,, 



'(•CI 



in (iiltivation 

!'<■ iind as liyhrid: 

' ■' I'tri-nnial fmm 

'Oiup/irnid pull It - 



atj' ! ,M ., ■ I 
(■'II ', iirni, r 
Snllll .\., .., 

'■//-;, ,im I' .., 

''"^i'- (il.-hc .\n;:ranih is also known 
as r.adu'lorV Mull.,,, tl,ouj,rh ,„,, ..ilur 
'■'Hirr|v.|i.ii„,i |.Iani..(V7/A//w,/,v,;;,/,v 
and h'.iintiiiutiis ,uris, havr llu- sunt' 
["'jHilar name. 

CELOSIA. COCKSCOMB 

i'rli'isiii (ristiita. 



(.'rhisiii. (urck. 



II' It'll or liiirni; ri-fiT- 



,.,, . , ""'"K I" Ihr.lry, Marions l.ra.i.. 

<.lol)o .\in,,r.inlli. liomphrhui 

''"'""" '-'"'''' Ailcrnal.'. usuallv loni;-,,, ,i,,],,| 

n'k.'r,?:^"";:;;,:,:"""' ■"■ -* '"'"■«»■" 'i'"''! ■"""" 's,- 

C'llyx. rivr spuadiMK sa'nu'nis, sul,tni<l,'d l,v thrw l.r .cis 
.S/i;w,«.v. Kiu., uniU'd ai lluir !,,,>.' to form a aip 
/•'•"//. rtricie, the upper part falling off as a Ii.]. 

Th.- (VIosia is one of ,I,e old plant, in <H>l,ivation. ,h,. earlier, 
r-.n,d,.h rc'n>rd of it landin,. "from A^ia. ,570." Tlu' primi.i^e 
i..rm was . harartcri.c-d hy ere.,, pvramidal. plumv panieles. 
I he garden form whuh appeals in .he illustration i. a n on.,... 



120 



CELOSIA 




C\-lti.si;i. i'dositi <risl,'iia var. ))uiii-.trala 



AMARANTH FAMILY 



'".i;v*,L;';:;::,;;;:;,r;r "- 'r-'' '-'-">• >"'"">■ 
- is dun,,, ,ii;;.:::,;" ■" ""■" """-i «-».i.-.i,e i,..u„k„ 

"""8ic-,i „-,■„, ,t „:!;; , " ■',;•':',■"'""- -' -™'" '--.■s .-...„. 

, ALTERNANTHERA 

Tr/iiiitlurd. 

^'''""""•'■"'<''--kf'.rcon,,,l.,eanlhcr.s. 

all united into a IlJoruX'""""'"^^'''' 

■"""^'" ' '■' '"'- ^7>''^''"'<-alue to gardeners, '.';;:: 

tion work in carpot-hedci!;;" r'''""^''"'"'^''^"'^^"""''- 
«"f the familv tl c I v '■. •' T """■"'^'"' ^'"'^ '-■'<^- '--t 
-Ki stamen ' Th ^ ' r ^'"•'/•'"-^^ I'nncipally of bracts 

nrm little ^n J :,, h ""' "; "^'^ "•^^■^'•^' '"'' ^ ^l-- 

''isti...'uisl,ed 't H , rT"";' •^"^'--"-•-' -h'Vl' arc 

.''-:arej::d:^^:;t:::;;,^'-"vr^^^^^^ 

h>'f' -^tion has occurred anl^^ he.n L, ':^;:""'^^";'^ 
.arciene. divide the p..nt.eeiL,t.:den:i;:;:;::t;^: 

133 




IRESINE 

leaves ,.f one the yellow-fjreens predominate, in ti.ose of tlie o.Iut 
the co,.,,er-re,is. In a.l.lition they disph.y orange, red, purple- 
green, bron^e, pink, and brown in hewildcTing eonfu^ion The 
colors blen.l in an ex.juisite harmonv, suhdued vet elTective If 
one must have carpet-he.ls, these hule iJra.iiian weeds ean <lo 
yeoman duty toward mailing them. 



IRESINE. ACHYRANTHES 

Irrs'iiw lltrhstii. 

Iresine, the Gn-.-k nanu- f„r a harv.M «arlan,! w..un,l in w,..,l; in 
allusion to llu' woolly appcaraiu >■ of ihc stems of son,,- spn i.s. 

A foliage plant l.n.u,,r|u ,•„,„ ,.:„j,,^,„, ,-^„^ ^^,^,^,^^,^^^ ^^^^^^^ .^^ 

n- Mt Ilcrbst of Kew Gar.lens. Several horticultural varieties have 
been develojjed. 

.S7««.-Red <ir yellow, twelve to ei-hteeii inches hi-h 
J-eavcs. -f>PPosite, variable, broa,! ovate or orbicular, acute or ob- 

se or notched at the apex; purple-re<l of varie.l tints, u ,1, p „, ,• ,' t 
veins; or green with yellow veins. ' """'"'^"' 

/•Vou'crv." Small, perfect or imper- 
fect, greenish-white, in a.xillary or ter- 
minal panicles. 

/Vr/jH//;. -Five-parted. 

Stamens. Five; sti.irmas two or three. 

Fruil.—X little utricle. 




The Iresines are a group of South 
American jjlants of brilliant foliage 
that are sui)|)ianting coleus in be(l> 
and borders, because they are (piite 
as elTective, considerably hardier, 
and bear the shears as well. The 
chief objection to coleus as a border 
plant is its extreme sensitiveness to cold; after a li^hl frost i,s 
stems stand leafless, but Iresine will bear about as much col.l as 
the geraniums. It appears in two colors, a <leep bloo,l-red and 
a greenish-yellow, of course with variations of each. 

1^3 



•Xiliyninthis. h,,hh Ihrhstii 



AMARANTH FAMILY 

Those plants when f.rst intHxhuecl an.l im,K.rfecdv under 
;;to.Ki were ealle<l A,„yr,n„l,cs, which .hev con inue . ,1 " 
a Kanlen name. T^.,- possess the two ,.at virtues of l^^^in^ 
H ms. they I.ar well both sun and shear, and are easy of propa' 



124 



"ffm. ^i 



-m^jMrn^L 



NYCTAGINACEy^-FOUR-O'GLOCK FAMILY 

FOUR-O'CLOCK. MARVEL OF PERU 

Mirdbilis jaldpa. 

OriRinally called admirabilis, admiralilc, which word Linna-us 
shortened. 

A niKht-l)l(M)min>,' jK-rcnnial, usually trcatcci as an annual; frcriucntly 
used to form tcm|X)rary hedges. South America. Summer. 

/?«<)/.— Large and fleshy, often tuberous. 
5/ew. I':rect, bushy. 

/,catY5.— Opposite, heart-shaped at base, apc.x acute, margin entire. 
Flowers. Funnel-sha|K-d, borne in terminal clusters, each flower 
lasting for a night. 

Involucre. L(x)ks like a caly.x, five-cleft. 

Calyx. - Looks like a corolla, funnel-shaped, border five-lobed red 
pink, white, yellow, variegated. ' ' 

Ccro/Zt;.— Wanting. 

Stamens. -V'wQ, exserted; filaments long and slender. 
Oi'drv. ~-Globo.se; styl.; long, slender, protruding; stigma capitate 
Stigmas and anthers take on the color of the calyx to a marked degree. 
Ca/>sM/f. -Oblong-conical, containing one large angular seed. 

To the botanist the Four-oVicx'k is a (lower of "make believe." 
What looks like corolla is really calyx, what passes for calyx is 
really involucre, and the corolla-like calyx is red, pink, yellow, 
white, or variegated, as it happens, for flowers of two or more 
colors are freijuently upon the same branch. The blossoms 
begin to open late in the afterncxm, remain oix-n all night, and 
close under the full sun of the morning. On cloudy days they 
stay open considerably longer. The life of a blossom is a single 
night; it does not reojK'n, having once closed. It calls to the 

"S 



'd 



FOUR-O'CLOCK FAMILY 

|Iwdlc-rs of ,1,. ni«in -m,! (Ills ,Iu- air ui.h fra^ran.r „. ^uicio them 
I" Its stoR's (if nc( tar. 

Onlinarily troaU..! as an annual, th. r..ur-..-. |,k k is rcailv . 
pcTc-nn.al, and forn.s lar^r iuUvum. roots no, unlike- those of 




r<.ur-o'il,Hk. Mirahilis i„l,ipa 



' e dahha, whKh .f stored with the .iahlias and planted at the 
Mme „me m the sprin, will produce stronger plants and better 
•lowers than can he had from seed. The hal.it is hushv, and a r v 
of 1 ants w,ll readily develop into a hed,e whieh will do ,lutv un, 
frost eomes. There are dwarf and compac-, varieties, also' forms 
w'th vanegated foliage; all will thrive in an^- goo,l garden soil ' 



ABRONIA. SAND VERBENA 



Ahr,'»ii„ umhrllata. 
Ahrotiia, Creek, me uiitig pr.icpful. 
A slender, prostrate herb of the western Oi 



California. Summer. 



)ast; .sometimes cultivated. 



Stem I>rostrate, I)ranehing. j„in,,,i, .vmiici at the joints 
/.«:■,:■..- Opposite, uvute-ohlonjr, fl-.ick, entire. 

136 



ABROHIA 

Corolla. Nolle. 

.S7,;«,r«.s. luv, in.s,rt..I „„ the calyx tui.e; stvl. included 
fruif '""-'■ *^"^'"^''-"^''' ^""f-ini-'K "nc. uvulc and forming a secd-lik. 



rn 



■^''roiw, >s a Ronus ,.f ahnut Mw,n s,,cries. all native to ucstc... 
North America. Like M,e f,a,r-oVIock, the flower has no corolla 
I..U .ts calyx looks like one. The leaves are opposite and at everv' 
node one leaf is larger than the <,ther. 

Almmi, umhcUal, is a common plant alon^ ,he California c<,ast 
often making masses of deep-])ink on the beach. 



127 



111 



1 flKrvwr^; :<dramv^K!iffli 



CARYOPHYLLAGEyE PINK FAMILY 

SWEET WILLIAM. BUNCH PINK 

l>i<ii!lliiis hiirhatus. 

inSigl^"''"'' '^''^'""^' ^"^'' ^^^•••""' '^^ "- joints, ten to eighteen 

iMves.-Lancvohtc „r ovate, <.j)p„.site 

/-'Wm. Borne at the top of the stem in •. l^nt ,I 
m color through all the re.is'to whiu ' '"'" '^'''''"' ^■^'■>'"« 

^^Ca/v.v.-Tul>ular, five-too.hed. with several avvl-.shape.l bracts at 

an^ttJ'"' '''''' '""« ^"' -^'^■"''-: '-''- spreading, notche.i 
Slan,e„s -T,n, exserted, maturing before the stigma. 
Oz^ary -Oblong, one-celled, stij.ulate; stvles two 

suSrtd^S;;;^^;:"^"'"^ '' ^'^"^ - «- ^-^^ ^-^h at ,he 

Sweet Williams are worthy the respect „f ,he Greitc-s, T , f . 

Lovers of Flowers ' '"' *"^^atcst La<lies wh,) are 

—Oil) E.Nci.isii IIkkhai.. 

Sweet William is a name c,f Di.„„ln,s barhalus used l,v the 
aritest Kng sh writers on gardens; furthermore, thev tell I , " 
he narrow leaved varieties of the species were Jailed Sw 

John and W ,1 ham may he, not one of them deigns to tell- nossiblv 
they dtd not know, certainlv we do not ' • 

name, and utterly repudiates ,he existence of any St. \Mlliattt 

138 



'■^^im^'ii J^> 



SWEET WILLIAM 




Swfft William. Didnthus barbatus 



ws^ ^MJ'K^iPiiiiiii 



PINK FAMILY 

t.. vvh..m tlu' n.mcr was .IcfhVatccl. The maltcr s., rctc.l until 
rc-cHitly. when an KnK'I.Mi writor .UKKcsto.l that a> the plant . ami- 
int., Kn^Ian.! fnmi Fran. i-. it br-.u^ht its Vn-mh name, (lul/c/ 
with It. In acrunhmiT with the j,'i'niii> „f the AnKh.-Sa.vnn race' 
that name , oul.i >nnn .i^'nuTatc int.. Willv, whii h mi^'ht in time' 
l.e mi,.r..ve(l int.. Wilh-am. Th,- Mvcctness an.l l.eautv .,f the iL.wer 
would (I., the rot. This ex|,lanati,.n is inKeni-us.' illuminating 
and silisfa.-.nry, s.> far as Sweet William is ...merne.l, hut it' 
iU-s n..t seem t.. ,lo anything f,.r Sweet J,.hn, and he i> part ..f 
the pn.hlem. 

A iL.werinK "f Sweet Williams ..f the m..dem tvpe i> a very ^..r- 
«e..us affair. The e..l..r scheme ranges fn.m purest white t.. dark- 
est re.1. wuh infinite variety ..f tint an.l c..mhinati..n. Tiie texture 
of the darker i.etals is velvety, and pn.hahlv n.. tint <.r shade ..f red 
IS unattainable in the ron.lla. Usuallv a l.uneh ..f blossom, i, 
homogeneous in rol..r and markings, but sometimes ..ne will e,.n- 
tam a number ..f tlowers with varied markings and dilTerent clors 
I)<.uble forms occur, but as in the case of the double geranium 
the result is smiply a mass of clor which might as well be made ..f 
stnngs or ribbons; all the (,uaint beautv and individualitv of the 
blossom is gone-there remains only a blur of c.L.r. The b....ks 
call Uic plant a perennial-amateur gardeners believe it t.. be 
biennial-in any ca^e it is inclined to c.mmit suicide bv chok- 
ing ..ut its own life. The tufts should be divided frt'(,uentb- 
and seedlings should often be reset. 

As cut tlowers Sweet Williams are manifestlv imp<.s>ible; thev 
adorn the garden but not the house. 



CHTNA PINK. INDIAN PINK 

Piihilliiis c/iinrnsis. 

rerenniai, hut he..t treated as a biennial. Native t.. China and 
Jai.an, and .nlr.„]uce.l int.. Europe by a French missionarv earlv 
in the eighteenth century. H!,..,nis from Juiv to the end 'of the 

seasvjn. 

i.io 



CHINA PIWK 




. >i 



China Pink in variety. Dianthus chinensis 



PIWK FAMILY 

ihvtlJ-'""'' '"■"""'^"'' ""«''•''• ^'"'' '^""' "•• '•- «— I. .w..|U.„ at 
/.r./;r.v. ( )|)|)<)siif, linear, laiurolatr. 

/•/,^r... -IVrminal, solitary, variahl. in si/., n.|..r, an,! niarkin.s 
( olyx. I ul,ul;.r, livc-t.K,tlu.l, with linear l.ra. Is at l.ase 

..«£(:,,,.!;;";„ ;;;;«Sv..;;';:;'-:i'v:!;';?: "-'■'>■ ■«• »■■■' 

.S.V/W/V/.V. I\„, maturing hefore the slijjmas. 
Ov.iry. Ol.li.MK'; styles three. 
< ii/>siilr. Opening' at the summit. 

The. ChitK. Pink is a very I.eautifv.l Hovver whose- valtte is en- 
I'anml U.-ause of it, e.xtende.l l,loomi„« ,,eri.Hl. |,e«innin« in 
early summer. ,t rontinues until snow llic-s. All the wiM l.i.arre 
mark.nKs whieh . hararteri.e the ^nuis may l,e foun<l in anv 
wHI «rown plantation of China F'inks. The color ranKc is anv'- 
>h.nK as |on« as it is red. The .lower la. ks the fragrance that we 
ass.K-,ate wtth pinks and to that extent is <lisappoinlin«. The 
Ktals are deeply toothe.l and in some varieties almost fimbriate 
-Numerous ^anlen forms exist ; one of the best of these is ni„„//nn 
"""■"w.v var JfnMn,i,i, whieh is annual, prorluein^ l.oth .in- 
gle and doui.le forms of many colors an.i strange markings 



CARNATION. CLOVE PINK 



Pi.iii/liiis ( i:ry(>f>liy//i,s. 

10 primitive of the camatinns uf commerce. Native to the Med- 
iterranean region. 



The 



Lcivrs. Lana, linear, glaucoiLs. 



rant. 



/■l,mrrs. On long stem.s, in the type flesh-colored, frag 
Calyx. I-ive-toothed; bracts .short and l.road. 
Pelah: Five t„ many, lonK-clavve.l; border rjentate 
Stamni.s. 'IVn; styles two. 

The primitive of the modern Carnation ^rows uild in the Med- 
UerraiH-an region, where „ is a perennial plant of erect, branching 



GARDEN PIlfK 




Garden Pink, Didnthus plumarius 



PIWK FAMILY 

hal)it, loriK < ylindru al calyx, and single flesh-n.lomi llowers, with 
a dilinhtful rlove-likf fragranie. The plant st-t-ms not unlike its 
tomjianions, thmij^h in one im|K)rtant res|)eti it differs greatly; 
it has in its make-up a genius— if one may >,ay so— for variation. 
This s[)e(ies has U-en cultivated for centuries and th«' forms 
under whii h it has api)eare<l numher thousands; fur its cultiva- 
tion and its variation k-gan in the Roman era. The |)rimitive 
as well as the Ijest of its variants arc characterized hy a delicious 
fragrance whiih gave it originally the Knglish name of Clove 
Pink. Sops-in-Wine and (lillillower were also early names; the 
one emphasizes the aromatic character of the plant, as used to 
improve the flavor of wine; the other denotes the time of flowering. 
The siHJcies has divided into many garden races, one of which 
—the PeriK'tual HI(M)mer, our greenhouse variety— is chiefly 
cultivated in this country under many varying forms of size, 
color, and habit. This group originated in Trance but has Ix-en 
develojjed in America. 

The race of Hardy Carnations that are such favorites in Kng- 
lish gardens have gained little foothold here; in part, maylx-, 
Ix'cause they are overshadowed by the florist's flower and in jiart 
because they are not adapted to our climate. 



GARDEN PINK. GRASS PINK. PHEASANT'S EYE 

Didnllius plumurius. 

A low tufted plant with narrow gray-green foliage; hardv; much 
used in old gardens as edging for beds; double form common. ' Ranges 
from Austria to Siberia. June. 

Slem.1. -Six to twelve inches high, swollen at the joints, 
/-caws.— Opposite, grass-like, glaucou.s, gray-green. 
Flowers.— Vink and white, variegated, .single and double, fragrant. 
Ccj/y-.v. -Tubular, five-toothed; tube likely to break down so as to 
spill the petals; bracts short, broad. 

Petals.— Five to many, long-clawed; border spreading, deeply fringed. 
Stamens.— Ten. 

Ovary.— Cylindrical; styles two. 

Cd^sa/c— Opening by four or five short teeth at the summit. 

134 



MALTESE CROSS 

Thi>.,l(l nlniriK Pink ri'jmVi-s in inanvc-mmnn namt>- (irass 
Pink, Sn,tih Pink, l'lu-a.anfs Kvf. IVatlurr.l I'ink. A !..„« rnu 
m full I.I.K.m, witi, i,s jrray^-reen f..liaK'f and pali-pink l,l.,>M.m. 
heavy with fragrance. i~ an aonHHtinn |u any Kanlcn. Thi^ 
s|HTifs |)<,»«»f. to a nuirki'd .liKi-.r ih,. familv fault of tho ^fnus; 
that i>. tlu- ralyv is rardy Mron^ m.-u^;!, to hold tin- iKta! davv^ 
HI |»la(i-, l.ut l.r.-ak> down on ont- -idi- sn ,'..,, ,1,,. i^ials 'Spill" 
"lit. This ^rivcs an untidy an<! <iislu-vdk,| look to the- l.lossom 
I \n- Kardi-n forms vary from sinK'k- to full .ioul.k- and from whitt- 
to varii-^ati'd |iink. 



MALTESE CROSS LONDOA PRIDL 

I.yfliiiix rluiheil iiii, ■ 

I.ychnh. lamp, .,f r.rvvk .l.Tivallnn; nfrrrinu ; . ih, t„,ll,.„i.v of 
many of iht- (I.iwits of ihr Rfnus. 

A iH^rennial hcrl,, native to Russia, which has lonj; l.,ui in cuhivatk.n. 
.S>mi.-Simp!c, two to three feet hi«h, usuallv hairv 
na^'^lnd'l^l-nu!;," '^-'''''-'--'"'^. ^'aspi"K up,.r ones often 

spSn^heaS'" '" ''^'■^^"' '""•"^ '" ''^^ '---' ^>--. "^ 

CW.v.v. Narrow, ribbed, five-toothed. 

Pctah. Five, ion^'-dawed; limb .)l)C()rdate, notthe.l snreaHin.r 
with a two-elef, .scale or ,,air of tccth at the base^ of tlu lladc' '' 

.S/(/;«f«5. Ten. 

(hwv. One-celled; styles five. 

Alice Morse Earle writes most sympalheticallv of this well- 
known plant as follows: "A Kreat favorite in ihe old garden 
uas the splendid scarlet Ly.hnh to which in New Kngland is 
given the name of London Pride. There are two varieties-one 
has five ,jetals with scjuared ends and is called, from the shape 
of the e.xpanded flower, the Maltese Cros.s; the other called 
Scarlet Lightning, has five deeply nicked petals. It is a' flower 

US 



M 



PINK FAMILY 

of Midsummer liu- an.l magic power, and, I think, must have 

some connection with the Crusaders, i.cinK call.d |,v (lerard 

floure of Jerusalem and tloure of C'anch ' - 

Professor Hailey thinks the plant originally came from Japan; 

-Kk-ntly >t has been so long in cultivation that its origin is lost 

A lover of the sun, it glows in the horder on a hot summer dav 

«'th an air of contentment and satisfaction, and (.ften rises head 

and shoulders alxne its neigh- 
Itors. The typical color is scar- 
let or hri(k-red, hut there are 
varieties with rose-colored, tlesh- 
i-olored, and white hlossoms, also 
with double (lowers. 

Corn Cockles, Lvtluiis githaf^o, 
a tall, hairy |)lant witii showy 
crimson (lowers resembling those 
of the Mullein Pink, is a bad 
wml in the wheat fields of 
Kurope; its seeds are acrid and 
unwholesome. 

Ragged Robin, l.ydnih Flos- 
(itaili var. plcnissinhi, is a very 
Stari.i Li^iuninK. i.y<in,i> ,h,ii.,d,„ua, l""t'tty species mucli grown for 
, ., . „ ^Pri'iK' i-'lgings, as it blooms abun- 

la.N and the llowenng stem rises from a tuft of lanceolate leaves 
/.y,/nns ,,vl„-rosa is another favorite form, producing rather 
small, bright, rose-red (lowers. 




MULLEIN PINK. ROSE CAMPION 

I.yrliiiis rurdiii'iriii. At;n>sl, 



t'liiihi toroiii'iria. 



A perenmal herb, readily recogniml by its hoary foliage, forked stvie 
of growth, and .splendid solitary (lowers, .\ativ 
Long in cultivation. July, .August. 

136 



ive to southern Euroj>e. 



MULLEIN PINK 

less cliSnJf^' """"^ "^ "''l<'"K-s,.a,ula,. .apcrin, ... a mure or 
Lrifnchr'' '^"''■""""'"" '"" ^^'^'''■' '"'">'■ ^''"K!y "" Hk- nnis uf the 

r,;/v.v. -Cylindrical, tlvc-riiilKd, fnv-ioutluTl; teeth short an<l slen.ler 

Irtah. [•ne lonK-dauecI, crimson, ^elvetv, ea( h hearing two small 
appendages at the i,ase of the border. 

Stamens. Not more than ten; anthers comini' 
U|) to the oj)eninK "'" the throat. 

Ovary. One-celled; styles five, sometimes lour. 

/W.Openinj; at the toj), many-.seeded. 

The .\rullein Pink in 1,1, ,„m is an olTect in 

gray and crimson. The ^ray, |,n,duce(l l)\ 

an immen.se number of soft, white, woolly 

hairs iiin<<ing to stems and leaf surfaces, has 

a beautiful greenish undertone, and above 

the frray foliajije, crowniiifr and completint,' 

it, are the flowers of .•vid crimson, making' a 

glowing mass of color unsurpassed in richness 

of lint by any occujiant of the garden. 'I'here 

arc three forms of this plant in cultivation: 

the single red, the single white, and the 

double red. (ierard records that thev were 

growing "plentifully in most gardens." He 

siwaks of the soft leaves as being "lU to make 

eandle weekes," and refers to the brightnes> 

of the flowers as suggcstinjr the names by 

which it appears they were then known, as' d,e "j^ardner's de- 

l.ght or ••Kar<lner's eie." The plant wa. known al., a. the 

i<ose of .May an,l the Rose of FIcaven. Tluse titles .nem to us 

rather extravagant, but the superb .olor of the flower, warrmts 

a go<Ki deal of enthusiasm, and those early gar.leners knew noth- 

ingof our modern wonders. 

The spread of the flower frequently reaches an inch an,| a half 
and .n the velvet-crimson of its petals are <larker lines leading to 

'.57 




Mullein Pink. I,yil,ni\ 
it'r,iii,'iri,i 



^ ;*-•:) 



tT' 



PINK FAMILY 

the throat Kach petal has two tiny a,,pcnda«o., at the point 
where the l>Ia<le narrows to the daw, and tiie ten toj^clKT make 
a minute eorona which evidently guards the stamens until the 
pollen is mature. 



SWEET WILLIAM CATCHFLY 

Si/iiir armiriii. 

Sllenc, Greek: referring u, .he >,i,ky exu.la.i..M .,n st.ni nn,! caivx 
ot several s|,eeies, by whi, h inse. Is are ..fteii .alight. 

.SVrw- Twelve Id ei^'Iiteen inclu-s hi^h. 

Lfavcs. Opposite, ovate. 

Hmrrs. Pink or white, in manv- 
ll<;were(l terminal and axillarv llat-toDped 
panicles. ' ' ' 

tWy.v. Cylindrical, five-toothed. 
Petals. Five, loHK-dawed ; each blade with 
two appendajjes at its base. 
Sliimois. Ten. 

Ovary. -Om-Ci:\\v<\; .stvles three; seeds 
many. 

This is the Catchily of old gardens, 

sw...., wiiiian, c-aM„iv. '!''""'' '"" l"''''^'' ^'^'^" inheritance of 
.v./,«,- ,jrw,v/„ tiie ])asl, hut has little t(» sujjport it in 

t"nM»-'t'li<'n with the llowers of the i)res- 
ent. Though long in culti\ation it is still weedy. 

The species now chiell.v offered by the trade is .SUe„c paulula 
var. ,owpd,l,u which is a dwarf upright form of a trailing primitive. 
Ft !,'rows two or three inches high, forms cushion-mats a f,,ot in 
diameter, and bhjons profusely in early spring. 




138 



BOUNCING BET 



BOUNCING BET, LADY BETTY 

Sapnnariti ofiiciiialis. 

Safioihirio. soapwort; Ijirausc llu- iiui. ilaginous juiics of strni anfl 
riMit will make a lalluT in water. 



An escape from early ;,'ar(]ens ikhv found 1 



track 



s, and III n 



)>■ roadsides, railroad 

e>;lected fields throu>,'hout the NOrtli as far as liie 

■s; spreads by underjiround stolons. Central 



fool-hills of the Rocki 
Europe. June, until .snow falls 

Slem. -One to two feet hifjh, glabrous, swollen at the joints. 



Leaves. 



-Op, 



)osite, ovate, entire, acute. 



Flourrs. Ci.islered, rose, pale-i)ink, sinj<!e or doul) 



Cu/y.v.— C-vlindrical, ihe-toothed : 



Petals. — Five or more, 1 



readily cutting down at one .side 



crown 



pink. 



)ng-clawed, border .s|.reading, with small 



Stamens. Te 



n. 



Ovary. Slender, oblong; styles two, long, coiled at apex; seeds many. 

Curiously enough there is a 
small group of plants that are 
united not hv Itotanical afiilia- 



tions hut l)v social stat 



us. 



'rw( 



well-known memhers of this out- 



awed grouj) are Saponaria offui- 



nul 



IS, common 



Iv k 



n o w n 




Houncing ik't, and I.huiria vul- 
garis, Common Toadllax. Hoth, 
originally of the garden, are to- 
day outcasts; hoth in their prim- 
itive forms l)ear tlowers of groat 
l)cauty. It is clear that their 
vitality has wrought their social 
ruin. In a way the garden enclosure si)ells aristocratic secIu>ion. 
and when these two became rampant democrats, if not anarchists, 
when it was discovered that no fence could limit their activities 
or check their advance, they were discarded; and now as va- 

139 



HMjiicinj! lilt, .Siip.iiu'iria cruwaU, 



PINK FAMILY 

grants tlic\ wander alont: the hic/lM,-.. i 

the roadside- ,o ,Ik- eye that .an .,■ an, a. ^ '•' ^ 

"l.jects of con.cn,,., ,o ,he unsc-eing. ' ^"'"•"■'""«' 

I luTc are indiiations, liouwer Uiat \ uU- u „ -i, 

""^^- t.. luT own, neither -de i. ' ■ '"" ''' '""« 

I-ady Belly 1,^.3,, ., |,|,„„ ■ . 

sl>c..,|,..„,|,,r|..,„|,,„,|,,„„|,, ',";"'" '■"'-""*^ "h"> l!w 



GYPSOPHILA. BABY'S BREATH 



(lyp.uifiln'/ii f!uiti,ii/,)/,!. 



soil. 



it prefer- (alcareous 



A iKTennial, hut sumvdin- l.esi wh,.,, in •>. .,1 
ful in itself hut rhicllv cultivated ' '" '""""'• ''•■^'""■- 

'>-u,v of other .1.™ Somh 7"" '" "^ ^''""^' '" ''"'^^"^ "- 
to Septem„er. '''^^""'-" '--"I- an.! western Asia. June 

white flowers ab<Su thre-.sixZK'.t^'lS'^cn^f"" "■^^^ "^"^^"^ 

J40 



MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED 



/.frtTw. Opposite, lancc-linear. entire. 
("<//v.v. Hellshapefl, live-cleft, minute. 
Petals, l-ive with .sIcMuier claus, border nolchefl 
Stamens. Ten; niament.s anfl anthers white 
Ovaiy. ()necelle<l; styie.s two. 
Pad. Four-val\i'(l; many-.seeded. 

A >himmor of white, a «rceni>h mi>t. a veii-,hi> i> (ivpsophila 
at Its l,c.t. Ihe chief eharacteristie of the plant i. i,>'lightne.. 
and (lehcaey: the >tems .stand uprifrht, di- 
vide and Mibdivide, and then divifle a^ain, 
and when in i)loom are covered witli a' 
mass of minute white tlower> of the pink 
type. These llowerin- spray> when com- 
bined with coarser and more brilliant blos- 
soms soften the effect, transform crudity 
into sweetness and li^rht, and even en- 
hance beauty by throwing a veil over 
loveliness it>elf. When grown for this pur- 
|)osc the large and tlie double blossoms 
offered by the trade should be carefully 
avoided; the smaller and more abundant (lower, prodiue the 
more desirable and effective results. 

Several other species are in cultivation; the best of these are 
i.ypsoplnla orulifolia. a strong-growing plant with large panicles 
of .small white llowers. and Cypsophila ,rrustoMes, an Asiatic- 
species whose small white tlower> are veined with red 




fi'llii liliila 



MOUSE-EAR CHICKWEED 

Crriistiiim Idiiirnliisum 
Crr„.„;nn. (inrk.a h„rn; allu.linK ,., ,!„■ -h.,,.. „l ,h.- MrH-vcssrls. 

A low plant of weak, spreading stems and used for edKings because, of 
lis silvery loluiKe, iuiroiic. 

.>rMn";,|..':''wh:,::''r'''j; t'"'' ^Prc:ading; ail cmwded wiih oblong 
sp.ii.iiaK , uiiiic, w„„||y !,.:ivj..^ making den.se >\Uvry mats 

/•A>:crrv Whit,., on forking pedunck-s six inches hi^'h. 



141 



■^: 



PINK FAMILY 

Sfpah. Vhv, shorter than the petals. 

/V/.//.V. Five, deeply cleft su as to l(K)k like ten 

Oviiry. One-celled; styles five. 

Ca/>si</r. Cylin<lrical, o,H.-nin« at the top l,y ten teeth. 

Cen,s,i„», lomntiosun, is vaiual.le l.oth as a foliage and as a 
1-enn, plant. In hloom its white ll.nvcrs fairh .,verwhcim th<- 
-ve.; later the leave, are as clesirai,le as the ll.nvers. thev are so 

rcallN only t.ve, for ea, h p,.,al i., cleft so deep that it looks like two 



COMMON CHICKWEED 

SIcllc'iriii midiii. 
Sicllaria. Latin, a Mar; rwYrrin^ f, the sha,,e „f ,!„• i]„,,,,_ 

Annual .sprea.iin,-, much-i,ranch...I. procumbent. XaturahV.ecl from 
Kurope. (.rows eyerywiute and Mooms all the time; is cultivated in 
the suburbs o| I'ans for canary-birds. 

Sinn. Procumbent, weak, and spreading. 
Uav,,. Ovate, or oblong, the lower on hairv ,,etioles 
tlourrs Small, white, borne on loo.se terminal cvmes ■.!.„ ■ r. 
m the a.x,ls; the pedt.ncles lengthen after the liowi ^:: "''^ ■^"'"''■'' 
C alyx. Star-like, |>ale -green, pubescent. 
.SV^<i/,v. Five, .n u . longer than the petals 

sh-SeMha 't ';:£■ ""-^'^^^ ^" "^^ ^"•--">- >'-'• are ten; 
Slamois. \'ary in number from two to ten 
rh.<,n..- One-celled; styles three to five; seerls ma.ty. 

The Chtckwced is everywhere; along the garden walk, among 
1 K .Inwers, In the s.de of the house, in ev.rv neglected corner 
he plan, ,s rather pleasant ,o look upon, an.l in .Vovember, after 
H. hrs, .rosts, when the vegetable gar<ien is a . ene of desolation 
o ..ft grc-en carpet of the Chic kweed so .overs unsigh.lv places 
<lia one almost pardons „ for being a weed; it is so .soft so 1 roen 
>o tiinvng, s,> hopeful in the vers breath of coming winter. '^ ' 

14a 



CERASTIUM 




Curustium Lcrastium I, 



'(illlillh'^lllH 



PI NK FAMILY 

The l,l<,ss,mi is very small and thr.u.Rh a glass extremciv prettv. 
I he hve sr,.als form a very |.erfect star; the petals are (■uri..usiv 
tw.,-cleft, making the l.x.k like ten; these are n.unded at the a,.ex 
aiid shorter than the si-pals. The stamens are a variable numher- 
when thmgs are Koing well with tiie plant there are sure to Ik- five' 
and mayk- more, l.ut in late autumn or earlv winter the pinched 
little blossom may be able to atTord only two. 

The Chickweed is our me plant hardv enough to live and blos- 
som thn.ughout a X<.r.h.rn winter, i'n.bablv it an.Ul not do 
this anywhere in .\ew Kngland; but on the southern shore of 
Lake Krie, during those winters that not infre(,uentl',- <^iur when 
no ice IS gathered from the lake, it gn.ws and blossoms all winter 
long in protected places'. Its only possible companion is the dan- 
delion and It is hardier than the dandelion. 

Most plants have one device for self-preservation; the Chick- 
weed has two. .\ftcr the blossom fades the flower stem lengthens 
and droops, thus giving the ripening capsule the protection of the 
leaves and IxKly of the plant against frost. Also, the blossom is 
capable of self-fertilization, for it will mature seeds after all insect 
life has disappeared and its winter buds scarcelv open. Its pro- 
•luct.on of seed-that test of successful plant life-is so sure that 
the plant is f.^und in almost every place where civilized man 
has been. .\ very striking story to illustrate this is told by .Sir J. 
D. Hooker, who says: "Upon one <Kca>ion, landing on a small 
unmhabited island nearly at the .Vntipodes, the first evidence I 
met with of its having been previouslv visited bv man was the 
Knghsh Chickweed, and this I traced to a mound that marked 
the grave of a Firitish sailor which was covered with the plant 
doubtless the offspring of seed that had adhered to the sj)ade or 
mattock with which the grave had been dug." 

Kaster Hell, Sfellarh Holosthi, is a Chickweed often found in 
rock gardens and is really desirable for drv banks where grass 
will not grow. It is a j.erennial with erect stems six to twelve 
inches high, from a creeping rootstock. The leaves are grav-green 
sessile, lanceolate, one to three inches long. Flowers "are abun- 
dant, white, terminal, and each of the five petals is cut half down 

144 



COMMOW CHICK WEED 



to the l.se. The .lower is three-fourths of an inch across. Na- 
tiveto Lur()|)e and Asia. 

garden>. I,ut smaller m leaf and .lower ihan floh^fra 



MS 




M<:1 



■/^■^ ■. 



W«i. 



ROSAGEy^ ROSE FAMILY 

POTENTILLA. CWQUEFOIL. FIVE FINGER 

Pole III ll/,i tiiiKiilnisis. 

Poln,im a,limhuuh-,- from />„ln,s. powerful; .,ri„inallv a,,,,li...| 
Urausr nf ihv rq.utol tiUMli. i„al puwrrs ,.f .„„• s|,,ri..s. ' 

Sin,,. Ascending „r pn.cumlK.nt al IcKth. ofn,, n..,iinL' it thr li,. 
sprca.lm^. fl.nvcr.nK from tlu- n.ulc aLuvo th. smm.! inu'rmKi; ' ' 

ofthrLralKf'"' ''"' '"'■'^^^""^ ''-f'"-'^- •'>• t'- I-tinK 
f-ni/lrls. Svrrnw, somewhat hairy 

r.i/y,v. Flat, five-cleft, with a hract at each sinus 

/V/.j/.v. Five, roundish, yellow. 

Slat>ieiis. Many. 

C"(ir/)r/,v. Many; styles threarl-like. 

.Uf««..Many, forming a head, on a hairy recej.tacie. 

The little perennial (m(,uef„il smiles in one's fa(e from the 
meadow path or the roadside in May. The llower look, like i 
small strawberry blossom, only yellow. In fact there is verv little 
d.fterence, structurally, I.etwren the ['otentilla and thc^ strawherrv 
•lower. I.ut practically there i a great deal, for one pr.Kluces a 
strawberry and the other do^-s no,. ( )ur little plant is so . ommon 
that us garden value lie> in its willingness to render good service 
m the rock garden. 

There are several other native Potentillas valuable in a similar 
way. The garden forms of the genus are somewhat trailing 
rather tender herbs with strawberry foliage and double buttercup- 
likc flowers of varied colors blooming more or less profusely all 

140 



U- 

^**"* 



:;;<:• 



^^VjW-^)^' 



tSi**Yt-«CSCr- 'MKf-JTfm 



LOIIG-PLUMED AVEWS 

>ummir. ( )riKinall> pr-KliucI In the union <.f Poleutilh .irnyro- 
phylUi and Pole„till,i uap,iUnsis tw<, HimJavan s|Kries, thfv'have 
now dcvdoiK-d into a ra.oof srcal k-autv l.ut. unf..rtunatclv are 
not ,|i„te hanly enough t.. I,e happv in ..ur Northern , hmate 
The variations they display on the diord of red and orange are 
simply marvellous. 



LONG PLUMED AVENS. GEUM 

(/■('•«»( Iritliiruni. 
Ileum i> a |,laiu name u^i.l |,v IMiny. 

A perennial IutI. found principally in limestone regions, notieeal.le 
for Its showy h.a.l oi plume.l akenes, when in fruit, from Labrador to 
()nlario and westward through the Lnitcd States. 

Stem. Low, softly hairy. 

Root-le.ives. Interruptedly pinnate; leaflets numerous and crowded 
oblong wcdge-forni, .leeply cut-toothed. trowuui, 

Flourrs. Three or more on long |)eduncles. 
C<//y.v. Campanulate, five-cleft. 
Petals. iMve, oblong, purplish. 
Stamens. Many. 
Carpels. Many; styles long, stn.ngly plumose, an.l feathery in fruit. 

The Long-I'lumni .Vvens is an e.xeeedinglv prettv but rare 
plant of Northern range. The clustered akenes feathered with 
long sdvcry hairs are more noticeable than the llowers. 

This species belongs to the same ly,K^ as Gen,, ,hilon,sc the 

.ost of the cultivate<l forms, which is a favorite in r.H k gardens 

because of ,ts double blossoms and brilliant colors. The head> 

of these- fruiting carpels also bear long and plumv stvles. The 

|)lant comes from Chili. 



147 



tii^ dfxi>mK,FK'MVAsrs:^'mTmmjmm 



j-Ti 



T^ 



MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No 2) 



1.0 



I.I 



1.25 



1^118 

IK "^ 

■ 63 



2.5 
2.2 

2.0 
1.8 




A /AP PLIED IIVHGE Inc 

^Sr. 16'^^ tost Wain Street 

S*— Rochester, Ne« Vork 14609 USA 

.JS (7161 «82 - 0300 - Phone 

as (716) 288 - 5989 - Fox 



PORTULACACE/E PURSLANE FAMILY 

PORTULACA 

I'crlultidt ,i;r,ui(/if/,ini. 
Xaiiu' .,f Latin ..rif^in an.i urKciiain hi,i..rv. 

A prostralf .,r ascen.linK plant, six t., U'n in, lus liiKh, thriving in thf 
hottest rxiKKsure and pr(..lucinj< beds „f brilliant ll„wcrs. Hra/il an.l 
s(/Uth\vard. 

.^^ -V/rw. 1-k.shy, tcTftc. trailin;^ or ascrndint;, hairy at th. joints, rud.iy 
Lnnrs. Scattered or somewhat clustered, l' .hv, terete. 

J-lmvrr. A cup formed of fwv over- 
lappmj; |)etals borne at the summit of the 
stem and subtended bva cluster of leaves; 
one and a half to two inches across. 

Petals. Five, heart-shaped, brilliantly 
colored. 

Sfpals. Two, united at the ba.se. 

Sliimfiis. Many; filaments of varyinj,' 
Icn^'lhs, fre(|uentlv Iakin<,' on the cohir of 
the ])etal.s. 

07',7ry.-- One-celled; stvle three to sev- 
eral-parted, extending considerably be- 
yond the stamens. 

Capsule. Opening bv a lid: seeds 
small, many. 

Portulaca is a lovable little treatiire. 
•i^'iK in the sand and the sun. When 
i'oriui,,ca, i'.,riui,i,a Kr,imii;/dr,i ''it' dav is gray the (lowers furl close to 

clisa[)pcarance, hut when the warm 

sunshine heats full upon them "a mvriarl of little tleshv arms 

stretch out, each holding a colored bowl to catch the sunbeams " 

The plant is native to the hot plains of southern Brazil and was 

148 




PORTULACA 

(Ifscrihed in the BoUmiotl \l<ii^,rJ.ir of |,SJ(^ Siiui' tlial tinu- it 

has l)CTn in {^ciu-ral iiihivation and ha- variid inti. many i;ankn 

forms. The pa'M'nt color ranj,'e varii> from jmn-w hitr lo vcllow, 

orange, ro-e, Marlet, irimson. and deep red. Double form- are 

common Imt not de>iral'le. .\ iied will 

often i)er|)etuate it-elf. and in -onie place- 

the plant per>i>ts about old j,'arden-. It i- 

tender to frost and the -eed should lie >o\\ii 

late, as, like the corn and the cue umber, a 

warm root-run is essential. 

The seed-ves.-el is intere.-tinji in -true I 

ure; the lower |)art of the ovarv unite- 

witii the bottom of the ealyx, and the re 
suit is that when the eai)sule i- mature 
the ui)i)er part come> olT, a- if it were a 
lid, and discloses a tiny dish of fruit. 

I'ur-lane, l'ortiilii<a olmuai, i- the "I'us- 
ley" hated of {gardeners and of amateurs. 
A coinmon trailing; weed in sandy soil, it remain> true to its j^ens 
and thrives in the lierce-t sun. Thi^ leave- are small, obovate, 
very ol)tu>e, very thick, dull-j,'reen or recldi>h. 'I'he smooth 
l)rostrate stems },'o out in all direction- from the root crown, 
the thick lei'ves lie u])on tiie <,'round or ri-e a few inche.-, and 
in the hot sun of midsummer noonday it open- a few small, 
paIe-\ellow (lowers ver\- clo-e to the -tem. The^e rijien man\ 
seeds. This "Pusley" i> sometimes eaten a> jfreens, but there are 
French u]m<rh{ forms that are much better and are cultivated as 
food plants. 




I'iir~l.uic. I'lirluLiij ,'l,rj,r,i 



MQ 



NYMPH^AGE^ WATER-LILY FAMILY 

WHITE WATER-LILY 

wuh pink .lowers. Jun. to Septemher '•^' " ^-"-"^ '"'" a form 

Another species, Xymplura lul,n\s„ is as.-,,;-,,,.,! «■;,! ■. • „• 

»-a.... B.„h are ,he p™i,i„, ,„ „»„, ,;;:;;;",::;::' ""'"" 

s™;T£.rni'&,'':yiLt'n:™.°" •-"■^ "» ™-« --^ «'■«. 

r«.di»h, hair,!; uppir si^rlZ.ftlJ.'taS'n cn'rij^ "''' "' ''■"' 
Peliole.~Lon^, hr)l!ow, strong. 
FWm.-FIoating, large, white, fragrant. 
■Sepals — Four. 

all'ttaS: '" ""■"' ™'' ■"*""' "" "■' -->•, pas™, ,,ra,l„. 

b.S;! Jp'^arfj^rtwi^rtrl' "•;■'"' '?■ •"*■ <"■"■""■■'« 

lop. The tJui, ri,».ns unA^^va,™ """"•'• '"■ '""■'■ "I*" »• the 

150 



WHITE WATER-LILY 




^\■hitc \\'atcr-Lily. Xymplia:a udorata 



WATER-LILY FAMTT v 



i -S 



Iroin ihv reck of the pond tho lily 

"" II in raiiiifiil white, 

•^ ^1' .1 of air and wati-r, 

A form of iiiiarnaif li^ht. 

Vet, ix.fpt for ihf rooti-d sti'iii 

That stfadii's her diadcni; 

Ivxcepi for ihi- earth she is nourished l,v 

C-.ul.l the soul of the lily have < limbed' io the sky? 

— I-ucY Larcom. 
Very generally thn.ughout ,he Xorthem States in ccT.ain elect 
aces, where the under soil is rich, the water sm.K.th and 
leep, preferably the l.crders ..f lakes and the slack water ..f riv r 
th.s ..ter nymph tlnds her heme. The great leaves hav tW i 

V a to he surface on pet.oles adjusted to the water's depth; and 
at length when summer days are long and warm, the ills .,p n 
nd t e many-petalled cups of snow appear, so perfect in form, 
1 cate m texture so spotless, so fragrant, that one stands charmed 
In- their exquisite heautv. 

falp'Shl"""' ,";"•'"' '"'' " '" '"^^•"■^'' '-^t 'hat rises and 
Is ., h the undulat.ng .low of the water. The petioles-strong 
.How tUK.-are quipped to hear the stress and pull of mud and 

about three days, openmg m the morning and dosing at night 
Afterward t e -.etiole begins to curve and coil and .fnallv pu ,s 
he seed-pod -v, h the remnants of the ,xnals beneath the'w'at 
NNhere ,t npens, dropping the seeds on the water door 

all narr 'fT'"' "f --^^"'^'"^ ^^^ --"^'''-1 ^'.^■mpha.as from 
IJ ; of the world, varying in size from the enormous VM„ 
r^Su^of he Amazon to the tiny ./.,„ .,;,,„ ,, .^e ga de 
n coI.,r hey run through a wondrous scale of white, cream v cV 
"u pmk, lavender, blue, scarlet, and crimson. Thev a p.n^r 
•-t .n types and in hybrids, but .Iwavs and ever, "gn 
srna^, tender or hardy, bl.K.ming by day or blo^n:;^;^ : 
n.ght, they possess a share of the same inccmparable gra,- 

;; r"' ' ' '"" "" "'^" '"''''''' ^^■^"^■■-''''>' -^'"4/- 



•52 



NELUMBIUM 

NELUMBIUM. SACRED BEAN. EGYPTIAN LOTUS 

.\,l,h„hiu>„ ,mli,„. .\rlumlni,m s!>,; i„s,n,,. 
Xehnnl.,, is .h. (•..yl„n..sr „anu ui ih. i:a>. hnlian >,„..!.■.. 

A,uaMc perennial, half-hanly. one uf ,he l.es, .,f lar.e ,„.„.! slants, 
'-nina, Japan. 

Rhizomes. Thick, usually tuher-hearinK 

st.i,f^ems. ^'"■^'' '""''' ''"' '" ''^^'' '"'■^^^ ^""-' ^"'i'^'--y -" tali 
Sepals. Several, passing into ])etals. 
/V/(//,s. -Pink, in several rows. 
StameNs. .Many, on broad, .short filancnt.s. 
J'lslils Many, each sunken in the obconical and nearlv tlai ioi,i„.,l 

\Mien ripe they resemble acorns. ' 

Xdumbo, ,.r as it is m..re c..mm..nly called, Xelumbiuni. i. „nc 
of the best ..f the large p„nd plants and should be gr-.-un in as.„- 
natiun with the Xympha'as. It is kn.nvn in the trade as Kgvptian 
Lotu.^, but the real Kgyptian Lotus was a water lilv, .V v,i,/,/,«.,, 
rccruleu. However, that matters little and, furthermore, '.Wlum- 
l)ium was and |.erhaps still is s.Hred in India. At anv rate it is a 
very mteresting plant and produces vetv beautiful pink llowers 
..1 the water-hly ty|K- about si.x inches in diameter; and in the 
centre of the (lower, surrounded bv rows of vellow stamen^ is -i 
curious top-sha|R.d body who.se Hat upper surface is apparenth- 
studded with tiny green acorns These apparent aeon:, are the 
ovaries; the little knob at the top of each is its stigma; the big 
lit iy top is the receptacle which envelops and protects them. 

Our first Xelumbiums came to us from Kew (Jardens where 
they had been cultivated for many years, but now fiesi, imj.orla- 
tions come directly from Japan. 

Water Chincjuapin, Xt^iunhium lu/r,n>,, is the .American repre- 
sentative of the genus, called locally (Jiant \\ater-Lil>-, and found 

'1^ 



WATER-LILY FAMILY 

alHm,hMUlyinaf.u.h,Kc.n,,laa.s; amnn« .l,.... .lu- mar>lu.. ,.f 
.San.lu>ky Hay. on tlu' MmlluTn >l,nr. of l.ak. Kri.. an- wdl knnu,, 
f In- s,Hru-. „ moM ahnn.lan. aln„. ,h, |in,. .,f ,1,, (Jrc-at I ak.. 
an.l „ Ldirvcl 1.. have- lurn .liWminatr.l In the Indian, 

Ilu. Mn,,.,m i> lari^v. vU'Ui u, wn in. li.. a.n.,, tlu- „,.al, 
ar. ydlou .pcvn. an.l .l,.. ,„.,aN . l,an«. fn.n, ih. .nrni,!, vdl.'.w 




Ntliiniliiuin. X.liiiiihiiim i„,i;,.i 

of the outer nm- to the <lee|,-eream of the inner nms. Kaeh ton 
sha,,e<l axeptaele bears usually more than a dozen ripen..! nu.s. 
The Nvild du.ks know the home of Xelumhium and eagerh .e.-k 

the arorns— the meat is verv nVh. 

L-nlike the water-lilies, the l.Iossoms an.l leaves of Xeluml.ium 

stanc well out of the water; the fruit ripens at the summit of an 

upn«ht stem; and when the receptacle dries the nuts shake out 

ol tlieir httle cases into the water beneath. 



»S4 



RANlNCUlACK/E CROWF'ooi FAMILY 

TIh' ,.lan.> nf ,|,i, .rn„|, a,r prin. i|MlK I.ctI,.. will, an a. rl.l 

nwU In. un ,lu. wh..lc. i„di.au..l l,v havln, Munu.r.n,. Mam..-,. 
t.MK.lly „.,,,,,,,,,, ,,i^,il^ ^.ll.lu|.ar,...f,|,. ,„....r.|iMi„.; 
^'".la ,n>c.r,ol..„,h..r..v,.,a.k., 'JV .aivs i, ,.,•,.„ ..,|..r...| |i^, 
a <-..r<.lla, when tlif latter i> wantiim. 

'I-lH' ,.ri„n,,al ,anln, r,.pr.>n,u,iu.. ar. .>..,„., CU.,,,..,!,. 
•ark>,Hir. M..nk.hnn.|. C.luml.inc-, Anem.,,,., fK,,,„i,,, .v,,,,,,-, 
UultcT. u|>. I n.|liu>, ncll..l.un., .\i«dla. an.l Thali. trum 



PEONY 

Pniiiiia h \hri,l,i. 



P"on.„ ,s ,h.. an.u-n, C.nvk nan,, of ,ho R.nus a.Tc,,,..! l,v „„. 
K.,n,a„s an,l l.v u. Tlu. Chi.u.s,. nan,... //„. On,n„. ,i,„i,l.:. ,„.• 

r^.'S,an,ar.N,.alliMh,.R,,.,,,.,u. Mountain. .,/,„.„.,.,„.: 

-.n .he. ,,hysi.ian, who h,.al..,l .■|u.o of .h. „o„n.i in.li, ..i ,.■ 
H.r.u .... A I..SS ,,o..,i,.al ..x,,lana„on i. ,h:U ,h.. uonl i, .Lnv.-l 
fnm, Ia.on,a. a rnoun.ainou. .omury of Mar. -don;.. uh.T.. .on,,. 



ot ih.. >|.fi ic, ^row wild. 

A Kar.K.n ra.T of .najinil.a.nt i>l,..,„iinK perennial. w,„ 
t'^rm.s have been in eultivation in .\sia an.l in Kun .;.• f, 
;>! yeans. May, June 



iii.s.. piiniitiv." 
'"■ lli.iusand.s 



/?..•.'/.- Fleshy, thieken.s to form upriKhl n.ot.storks. 
Slrni. Stout, two to three iVet hi"l, 

sinS:^:;- .l.!^;r' ^'"""- • ^^"'^'"^^-" ''••^■P •••■> t: ..ure-whit.., both 



'.'.^ 



\ '.to*'" 



C ROWFOOT FAMILY 

•**''>'/v, rrif.nial, (i.iHiiv,. 
I'll.lh. I i-.,. I,, „,,,,n 

;.:;:!:,,;■"" :;"^*^' •'"-^--..^; >.,«„..... ...,. 

l^'^^M. in Mav an.' („„(• t.. ,1 ' ' """•^ '^''" I' ^Mlorn our 

'-': ^''''''-'#'/'..../s/v.,/../A,;;, ^ ; ;.'''^«'•'>'■'' 
'•--..'<■ Kan.. :V:;;r:;:;M-;:::^' '"'' -''- 

Man (.iniinK "in ,,| l,arl.ariMii c uliiv,,,. ,i 
"h.,1, tlun, „,„„. „,„„n,l ,1,„„ ,],.■ I„.|i,.f ,l„„ |,i, '.„ ,,,' ■ „ 

^^.|;..:«M..:u,u,J,;;t,:;;lr;"::t;n,;:;,;;;;-7-"' 

'■'"■■■"■•"■."""■"■" -■'..■.•.«,„.ii..,„„i '■,;""; 

;;;;:;;:; ^-t "i;-- '-™'^- '^- -- -^"...it;' ; 

nij^Minian ). ii .^ irnuTallv r-c ..ninifndi-d to iik.. ;. ,,, . ■ . 
f"r it the w.,o,lncrkfr .,f \\\r I, M ' '" "'^'"' 

'lii>an.,ont Ldu-f i„ uu. mr-hVina! virtm-s of ,1, . P ' , 

' :'""'-■ "•;'"■" "■."I"''-". »'. .n,„,, I,,,,,,., .i„,„,,, '. 

IS6 



DOUBLE RED PEONY 




L>ouljle ' al I'cuiiv. 1\ 



(conia o;;icinalii 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 



"ir I.M |^■,,„^ .uhix.,„.| In \.u Ki.d.in.l .ui.l tlu' Nri.l.llr 
Stau.. ua. tl... DnMhl.. K...I, ,,)n, I, i- ,,ill a laSMri.r. |, i- „,,. ,|„. 
KftluT .Irar u lur.- ihi, |,,rn, nrNrl,....!. |,ui ii „•.„,- I,, \uu- 1...,, 
l.n.M«hM„.\ntu,.r|M,,.l,.la.l.r,,arl n| ,1,.. niunuh , n„nn ami 
from tluT.. v.n «,n.rally ,li~iril.„ir.|. |'rul„,I.K. j, „.„ Lr,,,,^,,,, 
t.. Manhattan l.yth..|)ui,h; ..rtainlt i- that ...r a l„n« linu. th.- 
..nl> Penny .,) Anu-rlran nanUns ua-,lhc K,,| I',.,,m\ 

_/■<"//// .///.//;.//„. thr \\hitrn,,u.r,-.i l',..,n i, a plaf.t „i ,1,,. 
Nnrlhland-. .icIiUmI in the l.nck. t,, Ml„ria. 

II i^ .lilliMili in !,<■ al.M.lut.ly .vriain ,,| thr tvpi.al fnrm nf 
a l.lani wl.i. h l:a> Inn^' l,.m in .nltivatin„. |,„i wlui j. Ldirvnl 
tu l,r thr nri,-inal Inrn, i, nt-ht m tn, ,,..,ali..,l. |,nr,-vvl„u.. ,|,.|i;.-ht 
fully fragrant. I,,ur m ilv.. ,„. Jus i„ .lianufr. rather , u,..,ha|.nl 
an.l in the ..ntre Is a . luMrr .,f Lri^'ht-villnw Manun^ |{^ 
cru.>,nK the .lifferent vari.tir. .,f /'„„;,/„ ,<///,/„„//, ,,i,|, r,,,,,,;], 
ohjlor,,, tin. ra.v nf .Inttl.i.. Pc.nnie^ rattKi,,,- fmm i-ure-while ,n 
«Ut|. . nm>nn v,a> pnHlu.r.l. In the .levelnpnient nf ,|u- vanVlie> 
;.l l..-.lay anniher >train l.a> mn.ril ute.l; thi, is the .\Fnntan nr 
Iree I'entn nf China an<l Japan, the nnlv w.mhIv Pennv nf ,he 
world. 

The lir>t nf the .\I.,iitans were l.rnuL!hl int.. Kn^iand in i-Sg- 
otlHT> snnn fnjlnwed. They . atiie in nianv fnrm> and ui vanV.i 
cnlnr>: fnr these Were l,y nn means Pen„ie> i„ ,!„. raw. thev had 
Lfhind then mnre than a thniisand years .■ „. h eultivatinn as 
'•nly Japanese -ardeners knnw Imu in .\,,.. Snn.e nf them had 
l.mi dnul.le so InnK that they had fnrKn.te,. hnw m he sinj,;,. 
OtluTs were in sin^-l.- fnrm; nne nf these the sn-ealle,l - pnppv- 
'l"wore.l," white uith a inirple spn, at the l.ase nf ea, h petal is 
I'olieved tn he tlie nn^inal wild fnrm, l.ut nn nne reallv km.ws 
Iheir.nlnr ran«e swept fmm pure-u hite an.l llesh thnni-'h a 
marvell.ms ^mnp nf salmnn pinks m a lemnn-vellnw and an in- 
tense tawn\-red. 

As a result nf hyl.ridizatinn and seie.iinn there has I.ei.n prn- 
d'-mi the present -anlen ra^r, which, (..unlin- tlinse in Kiirnpe 
and this country, numbers something nver a ihuusand natiie-l 
varieties. 



SIlfGLE WHin, |.K(»NY 




iJinglc White Peony. l\cd,iia albi/oliu 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 

The Peony is >ai,l ,„ be a gn.ss feecler, l>ut when one realizes 
he amount of ,, ant energy re,,uire.| ,o Nrin^ ,o n.u.ritv such a 

•Irnc an enK,ne unless ue ..ve i, fuel, nor can we expee, line .lowers 
unl- we ,,ve Uk- ..ant the mean. ,o produce thln. and o,;; 
plant ^c.,.a!.le of assimilating lar.e ..K.ntities of food could pro- 



COLUMBINE 

■ \'/i(i7r,i;i,i vul,i;,iris. 
■i.,'u/r,i„ fn„n ,„/,u/r,n.. ual.r-.lrau..,-; m,„ f,-,,,,, „,„//,. .,„,., 

A harcly ..erenniai, native to Kun.pe and nor.lK.rn Asia, long natural- 
ized in America. Summer. 'Muirai- 

.. :::d,;Ks^i:-S:-vJ^^^^^^^^ 

^^ H.«... Showy, noddin,, horne in ,.,..se panicles, blue, pink, Ir 
Scp,ils. Five, e(|ual, ovate, spreading, petal-lil<e 

.SVmm,,,- NJany, „„ r,|„i,„.„„. „,|,i,.|, ,.„,. ,,, ^,^^^||^ 

/•>/»•/. Five, many-.secded follicles; .seeds small. 

The dowering of the Columbine Commendable, as Skelton 
called .t four hundred years ago, marks the beginning of sum- 
mer. I he reign of the bulbs is over- 

••■I-lK- win.! Il„„cr- an.l ihc violet they p.rishcl Icn^ ««„,•'- 

the ,>etals of the early roses are falling; the elder blossoms show 

white along the fence rows, and the season wa.xes to its prime 

A wdd dower of Fngli.), field, the Columbine .as earh- trans- 

en.cl mto Kng^ish gat-dens and has held its place secureiv there 

for at least live hundred years. Its seeds were among the treasures 

i6o 



COLUMBINE 




CROWFOOT FAMILY 

Lnrnc OUT s..a t„ ,1,,. new worM, an.i it .arlv l.loomed in PilRrim 
f^anlc-ns. This primitive st.K k >till persists in cultivation, s„ vi«- 
..rous and so virile as to challetiKV suc.c-ssfullv tlu- later arrivals 
and the newer favorites. 

The llower of the Columbine is a uni.,ue and infrestinf,' form 
I he sepals look like petals and the petals are veritable horns of 
plenty, tilled with nectar at the closed end for the >uarms of bees 
whuh gather about. The sweets are pnukued bv the blossoms 
on a generous scale and to a Columbine be.l in full bloom the bees 
o.me, b,K and little, noisy and silent-all gi.ldv with the feast 
i here is no use trying to drive them awav for thev will n<,t go 
Clumsy bumblebees with tongues long enough to reach the 
h.mey by the open door, wise honey-bees who have learned to 
take the short road t. the nectar by biting through the spur 
•liMct brown bees, little gven car,,enters-all are there, '"vehement' 
voluble, velvety,- in a glorious riot of happiness and honey 

Ihe .loubling (KTurs chielly with the petals: the sq.aN as a 
rule hold true to the five. Hut the petal, sometimes .iouble in 
number, becoming ten spurs in place of five, and each spur be- 
comes a nest of spurs like a set of Chinese cups, though the inner- 
most are frequently imperfect. 

The colors are not always desirable. Dark opac^ue-blues 
smoky-purples, muddy-pinks abound, although pale-blues ex- 
qu.s.te-lavenders, and pure-whites al.o abounrl. In anv group of 
Aiimlcgia vulsuris white should be abundant; it is the one effectual 
[)eacemaker. 

RED COLUMBINE 

Aqui/igia caimdnisis. 

The common, perennial Red Columbine, often called Honeysuckle 
(.rowing in ledges of rocks throughout the \orth. .May, June. 

-SVfw. -One to two feet high. 

Leaves Radical or alternate on the (lower .stem; twice or thrice 
imlmately compound, the .livisions in threes, leallets roundish 

in/'s^ms'" ^''"''■■■' ""'''''"^'' '"^ '"'' ■■'"""■' ''"'■"^' ""' '^^ ^"^ »f '^'■^"ch- 

162 



RED COLUMBINE 



i 
I 




Red Columbine. Aquilcgia canadcn.sis 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 



f I 



I I 

I I 



If. 



an 



Sepals.-Vivc, j-cuil like, similar, rcl tinsel wit), ydiuw. 

Petals. VWo between the sepals, each c.nsistin.' of a spur an.l 
open border; spurs red, Ijorder yellow. ' 

67<im««. -Mar.) on the recquacle; filaments of varvinn lengths 

...Ssurfa^rit sS.'^""^'' ""'' '-'' '' ^''^""^^ ^'>'^' -""'^ ^'i«- 
Fruit. I'hx many-seeded carpels; seeds small. 

The Red Columbine is the native A^uilc^i^i , „f New KnKlan.i 
and the Middle States. Its ch„sen home is am<,nK th. nnks 
and one often sees it in early .spring elinginj,' to a cleft, the stems 
dancmg with the wind and the llowers atlame against the .^r „• 
edges. A wild creature, it submits to civilisation if it must "but 
loses something of itfe rare grace therein-. It is better in the 'rock 
gcu-den or the wild-tlower section than along the garden walk 
1 he wilfulness of the untamed is in its blo.Ki, and ii vields its IkkIv 
but not It. .,pirit to the fetters of the gardener. The stalks send 
out their lateral branches at a wide angle, and these divide again- 
this makes the llowers unmanageable when cut and emphasizes 
the fact that they never should be forced to do household dutv 
1 heir role is the simple life out-of-doors. 

_ In order to obtain the plants it is best to gather the ripe seeds 
m July and s.,w them so that the seedlings are well established be- 
fore winter. Such plants will bloom the next vear 






WESTERN COLUMBINE 

Aquilegla camutcims \-ar. /,.n,„h.,. . 1 .i^ilcgh, formimi. 

Plant of the habit of the Red Columbine, though i, prefers low, moist 
situations, found from .Sitka to California and ea.st to the Rockies 
Appears in our gardens as a primitive and in hybrids. May to August.' 

Stems and leaves. \.\k^ those of Aquilegla canadensis. 
Flmvers. Red and yellow. 

Sepals Longer than the spurs; spurs rather spreading. 
Stamens and pistil. Likt the type. 

164 



I 



COLORADO COLUMBINE 

This Western C.lumhine >eem> i.. \,v ihv R,.,l CnlumlMtie nf 
the Kast that has sutTered a mountain change; ,.r what i. nmre 
I.n.bahle the tw.. are brothers, only one ha^ I.een .levelo,,o.l in 
the Kast and the other in the \\e>t. The i:a>tern f.,rm l.nes the 
HK-ks, the Western makes the vallexs gay. Tlu. Wixcrn hears 
more gold in its petai>; the, are usually e.lged a> well a> lined with 
yellow. Its spurs and petal liml.s are c ..niparativelv >hori. I,ut the 
sepals are large, and the many stamens and l..ng, slender styles 
protrude like golden tas>els trom each (lower. The foliage is 
very abundant, dark-green above and pale and whiti.>h ;.nder- 
neath. 



COLORADO COLUMBINE 

Aquil(\c;i,t tiniilni. 

The State llower of Colorado, native lo the low r mountain regions 
from Montana to Mexico. .April to Jul v. 

.S7««.--One to two and a half fi-et high, thulv pubescent above 
bearing hxise panicles of flowers. ' m aixm, 

Af<n'«.-Radical or alternate on the stem, twice or thrice palmately 
cominmnd, leaflets three-lobed. ' """''''^'> 

Flowers.—Two inches acro.s.s, blue and wiiite. 
Sepals.—Ohen blue, oblong, obtu.se. 

„.t,'?'"?".:T^M?'J*? "'"■"''''[ ■'''"'■'• '''^^'''' ■^"■'"'«'" ''^'» ^""-''"K outward, 
white dashed with blue, and small knoijs at the end. 

Slamens.—'Sla.ny, protruding. 

Pistil— OS .several carpels; styles long and slender. 

Fr«;/.— Several follicles, i)ube.scent; seeds many. 

It would be interesting lo know what personal experiences ante- 
dated the vote of the members of the State Legi>lature of Colorado 
which made Aquilcgi,! nrnila, the State tlower. Kor Colorado 
was first a trapper's land, ne.xt a miner's State, and this beautiful 
[ilant in bloom must have been asso. iated with manv a toilsome 
climb and many a weary day. One finds it on the Hanks of the 
high moujitains. 



^1 



16,1; 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 



GOLDEN COLUMBINE 

A</iii/if;i,i (lirysdiilliii. 

Xalivv U, Ari..,na an.l \fw M.xio.; a,,,,farinK in .,ur Kar.lfns l,„th 
as pnmitivf and in hyl.rids. May to August. 

.SVew. -Three to four krt iiigli. 

/.Anr,?. Twice or thriee i)almatelv rompoun.I. 

/•W.v. _ Al.undant on the stem, /^ol.len yellow with paler tints two 
to three inches across. ' n , i"o 

Sepals. - Fale-yellow, often with a claret tint sprea.jinj,' horizontal! v 

Slamens. -Muny. 

CarpHs.~Scwra.\; follicles glabrous; seeds many. 

As a hri^'ht effective flower this 
gulden Mossom, poised delicately in 
air as if in upward (light, is cer- 
tainly not sur|)asse(i |jy any other 
inmate of the garden. 

There are .several Siberian (^.1- 
umbines in cultivation, which have 
added nnich to the beauty of the 
garden f,'rou|) both as primitives 
and hybrids. They are character- 
ized by lilac-blue flowers, both light 
and dark, lai ■ sei)als, short blunt 
spurs considerably incurved, and in- 
cluded stamens. .i(/iulci;i,i ghiudii- 
losd, A(/m/cgi„ Sibcrin,, mu] Aquite- 
^i" oxysvpaUi are the best known. 
Among other Columbines ma>- be noted Aquilc^l,, Skhmeri an 
intereKtmg .species from the mountains of northern .\rexico bear- 
ing flowers with green sepals, greenish-orange petal limbs and 
hnght-red spurs. All these are probably ,)erennials v hen at 
home but do beuer in the garden when treated as biennials. 

1 66 




("■olilin ('oliimt)ine. Aquiegia 
ihrysdnlha 



DELPHIWIUM 

All the Aqiiileiiiir hyiiridizf rt-adiiy; inderd, the |)r<.l)lfni of 
the growers In to ktrn llu' sfL'<l> Iriu', for tiu' Iiimh t> Iw hridi/r tlu-m 
and it is almost impos^iliic to prevent it. Tlierefore imyers 
should be charital.le if the purii '.-.•d >ee(ls do not always eonie 
true to name. 



DELPHINIUM. LARKSPUR 

I >f! /illinium. 

Dell'hinium, V.n-vk, a ddliihin; from the -liaix' ,,f ihc fluvcr. 

The garden race of Del|)hiniums are hybrids; annual or jK-reiinial 
herbs. 

.S'/fw. -F-'rect, sim[)!e or branched. 

Lenvfs. .Mternate, iK-lioied, palmately divided. 

Flowers. Barne in showy racemes or panicles, each llower starting 
from the axil of a slender bract. 

Oj/v.v.- Fmvc pefil-like sepal.s, f,'rown together, the ui)i)er one i)ro- 
liuccd as a lonjj sjjur behind. 

Petals. - Two to four; the two up|)er with spurs which lie within the 
spur of the se])al; the lateral ones when present small and si)urle.ss. 
Slameits. yidny. 

Pistil.^Ow in the annual forms; three in the i)erennials; forminc' 
many-seeded pods. 

Our garden I)el|)hiniums are hybrids and may be divided into 
two well-marked groups: the annuals and the i)erennials. The 
annuals are largely descended from Drlp/iiiiinni .liads. 

Most of the highly bred Delphiniums are the result of cr()>si. ^ 
Delphinium elalitm, the old continental form, with Delpliiniiim 
J'ormdsum, which brings in the pale-blues, and with Delphinium 
^randifldrum, which gives size. Scarlet llowers indicate a strain of 
Californian blood. 

l)el|)hiniums double so easily, hybridize so readily, respond to 
environment so quickly that the genesis of any hybrid can only 
be established by record. The gardener's ideal has been the full- 
flowered si)ike with a goodly range of colors on the chord of blue. 
Other colors seem by-products; we think ul Lark>pur as blue. 

167 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 



S<.mf , J th..>«. I.hu.s arr pak- as tlu- >ky. s..me pure, ..halt, ..tlu-rs 
in(liK'..,an.l >t.ll otl,cr> arc a , trailer Umkvn l.luf. K-.rK.'ou - an.l in- 
tnist', yd impure. HlittcrinK ..n the Mirfa.r as if it wm- strewn 

with l.n.ken f,'lass, and sometimes dark- 
ened into red. The tentre of a Lark- 
spur is often f;rotes(|ue, the hairy 
i>flals U)ij,'est a l.ee at the heart ..f the 
llower, and the (lower itself looks like 
a little creature poised for lli^ht. In 
structure the garden ra( c has chanK'nl 
very little from the primitive tvDe, 
though that tyi)e has wandered . ir 
from the simplirity of the buttercup 
which names the RnuiiHiiihimr. 
Whatever jjath of evolution the Lark- 
spur lias trod, it is ver_\ clear that the 
goal at which it has arrived is cross- 
fertilization hy means of the bee. At 
some time along the path the calyx 
took on the duties of the con.ila, be- 
came highlv colored, develo|)ed a spur 
while at the same time the corolla lessened both in size and in 
importance. The stamens mature before the pistil and are so 
placed that the bee cannot get at the honev without covering 
her head with pollen which she then bears to another flower. 
The stigma of any bloss.im is not in evidence until the anthers 
nave pas.sed. 

MONKSHOOD. ACONITE 

Acointiim iiafx'/liix. 

A hardy, erect perennial, v'th jx.isonous juices; i,oaring flowers of 
singular shafx-; formerly much u.sed in borders. Native to central 
Europe. July and .\ugust. 

/?fw/.— Tulierou.s, turnip-shajK-d. 

Stent. Tall, erect, three to six feet high. 

Lenvr:!.- Alternate, >lcvply cut. 

i68 




I)il|iliiniiitn. Ihlpliinliiiii 



MONKSHOOD 



/•Amrrv. - Dark, vi..|.t hlii,-, Ix.riic in a terminal ratrnif, .adi il,i\Mr 
sul)ti-n(k(l hy Um> small l)iai Is. 

S,p„ls. livi; iipiKT srpal a li I whidi >liul> ,l„wn ,,vrr ilir twc 

latfrai sepals and ..ver .lie iw.. haninur like petals; the tw.. luwer sepals 
are small and jiointed 

Sl,iiufus. Many, the lilanients n.lierinK inin a shuri ti.'.c. 
/'/V//V.V. Three to live, developing into many seeded lollieles, 
Slifiimis. Not receptive until alter the anthers mature. 

The ni..nk>li,H,.| ,,f >ialely nn.wlli. Helsy, ailed I )un,Med.ire\ Kelinht, 
and was not aware that ;he plant, in wh.ise ,, wl-shap.d (lowers that l.usv' 
and iHvst-natm-e.l uf all inserts appears i,, rev.l, i, the dea.llv a.. .nit.- <.'f 
whuh she rea.! in po.t.y. - "'|1,.. i),K,nr," SoliiiKV 

This i>a beautiful 

stately plant j'ound 

in old gardens hut 

not much favored 

in new ones; for its 

acrid juices ate e.\- 
ceedingly poixmous 
and C()nsc(|uently it 
has heen banished. 
From the root is 
obtained tiie aco- 
nite of the materia 
meditd. 

The root is harm- 
ful only when eaten, 
and |)eople do not 
a> a rule eat tlie 
rootsof their llower- 
ingplants; but there 
is just en()uj,di uncertainty about it to make owners of <,'ardens 
nervous when children visit them. The general a,)i)eararce of 
leaf and tlower stalk resembles the larkspur — tall, cylindrical 
in etTect, crowned with a crowded raceme of blue :.r viok-t flowers. 
The blossom, like that of the lark.-pur and the columbine, has 

169 




M'inksh'KMl, Aii.n'iium tuipillus 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 

an..i-n( nanu-, M..nk>ho,.|. i.uallv .1,.... , . 



WILD CLEMATIS 

' It'itUliis liri;iiii;inii. 
r/.«,.//v,,l>..(;r....knanu- Ufa. Ii„,|„n« plant 

.SVm-. \\,„„|y, climljitiK, sm.x.ih 

-X.5:i;rSv,>i;-,:-,,:-;^,.™.»...... 

Ca/; |.„ur pctal-like st-pals, whi.., ,hin. 

«-;^in tl^':;LLtc" ""'>•«--"--•- an.l pis,i„au. ,,.....; 
As the carpels ripen the styles lengthen into conspicuous fea.herv taiis 

*f trees. It may generally l,e found throughout the Vorth 
plan, shoulders i,s way up ,„ ,he sLlgh, ' ""'"""' ^" ""' 



WILD CLEMATIS 

The ('Icmati>M.m,I,K>n..Mu inr.il |.ui^ l.,r.h n.. trn.lriK; ilu- 
!.-a |H..,..U., .1.. ,lu. w.,rk; tlu'v lakr a >,.rl ot sniu,'- knu. alnu., 
-ullyinK l.ran.ho an.i tuJK-. an.l in ti.i. uav ilu- s,,n, riM-> lit. I,- 
l.v littif unri, havin« na. lu.l lIu- l.,,.. i, ,|.r,,u|, .,,1 it. |.a„i.lr. 
nl while star, to tlu- ...|i^h, ;„„| r,.j„Kr> in it> mi. , ,»,. 

The ll.mrr are „i tw., kin.l>, pistillate an.l slanm.ai... horn.. 
Usually ..n .lilU-rent plants, snmelimes .,n tl... same. Th.- ^lan.i 
nate ll.mers have white piuniy 
stamens, thox- in the verv 

«entre pale-yell. w, while ilu- 

pistillate ll.)wers have a lum. li 

of carpels K'ivinj,' them a Kreen 

eentre. I're(|uentl;- tie pistil- 
late llouers Iiave .tanuns as 

well, hut these ale often sterile, 

maile of filaments .mlv- n.i 

anthers. 

After fertilization the styles 

•lo not fall ..tY -.)n the n.n- 

trary they lH.'f,'in to ji;r.>w and 

I'I'come l.mg, hairy tails to the see.l-v.ssel hen.alh. linalh the 

plant covers it.s..|f with ihes.. plumy, Mlverv-white lumches; an.! 

Ixcmes mere noticeal.le even than when in llower 

This l.mK, trailing vine s.. a.iorned is the tropin of .,ur autumn 
xvaiks. an.l we hring it home with th.. po,|s of -he milkwee.l an.l 
the autumn leaws. The sinries is worthv ..f . ul;^ation as a fen.e 
.over an.l to give wil.|w<..Kl effects, it is not as go.Hl a por. h plant 
a.s Cln,!„/,s paitiaduta, an.l its llouers are not as fra-rant as 
C lenuilis /lum inula. " 

Leather-Leaf Clematis, Clcmalis vi6n,a, is a . limhing vine with 
puinately compound leaves an.i curious thick, leatherv tl..wers 
redd.sh-purple. Its scvds hear the chara. teristi. feallurv st^les 
and the stem climbs hy its leaf-stalks after th.- familv fashion ' 
_ The i,lant is of S.mthern and .S.,ulh-we.stern habitat an.! is ,ul- 
t.vate<l rath.T as an .)hje.t of intcrc-t than fur anv horlicuhurai 
value. 




S(;iiiiin,iti 1 l.,mrs .,f Cldn.iij, 



\\m 



CROWFOOT FAMILV 

JAPANESE CLEMATIS 



"IliltlK f>il)lilll/,llll. 



A Inirdv, vj 



u.a..«. ,„■,„.„„„„.,„,,„ ,M,,.,,;'' ;';.,,'■;:;::,,,,:;: 




ixtiolcs, j^Towin^' tin to 
twtnly firt in a >inL'lf 
NuninuT. 

/■eaves.' 0|,|„,,sit,., 
|>in (lately n.m|«.im(l; 
liallitsdirirtdrni, liuij;'. 
|>iliu|((|, (ivalfcordatf. 
•iilirf; ill so nil' forms 
t'U' Itallcis.arf i„|,,.,| 

l-limrrs. \\h\w^ ,■„ 
laiX'caxiliarv and tiTini- 
iiai panic lis. 

Sfpals. I'uiir, whiti-. 

hi,ils. Wanting;. 

Siaiiu-ns. Many. 

I'islils. Nfanv,' i,,njr. 
taili.landsilviTvin Irtiii. 



»y S«,l, ,,f j;,|,,,n,„. (■ 



.di.nt m.s.,n. miike our native CInuutis 



will 



'H-ar a sunny rv,,„si,re. The .'r.nvtli 



'V vir^iiihuui, the root 
' -'He uf the year to find a plan, hnrstin-. 

173 



n^,-z:-,- 



■^iSK^^^H^.?-^^' 



JACKMAWS CLEMATIS 




Jackman's Clematis. Clematis Jackmdn 



III 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 

into such sheets „f white blossoms with no distinction of location 
and no especial regard to sun or shade. Its virtues are so many 
that the llonsts' catalogues become positively enthusia>tic. 

LARGE-FLOWERED CLEMATIS 

Clematis Jackmduni. CUnuitis llnnyi, etc. 

All the Large-Flowered Clematis are hvhrids taking either the 
name of the pnKlucer or one that he gives. Jackman's Clematis 
was n;imed by Mr. Jackman. an Knglish florist, and is believed «, 
be a hybrid of Clemotis vilkello, a hardv European species with 
>Iue or purple flowers two to three inches across, an.l Clematis 
la„f;,m,ds„, a Chinese .species, with wliite or purplish llowers 
three to four inches across. 

All the large-llowered forms otTered bv the trade, under u hatever 
name they may appear, are probably either hvbrids or variants 
of these two species, with perhaps a strain of Clematis carulea 
also a Japanese species. 

The entire group is beautiful and worthv of all that is said in 
the.r favor. It must be remembered, however, in planting them 
that the vmes are valued principally for their bloom, and if abun- 
dant fohage is desired other forms must be associated with them 




ANEMONES 

Anemone roronaria. Anemone hortensis. Anemone japdniea. 

T^yo of the well-known garden .\ncmones bloom in the sprini;- one 
Japomca, is an autumn l)K«)mcr. ' 

Poi-I-y .Anemone, Anemone coronaria, is one of the spring bloomers 
whose home is southern Kurope. The roots are tuberous, the sren 
about eighteen inches high, the leaves ternately compound, and the 
poppy-like fl.,..-ers range through reds and blues as well as white The 
blo.ssom, like all the .Anemones, is made of coloral sepals; the corolla 
.s always ab.sent; the stamens are many and the carpels manv. Mav 

fiarden .Anemone, Anemone hortensis, is verv lik,- the Poppy Anem- 



one 



possibly not quite so large. The ilow 



'74 



ers are reel, rose-purple, 



rn 



ANEMONES 

or white, sin^li-, an inch and a half across In ,h , u ■ 

Ja,>ani« An™,,„., ,l„„,„„ ;„,,„„■„ ,., 

'"K, ine lca\es ternate and the 
flowers eitiier white or rose, two 
to three inches across. Sepals of 
• me to three whorls; corolla want- 
ing; stamens many; the carpels 
make a little green ball in the 
centre of the blossom. 

Although America has hcau- 
fifui native Anemones, those of 
the garden are aliens; two from 
southern Kur(.|x> bloom with 
the tulii)s and the daffodils; 
one from Japan keeps com- 
pany with the dahlia and the 
cosmos. 

The early Anemones require 
essentially the same treatment 
as tulips and arc usually classed 
\vith bulbous plant.s. They 
have held an honored place in 
Knglish gardens for three hundred veirs t,,..., 




.I^ipancsc .Ancmtmc. .1,, 



!/'»/»Hi jiipdnini 



The 
Thcv i 



^I)anc.se Anemones were I 
re excellent general ut il it v 1)1 



flourish in full sunshine, th 



Tought into England in 1844. 
plants; they bloom in shade, thev 



margins of streams and lake 
I'ut the white variety seem- 
a silvery-j)ink is niuc h 
A white J.'! panose A 



ey are hai)py and c( 
>• The color of the t 
to be the present favorite alth- 



mtented 

rose 



m e\idence. 



at the 
-red, 
)ugh 



The silverv star h 



nemonc i,, really a tiower of exquisite Ik- 



's a spread of two to th 



lutv. 



ree inches and in tht 



'75 



CROWFOOT FAMTT V 

centre is a green hall which undcT n ,tI-..c i 

cold. ' ''''''^^ "^ threatening .kies or pinching 

(..«„„... ' '• """■''■ ""■' "» *l''al'. find, <livid„l 

'•'■ "'1 nil, DCsl l.sthc Amfrii-in p.. i-i 

lavender .„„A|c T ™ 1 .,,f "Tf' "'""' "''"' " ''^-'' "' 

leave, in re.™ a„er n,':";,,;:;;;^ , ■'--...„„,.«„, 

,.ra™.s,,r,he We. an,, X ,_„,, and .1,1::, J "" '"'■ 

■■n a slender s.en, al,„„, »i, h , " ' : '.'7-~' "'■'"■ ''''-""> 
l«.ssins Lreeze. „ |,„|d,. i„ hea „• | ,', 7"" "'"' "'^' 

i' hans» >l..«n in dise„ura e,l f • "" '" ''"'"''• "'"■'kI' 

J!:^ -"^dt::, j:""r- •:"""»- ^""".-«'-', i^ a 

and e„.e. in,,, .t t;;: :::i,»;;;;.^-' ""■ I"""' »-<l.v and ro.n. 
'I- "in,. ,,l,t,. „p„,u, "''" "■' 1''™' ""■" '''"'""» I'm when 

176 



GLOBE FLOWER 

charming little plant, tlu. ,., oi^ht in.ho hi.h, In-arinK the- leave, 
of the meadow rue and a du>ter ..f three to the l..n-.temme<l 
Anem.,ne bl„s>,.ms. Will make beds of easiest euiture. Ii|.,oms 
in April and is altojrether lovelv. 

This plant seems t.. be a link between tw., well-defmed species 
-Anomnv an.l Thatkinnu. The little beautv e.,nse.,uenth- has 
never been permitte.l t., possess a name in peace but ha.' been 
tossed from Auemom- to Tludiclnn,, and back a-ain- then t.. 
Syndcsmou and now Ancmo„cll„. The erux of the matter lies i„ 
•some little tuberous roots possessed by the plant. 



GLOBE FLOWER. TROLLIUS 

TnUliiis niro/>,iiis. 

Tn.//i„s, fmm ,.1,1 (uTman ,n,ll, a gl„l,c „r s„mclhing n.un.i. in 
allusion l,> the >liain.- ,.f tlu- iLuvit. 

A perennial herb native to northern Kurope, Krowinj,' naturally in 
marshy i)laces. April, May. ' 

Stem.-ErvcX, one to two feet hi-h, often branching 
Aernri.-Palmately f.ve-parte.i; lobes cleft an.l toothed 
fW.. -Terminal, lemon-yellow, .lobu!..^ soli.arv or in twos 
Calyx.- 0{ petal-like sepals ten to fifteen i„ number 

Stamens. Nfany. 

Carpcls.—Many, which develop a hea<l of follicles. 

Trollu,s looks like a bi. sleepy buttercup which refus,. to 
''Pen, but, as a matter of fact, differs very cmsiderablv from the 
buttercup. Its apparent petals are really sepals; its 'true petals 
are small, narrow, nectar-bearing bodies surrounding the sta- 
mens 1 he (lower has a real globe shape and appears as if .emi- 
double. 

Trolliu.s asidtints has a more open flower than Trollius curob^cu, 
and m color range, from deep-orange to red. The gardeners arc 
seeking to o,,en all the blossoms in the cultivated form.; in this 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 



•-..vo .harm of „n. „.... ,,,\ Zj^^Zr^'l ' 

<;-■ more. bi,Mnntc.rcu,.. Inu no Ion. r rlr. V'. 
■"-I^'q-y, (;iol)e KloucT. graceful, w 



'"K >ii(((T(lcfl the dis- 

ill have 

inning, 



DOUBLE BUTTERCUP 

^"">'"""n,s,„n,v^a:/l,;rr-f,/h,„. 
R.n,w„ul,n. f,,„„ K,,„ II I . 
''- ''— 1.> uuh ,lu. f,„;'! "■ '"'''"^'■■"->"f-'H-|-ie. 

A full, (|()ul)k.-|],nv(.rc(l vanViv.f fi, 

-""'-.ion. <)n...f.K.o;:;:^:t,;;:~;"''^'''^^---.pi..n. 

,, "" ■^.^•'' '''^"J-l- juices wa.cTv, acrid 

."I'T:r,n,:;r'™,;;';;' ;"*•'"' ;"■'* "" w<'- .-.■ 

"■ill,„„l s,i,„ in |,a,,„r,.-l.„„i; ""' " '""'■■«■■< 

:- '"™.;™i a.a„,J.„,,,;, ;;:;,; :;: ■^;;;;«;; ■'■■ '-i' 

"«",.>, ,f „,„ a,|,„i„,i„„ ,,„ " -. '"'" «'"'*-■ "hull wm 

<,v«»»,,. >i«i"ii>, .1 name b,h.„ ,„ (■„,/„„„„ 

''^'^ ":'z::;::7,:'Tr :'""'''■ '- - "-"'* 



THALICTRUM 



THALICTRUM. FEATHERED COLUMBINE. MEADOW RUE 



I'hiiliitru 



III iii/ii!7t\i^if(i!iitm. 



ViTV graceful, puiiv tlouvml pcTcniual with lindv (Ifc.mpuun.l f..li- 
aj,'f. iMin.pc and nurtliurii Asia. May, July. 

■Slim. LuTfH; hollow, onr to thrir fcit hi^jh, },'huicous. 
/.<wxrv. AltcTnatc; omc or twiiv thm- to livr partf.l; l.atlcts .stalk.d 
or lu-arly scssrlc, roup.(h>li. -,h>;htly |..l,ai or ol.srunly toothnl. 
/■lourrs. Ill a corymbosi' |)aiiiiic; didcioiis. 
.Si-/},ils. White, (k'cidiious. 
J'flals. Wauling'. 
Sliimriis. Purple or 'vhitc, many. 
Ciirpfls. Thru -alibied, winjicd, oiu'-sccded. 

Thali.truni i-> valued for the feathery hea(l> of tl.mers whiVh 
<ontra>t well witii the handx.me -tern, and leave>. The llower.s 
are abundant, erowded, and without petal>. They lose their 
H-pal> early and tiien i.e(<inie >imply a ma» ,.f -lender stamen- 
i-.N.eedinjrly attractive an.l pretty. Tluilirtnim p,>lvi^.nui»,, the 
Tail Meadow Rue of Xortiiern lowland., is worthy of a i)iaee in 
the K'arden. It ^nnv- three to live feet hi^h and produces masses 
of white feathery bloom. Karly Meadow Rue. Thalhlniw </ioi- 
ni„u sh(.w> it> ta>selled fringe of tawny gold by the woodland 
paths in Ajjril. 



HEPATICA. LIVERWORT 

/frfxiliiu trUiihii. Ilrp,ili,,i •uiiiildlui. 
Ifrfhil:,,!. ]\\.-r- l■(■lVrrill^ in the -h.ipc of tln^ leaf. 

A perennial iicrb native to the ojieii woods of the northern 
.\merira, Kurope, and Asia. Forms tufts, blooms in the fort 
the leaves of the trees come out. Manh, .\pril. 

Srapfs. Four to si.\ iiuhes hiuh, downy. 

Lours. I.on,<,'-[., doled, ihiek, .vergreen, three lobed, renif( 

Fhnvcrs. Hlue, lavender, white, i)ale-pink, borne solitary 

srape; with ihrer involucra! leaves a quarter or an elgiilii \,\ 

H'low the blossoms looking like .-i ralvx. 

179 



parts of 
St before 



irm. 

on erert 
an inch 



TcrzTsnstz^ 



wmm 



^^WB 



fm 



CROWFOOT FAMTT V 

Corollti. Wanting; 

:«':;:„, "t *■•"'•'""*"' '-« -■ 

C'lrprls. Many, .„k.-,-.1K.<|, ,.„, ..vuK.l 
.■U'«-W.v.-Sh<)rt-I.,.akc<l, hairy. 

J-'— Un-l,„n,an,i,,n.,|. k,„„, ,,,„,,„,,.„ 
•W,.,.„,,„,,,,a,n.a.., ,.....,,, ,,,•,, ,,,,,,,, 

"•'" ^'■""■"> liMTw,,rl> i„ f,„rv 



ial>. 



-■•Tl..- liiKlou /■a,„.r>," L.av,;,,.. 






;i|»l>i'ar in warm 



^'^yryulKTr rocj^nizo.!. 'I'Ih' l,i..»n,7i. 
thirty ^divid'l '"'" ^''"'^ ^"■^'"^■'^''>- '•-''-"« ten u, 



The 



blo.-om i> wonderfiilh 



■T Aj.ril ,„.,«■ fall, ,l,i, I ,,„] f, , ,, . ' "• "" '"'^' "•""■- 

...>. oa,i ,„ „H. -„.,„ ™,i „„i, „„ ,,,: 1": ,,r'™ ■;;»■; 

•lurana. ..f .in.! and .n.n „ ' "'' "^''•! '" '""■"^' ^•"- 

'''esnn..ne. T,..re:;.:;;!,:x:::•;ti;!•:ru'" 
enclu^ancc of the .V,_,rth m..,r!« their vitah-.y. ' "'' 

iSo 



^i^^^ 
k$^ 



1 



i 



Wilrtijhi'i'i V r= ^: L?(li«7\ 



^^1*t5 



■■■*«''7;, j« 



HEPATICA 



I iircd 



Tin- nami's HepatuM and I.ivcrwnri luirk l,a< k m ihca^T ,,f the 

simpler, and trii,. l\u- d.Ktrinr .,f >iKnatun-,, In .n,-dia\"d nu,|i- 

ral prarlirr, it was In-lirvcd that cviry diM-aM- .mild !.»■ 

Mimi- plant; niorcovi-r, that 

tlii> |)lani ua> inditatfd \>y 

a real or fancii-d rosctn- 

hlaiKc hetwoon a j^iven 

part and the orj^an di> 

oascd. As till' leaf of the 

Hcpatiia is three lohed. 

it sUKj^ested the liver; hentc 

the plant was ronsidered 
a specific for disea>es of 
that or^an. 

A groiij) of Hepaticas is 
an aC(jiiisition to anv lawn, 
and may he easily ac(|uirt(l. 
F'lant the root> ahoiit 
the trunk or under the 
shade of a detiduoiis tree, 
preferably the maple. 
These roots are lovers of 
shade, leaf-mould, moist^ 
ure, and non-interferent c. 
The la>t cannot he em- 
phasized too nnuh. Let 
the bed alone. Let the 
autumn leaves sift flown 
upon and over it. niakinj; a 
l^rotectinji blanket, .\ever 
Jiernu't ihem to be raked 
away. Remember the 
Hepatica is a nurslinj; of 
the forest. 

Two si^ecies Krow ,.ide in >I,k- i,, ,nir Xortliern States, /frpal- 
i<ii Inloha, sometimes called the R,.und leafed Ilepali. a because 

l.Si 




Hi'lMtii.i. //f,M:i,,i .uiililvla 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 






(I 
am 



Adonis-, •laiijt-rl in 



SPRING ADONIS 

■ ['loins \rni,!lis, 

::;:::::! '- "■ ■»' '<..,u „ 



Jul 



A I.cr.n„ial, cul.ivatc.l f.,r ns showy, carlv u- 



Ivydl.nvlloucTs. Nativi. ,.f 
•*>>'«. ,Simf)le, ont- fo„t hij,), 

sc*:s:: '■■"■'■"■'•"'• '"■"I""' ".«H„*™,„„,,„^,,,„, ^.^^ 

^*-r™,,,,u,„,,,,a,,c„,,.,, »„„„„,, .„„ 

Carpels. Manv. 
/•>'"■/. An akcne. 

-L!'''"'""" ■■■■ « -'"o-h::;;:,;; ' "■-'> ■ -- 



1S2 









COWSLIP 



COWSLIP. MARSH MARIGOLD. CALTHA. 

< iillhii 'hihhtris. 
< ■;///(.;, an ;■,„ inn n.inii- ,,f the m:iri>5.,|.|. 

A stout suaul.-nt h.rl., with h,.||,.w M.n,> a.ul «l,.,.sv v.||,.w ,low..r.- 
ot.n. ,„ marshy Kruun.l an-l alu,,, >l,.w.,l,.winK strrarn's; imn, N.-w' 
fnun.llan.l to South Car ,a a.ul u. st a. lar a> X.l.raska. April. Mav. 

Stem. One to two iVct hi>,'h, furn.w.d, l,o||,,w 

ur^JJnat^''"""' ''" '""*'' '"■""' '"""'"-• """''•'"• "^ ^^'^if"^'"- '"'in' 

>'>//v. I'ivc t(. nine, [H'tal-hkc, iml.ricatf.l in l.u.l. 
I'ftals. N'one. 

Slamnis. Many, filaments and antluTs hri«l)tv.l|ow. 

/'/S7/V.V, -Five to ten, in a hea.l, ripeninK into many se.-.le.l p,„is. 

An.l the ,nar>h nuirigoM ,hi,u.s like- tin- in r,,-!,!, an.! ,„|„.., «,,„■. 

'f'l WVSOV. 

CiWut paliistns i> not ;i .NFariKold aii.i >tili le» i. it a C.w.lip 
l.ut both namrs (ksiKnate it. The Indian name. ()n..n.|,.,a •■!,' 
Nonm. in the swamps," is Lest of ail. if we o.uld nnlv make up 
our mmds to use it. The Kn^iish spe, ies has the p^ettv nam'- 
K.n-cup, hut thouKluelebrated in Kn.irlish verse, thi. .eems never 
to have eonie over-seas to us. 

In the Marsh Mari^ohl we fmd .epais of the f,d..ss,- l.rilhant 
yellow whuh usually .iistin-uishes i.utter,up>; the true p.'t ,k 
have d.sappeared. The hrilliant l.lo..om> in earlv sprin-, follow 
the line ,.f the watercourse., or adorn the >wamps with lie, k. of 
llame. 

'riic Kenus, (•„///,„, i. „f northern hal.itat and numlar> al.out ten 
spates, ol whieh seven are native to .\orth .\meriea; of ihe.e 
seven, two em ircle the j,'lol)e. 

Transferred to the garden our wil.l Caltha will do well if given 
a moist loeation. and like all the R^nunuuLucw will double if dc- 
-•'ired. In kite summer the leave> I.eeome \er\ large. 



CROWFOOT FAMILY 



CHRISTMAS ROSE 

llilhhiiriis iiif^ir 
Anancirnt nan,.- ,,f „„kn,,u:, inranin^,, 

<-r:rr;;;:™:*,,:™.r;:---' -». 

Koolstock. Sh„r!, thick, l.lack. 

riourr S,,-m. Simple. „r ,„„,• l.ran,h..i 

(■''/v.v. I'iwpiial-likesrpals. 
Corolla. I-'ivc small, luhularpitals. 
Sliimciis. Matjv. 

/Vv///. Six tu dKlu .arpds, forminK many-s.....i..,| .apsuks. 

> -. .» root. ,. a ,,c.rc.nn,al plan. «rnwin« >po„,ane,n,,lv o„ 
lu nnky and w..o,k..l m..un,ai„. .,f n,a„v par,, of Kump. .. 
ponab..>nu,hemAlpsan.lUK.A,.nni,u.. Cuinva.., \ . 
Kanl.n> as an ornamental plan, an.i in mild .....sons hloomin. 
om iMem „.r .o March wi.h very .li«ht pro.eaion. i, ha . ^ 
henameor(hris.ma.Ko.. In northern Ohio on , he lakc.:^:.;.: 
n ho.e open w.nter.s that are not infre.p.ent, it Mooms withou 
1 '"-t'on throughout lAeemher. In a c.l.l frame it will hhom 
•>1 -nter unless .en. weather intervene. An^- ueathe^ " 

-•ll.c-rm,,teloulyehukuee<ltoopenit..orolla.,ote 
^^•sutiwlhrmK forth the Christmas Rose. The lar,e, ir^^ - 
larK lohe,l leaves spring directly from the n-otst-.k o , uZ 
->.nh ., .ndrieal pe,iole>, which are sometimes dott d S 
<1. llK. beauty of the l.lossc.m is due to the enlarged sepal^ 
here are mdeed petals, rows of them, lu.t they are c ur" .u.lv J ed 

;r;:'a:irs:"''^^'-'^--"-'--^-'-'---ure.e- 

1S4 



^U.-^ 



CHRISTMAS ROSE 




Christmas k.isf. Ilillihuni.s iu>^,r 



CROWFOOT FAMrry 

""'11.. n u„- i, made 
I 'lit it 
ilriini 



vlriiiis i>(<)ninii.n. 'I'lir i.,.,., , , . 

fr-mtlu. .t.m, .n.l I ".'^*" I'""''''- "" "mMi..n ,„,• i. 



NIGELLA. LOVE-IN-A-MIST 

■ > ".''/A; <litiihi\,,ii,i. 
,'I""" '■ "■■■•'"-'■■■i^..^. n.„. „ ,,„„ 

' ■" ""'"-^•■^'"«.- ■ ..i.,n,. ;„„..,„,..,„„ ., 

Slim I.V 



Sinn. Kr,.,t, ,„„. t„ „,,. f^.,., },ij,|, 
Mii.wv. ri;il.. I.li... ... . . ■. 



''•<>■ the ,.,.ial.s. "'v.,|ucn. ( ,;A,v .„ „v,. ,s,.,,a|s e.,|„rr.| 

form. ,l,i, ,•„,.„,,„,, ;.,„,,,,. V '""■'"'"■^ '" ""■ ''""'■I'- 

•'■'■•■'•'"".I'*.™ ::;::''?;'■■'"*■■'"';'■''"' '■•-'-■ 

l-l»l> »„.] ,1,.. „rm, „iMil- .,n .""'""■'■ '"'"^ "'^"' ""■ 

■■'■"'«■ Biv a ,m ta ■'•' '"" '" '"■''' "■'"■' '■■"•" '!'>■ 

'■ ...lunvi,. ,,;■".',,'' "■"""•■■"- •" "" ""»" »,,H, 

-. -^ .■.u.-,.„„,c.,l .„. T. ■,,.''- ,;;;"■';:'••■ '"'■^'■,"- '*- 

'"f,H \aritiits |).)>scs.> a distiru ii,,n 



WIOELLA 

«.f apiH-aran.T \vaniin« Im thr .l.ml.lr i,,rm.. T ii,,,, .|,m,I,I,. 

no\v,T> >li..u >im,,i> a ma>s ..f |k|,.I.ii;. u hi. 1, ,- i,.,,,,- . ,,m|Mri~.. 

Ii-'ii l..r tlu- imiivi.lualilx uhi. I, j, nl.lii. r;ii. .| .\ i,,i,„ .|,.|i...i,. 

|HTfunu- uf aniM- liiiK'ir- al.uiii ihr ilnn.r. 

Tiu' KfiuN .V ,>//./ i>.ri.|ii..| in ilu- I k. uiil, -iM,-,,, s,„.. j,., 

all Kurn|K-an .,r A^ali. . ,,f u |,i, |, thm^ l,a\.- I.cr. ullti^.,lnl |{,-" 

^illt•■> niir nun l-uvf iiia-mi-i. there 

i^ in Kiin.iK' ihe S|iaMi-h .\iK<Ha, 

.V/,i;(//,, hhpiliii.i, Minilar In ii 
tlK.iiK'li larger and a snnu'whai 
('•arser plain ; h..th have heeii in 

Knuli-h K'ar<len> mer three hun 
<ire(l year>. 'I'he ihini .|.e. ie^ i, 
Xiatll.i s.it):;!, whi. h ha<l a . ancr 
a> a prized inmate (»f the lierl. ^ar 
<liii- of the sixteenth (cimiry. It 
\\a> hrouxht into Knj^'land from 
i:K'ypt in 154S, it, >ee(K l.einj,' in 
re(|iiest a, a >piie or >eaM.nin),r. 
This spe( ies >eems to liave l.een 
luitivaled in the i:a>t Inr ai,'fs 
iiidee.i, the plan' h.i. I,een i/l. n ' 

lilK'd as the -ntehes,- who^e mt.I> ""'"'"' '''"' ' ' ' 

are -Leaten ..ut with a >,alT." a, ..ate,! in l.uah xxviii. The 




KKy|)tian fi'ilaheen >till (uiiivati 
>eeds, which they xatler over thi 
llu'tn as iarawa\- and 



llu' i.lant fur the sike of ihe^- 



•ir- bread l.elore l.akini;, u-iiiLj 

I"'l'I»y >i'*'d>are u^ed in Kurope 

Ilu- KanienerV advi.e i, that the .eed should Ik- ,own in ,he 

<'l-" '".nler. in .,o,.i .,il. any time affr the middle of Man h. and 

tlu' see.l nv,- thinned to a di>tan.e of al.out ei.,ht in. lu. Thev 

sel.iom do well if tran>|)lant.d. 



iS; 



m^ii' jumimMwsjimiimF 



:> x-y;. 

I 



BHRBFRIDACFE BARBHRRV I AAIILV 

AKEBIA 



.1 L-ihiii i/li/ii,)l,i. 

Akchia i> tin- Japano,- name. 



J»l«.n. A|„il, mI," ' "'■"'' •' *■"»•■ -t™. .. .I..1 »a,„„l, V\,L. 
■*». Climl.iiiK, l«-i.|vo t„ (if,„,, f„,, ,„„„ 




Akchia. I /,,/„■„ ,,„/„,;,„ 



!--^ >llatc. i.ur,,lisl,-l,nnvn, about an 
Huh acnjss; the Maminate smaller, 

■*>>>;/.v. Thriv; stanions fi\c-. 
. /•>"//. An .,l,|„n^. i,^.,.rv^ ,1,^^.^. 
"Hl>'.s 1,,,,,^ purple, will, ■jilaua.us 

Akcl ,ia ma kc's a, <;,,,„ I permanent 
*-'>vcTin.ir i„r p„r,.,, j,,-,,,,,..^ rlin-inK 

I'> a surface aim<,>t a.> du>rW as 

ampei„p>is. Its v,Von,u> ,!.n,uth 

I'l-Kins early in the sprin- and its 

liw-lintrerol leaves an ..f a type 

not common with us. 

I'lie incon>pi(iious liowers a 



Far in April and become more ahundm . I • ""^^"^, ;''- 

<'f^K.t.o.mds.,K.pi.il,ateareeon:;;;;:;;^tc^'^''^^^ 

"^'•r^, ,t ,. lar.re. lour to s,x inches Ion,., someuhat su^gest- 



m 



I I li l l il l H ■IIWII II Mil Ill III II i H ll^ll I III 



Z^^MtA^^cT^.^^' 



LARGE-FLOWERED BARRENWORT 

iiiK a |>a\vpa\v; in o.lnr dark jmrplo, mottled uiili l.luc and 
o.vcmi with a •;Iauc(.u> hlixmi. Within is a lauT <il' thin, dry 
llf>li alx.ut a \vhiti>li pulpy ma-s in wliicli frpcat numlaT> of l,lack 



d- 



an 



d; t!u" taste i- in-iiiid. 



Till' , r,i;, sliMidii , i iMo sh()<it> arc u>i'd in Ja|)an a~ we u>f 
willow ;, r 'tie man uf.i.t lire of ha-krls, travr-, ancl .vin hat>. \o 
•V' a,- \L"t appeared in lliis country, cither in>eit> or 



enemie 
funjfi. 



LARGE-FLOWERED BARRENWORT 

l:piiihilii()ii iiiiK niiiUtiiiii. 

Tlu-an, icnl name .lalinK Imrn I )!,,.,,, rides giMii, iHrli.ip,, he, au>c 
tlu- plain j,'rcu- in Media. 

Stems. Both erect and creepin;,' under^niimd. 

I.onrs. Thrice ternate; leallels conlate-ovate, une<|Ual at the hase, 
sharply toothed; ])etioles with conspicuous iiairs. 

l-lo:,rrs. Odd-lookinj,', lonj^-spurred, starry; in terminal panicles. 

Scp,ils. Kijjht, in two sets; outer set sonn times l)rij,'ht-ri'(l, rcniainii.r; 
after the larj,'er and showier parts of the tlower have fallen; inner se])als 
ovatedanceolate, violet. Petals four, in the form of spurs, an inch lonc' 
white; nectard)earinf,'. 

Slamcuy. Four. 

Ovary. One-valved; .style sinf,'ie; caj.sule ojuninu l.v a valve on the 
l)ack; several-seeded. 

The j,'enus Kpinndiiiin contain- a number of jjcrennial lierli> 
which are ( haracteriiced as anion;,' the daintii-t and nio-t inter- 
eMin<; jilanls that can he ^'rown in ilie liardv liorder. 

The (Ireat-I'lowered Harrenwort i- reported "a- di-tinct. com- 
l)licated, and fascinating as manv of the rare, tender, and cMly 
orchids." What add, to the interest i> that the sei)als take on 
l)etaloid form> and colors, the ])etal> hecome s|)urs for the pro- 
duction of nectar, and the whole i> brilliantly colored. 'I"he i)lant 
is native to Jajjan and has been in cultivation long enough to de- 
vcloi) several garden varieties. 



1S9 



■suf^'LiA.^*"' ;•■%*<* 



PAPAVHRACH/E POPPY FAMILY 

r.>Mrnunc\. a .nn,|, „f IktI.s ui,|, regular ll.nuTs; a . alvv 

'•f •-> >q.al> wl„. h fall aMlH. hlnssnm o,H.„.; ,e,al. f..;. ... u.n 
>.anH.n>ma,n; ■!,. frui, a many->oc..K..l ca,..,!.. Tlu. juke i: 

u>uallyn,,lkyorn.i..ro.lan,ld.lK.rnarn.,i...;ram,l 

1 iH- i.r,nn,.al «ar.k.n n.pr.H.p.a.iu.s ar. I^,,,,,^, P,,,,,, ,., , 
( alifornia I'oppy, liloodr..,,,, ami Prickly Punni... " ' ' 



COMMON POPPY. OPIUM POPPY 

Piip.iicr sumiiifrnint. 
P'tpavrr i. ,lu. an, i..,,! „,.„„■ „1 u.knoun niraninK 
Olricst ui cujlivalcl popi.K-s, n.ntainin- ihc ..niu 



Annual. 



m prod lu 111 j; vark^tv. 



*-;::« ™!i;;r 'ixll;;,;;^;;:;-' - '»»■ -^'y ™.. '■■ - 

.V/.,;/.v. Tw,,, which drop as the Iknvcr ..pens. 
/VA;/,s. (•■,,ur, orhiculatc; or many. 
Slamrns. .Many 

vense pores between the nlirpnt.. • .i, • *> tr^nis- 

many and small I''''""''^"- t''^' "P^'n.ngs are very small. Seeds 



Hi'inj; (if 
.'niell. (iiir 



,..1... .^.,„„ n ,!o. .ali ,hern Jone .Silver-,,in. -C;kk.,ki>. 



IQO 



POPPY 




^^jkf^f 







i'^<l>\)\ in variety. Papdvcr somnijcru 



rum 



I ;1 






POPPY FAMILY 

-ith the strains of ,.anv J Ij 1 T'"' '' '■'"''' "^^'^'<-' 

ations of color, sue .nd for . ' '" "'^' '"''nit.' vari- 

'■''"■ '■'"■>■' "l>joai,>n i„ ||„. p,,,„„. . ,,, , 
inK *.s„„, „„,| ,„, dva.l, ,r '• T ' '''""•<'*>"' 'hv I1.,„,t. 
l-"n« i,s „!„,. i„ ,h*; „ ; ;i''»' .'"'"."lia.W, .,„„; ,„„, 

^ W™ .ha. ..as,,. ,,„ : ", ,\ "" " "•"■' ■'■"'■' «■■'-« 

">•<■" al..n„ ,„-„ „,„,„ ,v,K- I :; '""*•■ ^"■'■'' -"' '-a^ 'l.-vc'l- 

.■ar„„„-„„,|„„,.r.,l. T|l, ' ' " " 'J "'^' l*"".'--ll.nu.r<,l „„d ,„, 

'<- ,«..n,-.,„„,™, ,;,;: '•''';.:-;' "»;■•• '™««. pea., 

.yi» arc in ,l,o markcl, and .h.-rc-i I ! '"'""^ "' ™''' 

«'.«"-. ...icku. and dart: t^tZ:^ ""'n '" ""■ -™""« 
op'um. ()j)iiim ran he m-.Wn . "'• ^"'f '"^■^"mes crude 

""!,:"-" ■ ".akJT, ,::;:„,:;:":::',;:. •;:,■'"'■'■>■ "■"' «-». 

'-w:nr;:::;::;:;::;;;;".™^-a;".a.s,„d, ,d 

"l'.aintd fr„n, ,l,cn, '" ""' '-"'•' " "'i»Uo oil i» 

one fr,™ A„.s,n'a, an ; ' "" " "'"?" '"'" ■■^""'" ■""-■ 
™..>.sh .he Calif,,™ a P,;." ,ho""' ,'" ' "'''"™'"- '■""""* 
.■". an allied genu, '' *^'"'*°* « "»' a .rue />„^,«;, 



>w 



1 

I 



SCARLET POPPY 



SCARLET POPPY. CORN POPPY 

Piip,'nrr rli'ms. 
Kli,u,s, an anruMU , la.,i.al na,,,.. f,,r Cnrn J>„,,,,y. 

Slew. Jiristly, f.vo fcrt liij,'J,. 

/.n;xr,v.- ^•cll„u -},rrwn, l.ristly, pinnatclv parted 

Ovary. -^Ouml or ..hovatc; .st<Vniat,c rays cif,'lu Ic ten. 

All .ilk an.l ,la,n... a .arl., , u,, s.-.-n an,„„, ,!,.■ uil.l «ra.. far awav 
1.^- a l,urn,n« ,„al ,al,..„ f,-,,,,, H.^u.-n's ahar. V,.u , ann', hav a ,rc 
.;-,,,.,., a ,no.. .ainU.s. ,y,. .,f Houer a,...iu..-i,.i,U. an,l ou.i.^:; 

— Risk IN. 

/J/;.r.. i. tl,c Poppy of Kn^Iish literature. Native or naturai- 
.-•.1 ... (.real liritain and the Contittent, particularlv enjovin. a 
limestone soil, it has become the weed ' 

• •f the wheat fields and the oecupaiit 
of waste and neglected places. In (ier- 
many the hlue cornllower disputes pos- 
session of the wheat fields, hut even 
there the I'oppy fairly well holds it^ own. 
The ([uestion has been raised whether it 
would ever become a weed in this < cun- 
try, but horticulturists think not; we 
grow it with some difficultv in our 
gardens. 

Tpon this primitive stock the French 
gardeners worked, breaking down the 
original color and producing a strain 

Nv-lm-h was considered the best garden form until i8.86 when the 
Shirley Poppies ai)peared. 

193 




Siiirlil I'.ippy. Papaier rhias 
v;ir. Shirley 



1 



POPPY FAMILY 

Thoo were the u..rk nf the Rev. W. \\ilks. secretarN ..f the 
Royal Hortiiiiltiiral S.Hiety, who i^ho the f..lI,,winK atnuint ..f 
the (level()|)ment of these poppiVs in ••The (lanlen," vol. LVI[. 
He >ay.s: ■•In 1880 I noticed in a waste eorner ol mv -^anlen, 
ahufin- on the lields, a patch of the eomnion, wil.l, field poppy 
r,>f>,nrr rlucis, one solitary ll-nver of whi. h had a verv narrow 
H^e of white. This one llower I marked, and saved the seed of 
it alone, \e.\l year, out of perha|.s two hundred plants, I h;id 
four or live on which all the l](.wei> were edfred. The hesl ,f 
these were marked and the seed saved, and soon for several years, 
the llowers all the while ^'Htinf,' a lar^^er infusion of white t.', ton.' 
down the red, until they arrive.! at .juite pale-pink, an.i one plant 
al)s.)iutely pure-white. I then set myself to . han^e the hia.k 
tentral portions of the llowers from 1.1a. k to yellow or white, 
and at last fixed a strain with petal, varying in color from tlu' 
brightest scarlet to pure-white, with all sha.ies of pink between 
and all varieties of Hakes an.i e.ljred llowers also, but all havin- 
yellow or white slamens and a white lia>e." 

The marked chara.teristics of Shirk'y F'oppies are four: Thev 
are always sipj,de, always have a white' base, stamens are vellow 
or white, and there is never the smallest particle of l.la.k 'about 
them. Double Poppies and Poppies with bla. k cei.tro are beau- 
tiful, but they are not of the Shirley .strain, [t is the absence of 
black blood that give, the Shirleys their wonderfullv light, silken, 
paperv te.xture. 

ICELAND POPPY 

Piipinrr iiitdicaiilc. 

Slcm.-^ Slender, leafless. 

f.e,nrs._ Ka.licai, rough-hairy, olx.vate in outline, .Icq.lv i.innatifKl 
growing in tufts. ' • ' ' 

Sepals. Two, which drop as the flower opens. 
Ciipsulc. Long, slender, hairy 

194 



3SBSSSS?PBS!ST??T 



'•■J, ■. ;i_ . 



mai-i'mfmBmm 



ORIENTAL POPPY 



The Iicland Poppy i> a widdy (listril)iitf(l. antic, pcminial 
s|KnV> uliidi i^ found in AmiTica a- far >otiili a-< the peaks of 
llu- k<Kkie> in Colorado. It i^ naturally varial.k- 
and readily do-.ihles. The primitive is yellow, hut 
hyl)ri(l> now appear in colors varyinj,' from vellow 
ihrouf,'!) oran>,'e to scarlet and n.se-pink. 

The flowers are airy and wind-blown dips >way- 
in}i on stems slender as j,'rass and— one more virtue 
to their credit— they are useful for cuttinj,'. For this, 
however, they should he |)iiked when in hud. 

The llowerinK season will he lengthened if the 
seed p(Kis are not permitted to mature, and as ihev 
are northern i)lants they should he >,'rown where 
the hot south-western sun will not strike them. 

Closely allied to this species i> I'.tpairr Mp'unim, 
lypi(al!y a fra),'rant white-llowered perennial of the 
Kuropean .Mjjs; of dwarf hahit. It i., nol very easily grown. 




ORIENTAL POPPY 

Pdpi'ivcr iiriciilalc. 

\ maKnitlcent perennial I'opjn-, a native of Persia and Asia Minor; 
introduced into Kngland from Armenia in 1714. Mav, June, 

-SVcw. -Stout, leafy, crowned with the llower 

Ar,/ir.s-.- Hispid, i)innately juried or cut; lobes oblonL'-lanceolate 
serrate. ' 

H(wm. -Terminal, with a spread of six to eiKht inches; in the tVDc 
scarlet with a black eye. - ' 

Sepals.- 'Vhrw, which drop as the llower oj)ens. 

Stamens. Many, (lark-pur{)le, 

C(i/),v«/c. -Large, obovate with Hal disk; stigmatic rays eleven to 
nfteen. 

The Oriental Poppy is the most superb and barbaric repre- 
sentative of the wonderful Papaver family. The blood of all the 
Poi)pies runs rich and red, all in the sunshine are incarnate 
color, but of them all the Oriental bears the palm. 

195 



iC3iW?5l»^SB»3S'»».1F«STW». •fl«T<SrM'«RJ«-'- 



^:s^:r^^ss!k 



POPPY FAMILY 



Hfsl ,.f all, ti,i> Kay and gallant .n-ature l,I„.,ms in tlu- .prinir 
-ar,n« onwani fn.m tlu- mw, ..f daiTulils an.l l.c-.l. ..f ulips 
the- warm k'Iow <.f (,,|,,r. ' 

In May grea, ,l..w.r .talks ri>o from a ,uft of loans, .n.wr.cd 
u.th heavy l,u<i> (hat mcreasc in size, till >ome morning the thi.k, 

hairy (aly.\ lireaksand 
the Kreat m arlel pciak 
shake them>elve> free, 
'riie great |)etal>are 
splashed near the ha.e 
with hroad, irrej,nilar 
^|><>ts of i)ia(k-i)iirple. 
I)ominatin<,'thello\\er, 
eovered and crowned 
with pu rpl e rays 
softened with lilae, 
stands the seed j)od 
an ineh hij,'h and more 
than an inrh across. 
Around this splendid 




Oriinul fuppy. /'„/,,;:,.,,„/, 



«/.i/f 



central <,'Iol,e are the 
r, ,.. • 1 ... . , >^tamens, row upon 

purple, each held upon a slender filament of deeper-purple ' 
Although ,n the type the llower is .scarlet, a considerable das. of 

ly .nds has heen produced which e.xtend the color range through 
red to orange and from salmon to pale-pink, \\hen once the 
*"1«T of a prmi.iive is broken, one cannot predict what changes 
may occur. All the variants are beautiful, but thev do not tran- 
sccnd the tyj)c. 

The plant is perfectly hardy, rarely fails to blossom generouslv 
and will tlourish with little care. 



196 



;&jS''5*S;."'S^'BSir^S51 



^"^^'^^m^^wmm 



PLUME POPPY 



PLUME POPPY. BOCCONIA 

Hill (oniii Kirdala. 
Namrd {,,r l!.Mi.ini, an Italian Ixitanist. 

A tall iHTinnial witli liafy stilus and conlatc, ..rhicular, lol.cd Kavi-s, 
l)faiinf,' Umy, tirminal panicU's ,,f wliit,. iluwirs in sumnicr. In Kiiural 
a|)i). \nu.:v vry unlike a I'oppy. MidsumnuT. China. 

Stem. Simple, cnct, six to ci^,'!!! fat lii^li, Icafv. 

/.A/;rv. AltiTnatc, orhicular, n.r.lat.-, juhcd, i-alc-L-nTn alx.vc 
silvfry hcniath. 

/■l,>urrs. CR'ani-whiu. „r palc-n.sr, small, l.urn.^ in plumeiikc 
paniclfs. ' 

( 'iilyx. Two ohloMf,' sq)als, a ciuarlcr of an inch lonj;. 
Sliimois. Many. 
(h'liry. ()nf-al!i(l. 
Sli,i^ni,i. 'I'wo-lok'd. 
Capsiil'-. Many-strdfd. 

The FMiinu' Poppy is as mucli unlike- our idea of a P()i)py as 
can wd! he In the first place, the stem is very tall; in the second, 
it hears a |)luiny jjanicle of many 
small tlowers, not one of which ever 
had any corolla, whose sepals did 
duty while the (lowers were in hud, 
hut dep 'led immediately the huds 
()j)ened, so that each tlower consists 
i)rincii)ally of a ^Toup of slender di- 
vergiiif,' stamens. Theseare crowded 
and so form a feathery mass. 

In many resjjects the |)lant is dis- 
apj)ointing. It seems hotter adapted 
for a distant view than for close re- 
lations along the garden walk. 
Douhtless, it can he utilized successfully in lawn or park |)lant- 
ing, where its gray foliage would a<ld a touch of desired color. 

The root suckers freely and when v. ell e.,tahli.she.l is hard to 
eradicate. 




I^'af of riunic I'i'Iipy. 
cordiita 



KoccbnU 



197 



POPPY FAMILY 



BLOODROOT 

Sanguinaria tunuJensis. 
Sanguiniiri,!, from ihc K.l.ir of the juke. 
A low .K-rc-nnial, with thick, pros.ra,. .H-tsfuks. s..ndin« „p in 

l..l>cd leaf rollcl around it. The entire plant is .surcha;«e.| with ml 
orange acn<l ju.cv. C.n.ws in o,H.n w.kkI.s from X..va Scotia to Mani- 
toba and south t., Flori.la, Arkansas, an,! Nebraska, .\pril an.l May. 
/e<w/i/«f*. Horizontal, thick; juice red 

fivc'7;ic.K'''^l;,raS'' ™""' " '■•"■ "■""" •■""•™. 

.SV/)<;/,v. Two, that drop as the flower ofR-ns 

eaHy't:id^S' '" '"'^'"' "'"^' """"'^' "^^^"«"' '" '^ - "'- rows, 

th;S:r^"^:"^E£?^"''>' ^^-- -^-^ "^'- .>-.s; ma^ents 
(yi-: OblonK, one-celled; sti^'ma ^nHm-d. 
Capsule. Oh\on^, narrow; seeds smooth, crested. 

HI<HH)r<H,ts whose r<,li,-,|-up leaves if vou onrurl, 
Kaih on 'em's iradie lo a l)al)y pearl. 

— "Biglow Papers," LowF.i r.. 

From the terminal buds of the thickened underground stems of 
he Blo<KlrcK>t there arises in very earl>- spring a flower-stalk 
bearmg, as a rule, a single blossom. For a time both stalk and 
opemng bud arc enveloped and pr..tected bv a doselv rolled leaf 
'H.t h.s gtves way finally and disclo.ses a .slarrv flower of snowJ 
wlmeness with a heart of gold, ^^•hen in full' bloom the i,c>tals 
all so ea.sdy that it will hardly bea- tran.sportation, for with a 
touch the stem stands naked. 

Like all the poppies, the caly.x falls when the bud opens, and 
the full-blown flower has none. 

The blocxly name of Sanguimria is due to the acrid red-orange 
ju.ce wtth which the entire plant is surcharged, and which flovvs 
freely when rootstock, leaf-stalk, or flower stem is broken. 

198 






wm. 



BLOODROOT 




Bloodroot. Saiif^uiiu'iriti canadensis 



Sr-- 



POPPY FAMILY 



iil.x 



KiriHii 



''>^a.ilya.I,i,,,,,. ,.,,., ,„,^^^.,,,,_^. j^^,^^^^^.,^^^^ 



ami 






CALIFORNIA POPPY. COPA-DE-ORO 

Isfhuhi.ltzi.i oi/i/,inii,,,. 
/'..vr//.vf//,i//:/,; ;„ li, ,n,,r i.f I' i, i i i 

^^ A^rK.c.nnia, ,u.rl.J...snr..a,., as an annual, n,,. appearin, in .an, 
•V/rm. ^ Twelve to ..i^htcrn Indus !„>!, an.l l.ranchinK 

cn-lla, an,l .stamens. ' ''''' '" '''"*'' '»■■'■ '""•'H' th.^ ralyx, 

^Wjv. A, «.i„u.,lKr..enca,, of ,w„ sepal. LllinK early. 
I ctiiis. I'our. 

.SV<;,„.„..-.M,n,. filaments sh„r,; anthers Ion. 
,7/ ""rr'.''.''' ■^'>'^' '''>""= ^">'as three to .siv, une,n,al 

The early Spanish c..vpl.,rc.r. sailin. I.aek and forth alon,' the 
(; l.f<.rn,an o.aM noted the tlame of ,he popp.Vs .p,, „, ,'; 

-re, Mere.] to San I'aMual," they s;.i.l. -..in.e his altar-elo.h 
'-,.oad upon all its hilk" Later, uhen the Ru>Han cv.h H „ 
"f >«.5. under Kotzehue. sailed northward e.xplori„,Mhen " 

-Htmless millions of golden eups a.ain wo^h. ^.;:'; 

n-a.on of the visitors, and (hami.o. the naturalist of t^t 
edmon. ,n report.n, the plan,. ,ave it the name of the surgeon of 
h^ e>ped,t.on, Esehsehol.. and Esr,s,„„„.,, , ,,^,,,^ ^ 
name seems -an.or.unate. as it is one that will never he spoked 
tnpp.ngly on an Knglish toni/ne. .hnu-.l, re,-!- r- r , l 

a-.. r(.t,|_, Hiwre ajjpalling to 
200 



mmiym^r,^ 





CALIFORNIA POPPY 



si«!it ilian In .niin.l. (•,ilil..nii,i |'o,,j,\ rij;hih I,. Inni;- |,, ,u,..tlu r 
|>l.int. I\ip,iv,r iililoniii.i, Inii i~ |,iv , i,i|>i, ,| |,\ ,||i. ,„„. 

Al hunir h:s,h.,l„<ll-.i, i, |„rvni.l..l. hut ,,,,1 I,., 1,.,, , li,n;ii,. 
lrim-l"nrm> ii iiun .iti .iiimial VW- 
Kilor ran;;c iru lu(K> ullnu, .,r,in;,'c, 
i<>^', (arminf, ami Marlit, ImiI ilir ^_^^ 

Kl'wiitj,' nratiK*' i- aftiT all llic niu-i /'^"^^TV^n 
>ali^|■a(lnry. Satellite^ ,.f t|„. „in. V ^^ 

111!' I)cautll'ul liln^x.in. uill „,,( III, 

furl their llamiiiK lulal^ -ave to lii> 

(lircd rays, hfiuf llicv arc carlv Im 

l>f<l and hui- tu , -.f. 'V\\v ijoui i, 

iipcn for l\\(i, MiniciInK - liuvc, (..n- 

M-iiitivc (la\-.. In i.nc [.arli, ular, 

E^ilis.lioltJ'i (lilTcr< froni all i.tlu-r 
Kfiura of the pojipy family. 'I'wi. 
sf[>ak arc llic family all.Avancc, ami 
tlii'M' iliouj,'li ciidosini,' the 1,11(1 arc 
Ihru-l apart In the opeiiin-,' pciaU 
and fall 1(1 ilic ^nmnd a> >ni.n a- ihc 
(•in.lla i> niaturc. In mir CaiifMrnia 

I'..|.|.y, Imwcver, the >c|,aU arc t l,„e!v ..nil.d |., j.e driven 

aMiiuler l.y the [.etal-, and .onM..|ucnih th.TaKx i, .implv lilted 
ui> and (.IT a> if it were an cMin-ui^her or a diauc .a|., and the 
Klowinj,' llouer sniilc> i.|,en t,, the ^ky. 

■I'here are many form, of / w//.v, /,„//:// and of late the ori-ind 
EsrhsclioltJ., r„/i/on,i,.! ha^ l.cen divided into a > .,u\,vr oi""nru 
species, which arc, however, dilViruit of determination. 







The f.,l!owin- .pecies o. !>., p.nrr.i. of have l.ecn dillivatcd. 
I)ut ha\c now uiven phuc to niorc dc-iraMc f. rnis: 

Celandine, ihr/i</o„iinn »! :jti^, owe. it. ancient ( ,rcek name 
to the fad that its tlower- appeared with the (,,niinL' of the .v< d 



loW>. 



TOPPY FAMILY 

The- link, ydlow l,l„s.,™ ,v „„.,„ „.,„„„, ,,, 

^ar(Rn>. i lie h|„s.s(,ms arc liki- lurge 




rriikl, |'„ppy. . I. ,,«,„„• »,rv/„l„„ 



single- i,oppies and in themselves attractive !.„. .1, i 

^■'•arse and pr.Kluce ahundant s.ick • ' • / '"'' ''' 

-t from everv wound of the stem ' ' ' ^"" "'"'' '"'"'•^ 

flowers four to s v in.h.. ' '"^'^'"^'^'^ nia-nili(ent 



FUMARIAGE^ FUMITORY FAMILY 

Delicate smooth herbs witli watery juice, compound (li>scctcd 
leaves, and irregular llowers. The two sepals are >mall and scale- 
like. The corolla con>i-ts of four |)elals in two pairs; the outer 
with spreadinj; tips, and one or both of them sjjurred or saccate 
at the base; the inner pair narrower and tluir callous-crested 
tijjs united over the stigma. The stamens are in two sets of tiiree 
each, |)laced o|)i)osite the larger |)elals; their filaments often 
united; the middle anther of each set two-celled, the lateral ones 
one-celled. Pod one-celled, one or several-seeded. Several na- 
tive species are in lultivation, but the besl-known garden repre- 
sentative of the family is Hleeding Heart, an Asiatic sjjecies. 



BLEEDING HEART 

Dicintni spccliibilis. 

Piccntni, Ori-ck from dis, and keutro)i, two-spurred; originally 
niisprinlcd Dirlytra and then sup]M)sc(l to hf Diclvtra. 

.\n ornamental s|)ring-bl(M)ming i)erennial, native to Japan, northern 
China, and Siberia; sent into F.ngland in 1846 jjy Robert Fortune. 

Sicm. One to two feet high, branching. 

Leaves. ComiKJUnd in tlirees, divisions rather broad, suggesting 
jx'ony leaves. 

Flowers. Irregular, heart-shaped, rose-colored, borne in simjile, 
secunil, drooping racemes, four to eight inches long. 

C'<//y.v. — Reduced to two small scales, often disa|)i)earing. 

('()r»//<;. -Cordate at base, fi)ur-petalled; ])etals in two pairs, conni- 
vent, slightly coherent; outer pair rose-colored with tlaring tii)s; inner 
pair protruding, white, siKKm-shaiK'd, winged al the back and easily 
breaking inUi two part.s, closing over the anthers and .stigma at the ajx'.x 
of the liower. 

203 



FUMITORY FAMILY 



fumilUKY FAMTTV 

Stnmcns. — Six in two set- n 
toKctluT,tnirv.,ltuconf,,rmto.h..Tn"'' f'^> '''"■'' ■'''' "^•"•^' '"• ''•■'^« Krown 
t'K'h.ly pressed together e a u i '[i: '^'"'''''■'r'"'^; ='" ""•amiurs 
of the inner petals. '"' "'' ""«'"'' "' "k- union of the tips 

Or</rv--LonK^ slender; style slender. 
t'/Asw/c— Several -.seeded. 

«r,.™.l. i„ Ma,, ,»,;. <;,„■„ ,^,t';:' ""*■"'"'"""■- 

MMIlaliii. „f ,|n. ,„..|^,„. ,, " ^■'""■'' '" 'S42, a> a rq.rf- 

-n>,a„,. a.:;;'- ;.i;^,;:rr -':-■';.;....'»"; 

C hiisan Dai.sv the mrcnt nf ,I, ""- "^'"^f. \\i'ifrela, ;.n.| the 

"""!*■ among ll„„l uS "•■'-"''*"' !>'■"'» are cvrlainly 

Rani™ walk „„„,|r„i„|, p,,' " '" " """"■ ''>" " a,l.,r„H A, 

little- «i,l, ,1,0 |,lan, ,. :, ,„ , """ ''"■'■ "'"''""' «■"- 

P^itivo. ,1 .'a„ I ;,';■',. " «™-"f>- -"I it r™,ai,Ka 

L^<i, '^i.t Uiis 1., .scarcely w„rth while. 



DICENTRA. SQUIRREL CORN 

Diccntni raiiadrnsis. 
r^p^"^ ;;;;|;^u,.terranean shoots hearin. scattered .,;.., 
P<'^JIndc!iS;t!::?;T.i::st;L"'^ ^'■"''^•'- "^""''■^- '-"^'^ly n.m. 

wiu/Z:-sh^;;y; ;:;;j;;,;;" ^ ^'--i-- -ape, odd shaped, white tinned 

r "'T-?" small and scale-like sepals 

204 ^ *>■ 



*U^: 



•i^TSB 



BLEEDING HEART 




Bleeding Heart. Diccntru sptrtdbilis 



'1 



FUMITORY FAMn.V 

p./ T ? •'^•>'^' Slender; stigma tu.,-cre.stc,l. 

i'od.— Ttin to twenty-seeded. 



ents. 




■•liKluly inlargnl 



;"'"'• ^"■^•""''^'•"'"'■"-f. Ik. wild u„„d- 

•As a rule „„e species is m„st .hundant 
in a jrnen I.Kality, InU .he ,.,Ikt is ,„ U. 
Ound near by in lesser nunihers. The 
foLage of |,..„, is „,, ,,,,, ,,,,.^^ 

''""^Vr' ''•''■'''^■= ''^^' '''---''^^^ in 
general form, ,li,Terin« ,>„Iv ;„ ,,i^„,j ,,^,. 

;..i<u..ers ene.;:;;;! ;::rs.:;: r^^^^^^^ 

'/'VM7,v round, scattered, ^•ellow tuber. ',U '"""' 

wth two divergent spurs longer 
than the i)edicel; the crest of th- 
inner ,,etals minute. The ll.nver 
of roiuidcmh h merely heart - 
shaped, the sjjurs verv ;hort and 

rounded, the crest of the inner ,,et- 

als consi)icuousIy projecting. The 

flowers of nuulUnu, are white 

t'PI'ed with cream, those of ania- 

dcmis white tinged sometimes with 

rose, more or less fragrant. Ijuth 

succeed in cultivation. 

Two other native Dicentras are " 

.n cultivation which very greatly resemble each other .nd 
-rn.ng wh.ch the books give confused reports ' "'"■ 

^ -'" *^' -'■'' < '^'"-M'^i- Its leaves are simi- 

306 




I>irnilr,i cximia 



.•nC^BIM '." 



SQUIRREL CORN 




Stjuirrcl Corn. Dicaitra camidanis 




fwi-^' .■■v»»iy»-jv'/->t\..5-^i 



FUMITORY FAMILY 



''"• "1 tv,,c to those- of nnutdensh, |,ut c(,ars.-r Tl 
rancan shoot, are scalv Tl,.. n f '"" '"''''^^'■- 

Mah. I he (loners are l,orne in compound 

racemes, are rose-i.ink, the corolla ol,. 
I"ng, heart-shaped at l>ase, the crest of 
• H- mner petals ,,rojecting. li looms 
throii^rhoiit the summer. 

Dia-nlra Jon„d.u, is a plant of nor- 
tlHTn California and is the species 
oftenest named in the llorists' lists. Its 
caves are similar to those of onu.Jcsis 
''"' '"arser. The (lowers are borne in 
compound racemes, rose-pink, the cor- 
""^' "l'lon«, heart-shajml at l,ase, the 
crest of the inner ,H.'taIs scarcelv pro- 
triKiinK. To an amateur it would seem 
that the two are simply an Eastern and 
is evident ih-,. .1, ■ '' '"'''"'" ^"'"^ *'^ ^^"^ ^^'"'' ^I>^'^''«-'«- It 




I'll till til liirmosa 



ADLUMIA. CLIMBING FUMITORY. ALLEGHANY 



VINE 



Adliimia cirrhosa. 



■Jto'-.-Wcak, sIcmlcT, .Iclica.c, dimMne 
Jk ■"■^^■"'' "•"■■«'"""■ "'■"■'»"•• l"t-B"'en. »i,h climbing leaf 

308 



'.^^^A^-m-^f^mtm'^SF'^^^aF^mii:.-' 



ADLUMIA 



Slametis. -Six in two sets at l\w summit; j^rown tnm'iluT in a tui)c 
below, which is adhtTtiit to the corolla. 

Ovary. OhlonK; sti^Jma, Iwo-castcd; seeds, not crested. 

The Allej,'hany \'ino is a delicate trealiire, native to the Appa- 
lachian range, found in low, rich ground climhing and trailing over 




/Vllumia. Ailliimia i irrhoMi 

bushes which give support to its weakling stems. It climbs like 
the clematis by means of its prehensile leaf stalks. The foliage 
is misty, pale-green, extremely delicate, and the vine hangs fairy 
festoons of beautiful foliage and excjuisite pale-|)ink blossoms 
from branch to branch in its leafy covert. Its garden value taken 
by itself is slight, but in association with stronger vines as a sort 
of veil and a bit of lighter color it |)roduces admirable etTects. 



209 



crugiff:r/e mustard family 



'I'lic ( 'riicifcT- arc noi 



martyr., a, iluir name mi-ht imply; ,,„ 



-;.n.rary,,u,.,.„.i.,u.an,..,vi, .n, U^ui:! JZ 

^- ^|■y.uv...ve.op.Han.,a,,,,i.,uvoin,,..rK.U,.ri;:,:• 
lHl.r>,,,omak.o,u.>u.m.|,Mlu.yf,.rmanv,l.,^v..r,; , , J„„, 

"> -Tuani «r,nv,h. Ka. I, ,1..... ha, four >c-,>al>, a„.l four e U 

""■ 1 1 • slamcn> arc mx. four lon^ an.l two .hort. Tiu- piMil 
;■ •--Hly<i -d itWruit form, a po,, .H,,., ,,,_,,; 



The familv i> ma.lc up principally of hcrl.s with watcrv 
.-^mju,cc, alternate lcav.,a,.U,owcr>ci.^ 

STOCK. GILLIFLOWER 

■Uiilllihi/ii iiiiiiiia. 
.'/"»///-'A,,i„h.,n,„-„fI,r,Ma„hi„l,anI„.li.„,„„a„|.,; ..oo-,,;;. 

Hicinial,.- p..r..„niai. l,u, hcs, trcatcl as an annual; l.cn.min« wo,„lv 
at i.a>c. NatuT i„ ,he Me.liicrrancun region. ■ 

Xln». St iff. .ylin.irical. erect, I.ranchin- 

-se. crimson. ;:urp,c, .:^';:riC:£;jt:r:S^ '^"'" "■'^"'' "-""^'' 
^^J -;;;;-. Two lateral sepals slightly saccate; other two narrow, .i,,,. 

/H;/v. With louK claws and wi<!.. sprca^Hnt; !,or,lcr 
^.lu,ucs.-V\.r.. to four inches Ion,, erect; seeds broad, winded. 



-^^'mmi^^^ ^sim: ^^^ssf^^ 



STOCK 




Stock. Matthlola incana 



MUSTARD lAMILY 

Stocks art- divuk'd into two groups: tlit- aiitumnllo\MTi".; 
Ouirn or Mrompton Si.Kks, and sumnKT-l)loomin>,' IVn Wt-cks, 
or IntfrmcdiatcStiKks. 

Thisc an- sonu-timi-s referred to two s|)e(ie>, .MaUliiol,i iitniini 
a-id Matlhioii dnniui, \>u\ it is jiroltalde that they are jjarden form^ 
of one polymorphous siK.Ties; eertainiy tiiey lannol ••.o\v l.e di>- 
linK'iiished hy any definite hoianieal charai»<'r>. 

The douMe-llowered varieties, known a> 'IVr. Weeks, are anion^ 
tlie most pleasing of f,'iii"'li'n annuals. They come (|ui(kly into 
l>loom, are deh^ditfully fra^jrant, and h'n^er lonj,' in autumn. If 
early hloom is desired the plants >houl(l l)e started in eold frames. 
The garden name emphasi/.es the faet that from the time of sow- 
ing to the time of (lowering is about ten weeks. Tlie autumn- 
l)l'>oming st(Kks are biennials. 

It is interesting to know that the seed of both gr()Ui)s comes 
to us from (lermany, i)rincipally from Krfurt and (,)uedhnburg, 
where |)lants are esixrially grown for seed wliiih will pnKlure 
double (lowers. Obtaining these is a very careful and delicate 
process. In the beds are both single and (iouble-llowering jjlants. 
In the doubles the stamens and pistils are either partially or en- 
tirely aborted. 

The beds re([uire an . lormous (juantity of watct which must be 
given under most careful con(liti(,ns. After the its have k-en 
in bloom for some time, the double- (lowering cimens are cut 
out and the beds continue to be carefully wate. d until the seed- 
p(Kls which form on the single plants show indications of ripening, 
which is in October. The plants are then pulled and tied int(') 
bundles which are hung u]) in dry sheds until November or Decem- 
ber, during which time the .seed fully matures in the i)od. I'inally, 
the stalks arc take-, down, the seed-pods picked and .soited. 
Curiously enough the jxkIs indicate by their shape and size whether 
the seed will produce a high i)ercentage of double (lowers the 
following year, and the selection is made with great care. The 
seeds that go on the market are greatly improved by the removal 
of the "wild jiods" which contain the .single .seeds. The p.Ki> a.e 
shelled by hand, the work being done by women and children. 

313 



•- i j: — ^ 



,-■ .ri*!.-^ w--*. ;■•-• .B»'! 



PURPLE CANDYTUFT 

So \vc mav arid tlu- DniiMi- Slixk-^ that I)l(M>m alunj; (ht- ^Ar- 
(liTi palli tn till' already lon^; li>l nf cxcilIfiU things "made 
in (itrniany." 

PURPLE CANDYTUFT 

Iliiris iimliill.il,!. 

llifri\ fniin Ilicria, the am iiiit nanu- nf Spain win-re llic RiTiiif^ is 
uliunilaiil. 

A sliinvy, liranchiiin animal of lasy < iiilivaliun; oimmcui in gardens. 

Stem. Hranchini,', ahmit a f';i-t lii^'li. 

I.rnr'!. I,aiui'ilati', acuniinatf, lnwcr ones scrrati', iipiK-r entire. 

Flourrs. In l1al-l<)|iiK(l elusli rs, pink nr pale jiiirple; l'i>ur|»t*taled; 
petals clawed, irrejjular, two 
much Iar^;er than the nlher two. 

Sf/)iih. Saccate ; six stam- 
ens, four loii^ imd two short; 
silitpii's nuieh compressed, 
winded, one-seeded. 

Candy or Candia is the old 
Knf'li>h na"'ie for the i>land 
of Crete, from whit h seeds 
were hrouj^lit into Knj;land 
some three hundred years 
ago that produced the ])lanl 
we know as the I'urjile Can- 
dytuft. It is re(()rde<l hy 
(lerard, 1587, that he received 
seeds of the Candy-mustard which pnHJuced in his garden flowers 
that were "sometimes blue, often purple, sometimes llesh-colored 
and se'ldom white." 

.As a rule the crucifcrs have petals alike in form and size, hut 
one of the generic ])eculiarities of Candytuft is that the pet;ds are 
not of the s.ime size, two heing considerahK' larger than the other 
two. The flowers in the centre of the cluster are smaller than 
those at the circumference. Thi> is the coinmon annual Cundy- 

213 




Hitter *";in<l\ tutt. Ihiris dwjrd 



■.-., -V'iLj 



MUSTAKJi FAMILY 

tuft with ..„ ',.(1 i1„wtrs, ihf ((.lur. LiiriK' m..ro nimuTnu. an.l 
^x•tter n.xid th .. in any utlu-r >,„■. ji-,, an.l a wdl Knmn l.i.M.minK 
l>i-cl Kivcs a ....Tfiil variaii.m. in l.mr oi ro>f-|nir|.lf niriiinK 
llirough .. , ,1 ik.^l, intc uhiu. a> ..nr iittir hra.! ^ian.|> .].,.,■ 
ti) ai. 'h< '. 

..yluft, Ihcn's <tmar.i, i^ the whitr anmial ^,H(i.-. 

•1 Kanicn-,, TinV i> a >mali plant -ix i,. luvKi- 

'■<(t hnmhinn -l»'m>. 'I'lu- ll.i\\rr> arc ujiiu-, 

. I)i>rr In • rlu>ttT \vjn'( li \,v^\n> n^ a rorvnil. 

/.fiH'ral clTt'd llu- iIowit-, .HiTit wry 

'loluthita and ihc -|)r» ii- a|.|.(ar> l.nili 



Th 
general 
inches 1 
sometin 



' ir K ., 

'h 'It, 

iillr'.l: 



and ends 
little Ir 
in variant 



lit . 
and 



. I). ill- 



The KMr^reei C ,'.,uft, Ihrris srwp,rvirnis, a native ..f 
Crete, is :, ddi^l.tful lint- .rcalurf that >i.rrad> it. >hrul.l.v Mcnis 
m a thii '. mat over the f<r..und an.l hl..<,m> in earlv April in .,,m. 
pany uiti. the M„>. Pink, Phlox suhuhta. 'Vhv two make most 
la-autitul l.orders or smiling heds of early llower>. 'I'his i> the 
m«)st r<)l)u,-i of the |>erennial ^l)c■cies. 

SWEET ALYSSUM 

Alyssum maritimum. 

Alyssuni, Greek, of unknown sinnifu alion. 

A low, sprca.linK annual, much usc.l for hcnlrrs, and hearing an abun- 
.lance ot white llowers iluritig the entire suninur. 

Stem— huahy, low, sjjreadinK'. 

/^atrv. -Alternate, linear, or lancolate, ta[KTinK at the l.ase. 
Flou'rr,. CruciUTs, sometimes <louhle, small, uhite, fraL'ranf home 
in racemes which elongate as the tl.mers mature, 
Siliques. ^Tiny jwinted spheres, conlaininK one ..r two sc-e.ls. 

Sweet Alyssum hears all the marks of its gens. The stem is 
four-angled; the juice is biting; the leaves are alternate; the in- 
tl,>res<-..nre begins as a cc;rymb and end^ as a raceme; the corolla 
IS a cross. If one looks down upon and into the Alyssum llower- 

314 



.L,^ 



LUNARIA 



rliisicr, the rr;isnn why ilic tlnwcrinj; imti'ikI roriiinuf^ all -iimnicr 

iH'iumr- a|)|.at<Mi. In iliat . liiMrr arc a ^;r. al minilMr ..( I ud- in 

all Ma<,'»-<, Ml" iicv(|,i|.nui)l and .11 

tlic-c IdiiK art' pHMluciil fmin ilu- 

>iili' of till- sti'iii. 'I'lu' ^^rouiiii,' |hiii)i 

at tlu' ttnirr luwr priHhuc- a llnutr, 

( oiix.'i|ia ;iil\ a> lilt Inwir ami oiiicr 

lli)\\(r> nialiiif and rijKM h'i<N thi^ 

Hn.uiM),' linim lrnKlhfn> and pHHlti.c-. 

ninrc liud-; tlii> lilV ^k- nn until 

fni-t tunu- or ihr vitalitx of thf jilanl 

i- r\liaii-tcd. Indtrd, Swrt'l .\l\->uni 

i- one ot till' luM anniial> to -urniidtT 

at tlu' a|>|)n>atli of wintir; l> wlnir 

-lira\>(an .i^ually lif found at Thanks 
^ivini; and often nun li latiT. 'Ihr 
<loiil)|f form i^ <lr>iral)U', a- tlii> rni- 
|tlia-i/.t-- the white llowcr-.. 

\Vllow .\l\»iim, .My^sniii scxdlilr, 
or (ioldrii 'F'lift, lia> Ion;; I urn a fa- 
vorilr. It i- a I'cri'nnial of >|)rradini,' 
liahit, and i"orm> a niat >i\ im lu> liij^h 
wliirh in early >|)rinj{ i> (ovcrtd with 
an ahiitidaiui' of ^'oUkn yellow llower>, 
in loo>i' paniiU's, whii li la>t (wo or 
llircr woik-. 

It tlirivf^ lii'^i in a -unny position in >an<h 
iiordtr piani; i- aUo ( onimon in m. k work. 




1 \h' ilni, .l/v 



.'.11(1 i.^ iM'l a- a 



LUNARIA. HONESTY 



Lunar ill hii'nui'i. 



I.uiutria. I,:uiii, luna the iiiodti. frMiii llic --haiic ami (. 
ili>k-liki- parlilioti of the >ftMl-n-.M 1. 



.f \\v 



All LTict, hardy biennial, native o;' northern lMiru|)c; li)nj.'eiillivaii <! for 
its llat [xkLs, which are u.sed in winti r l)uiiijU(tMif dried i)lanl,-<. .Sunirier. 

215 



If! i 



MUSTARD FAMILY 

.">/m.- Two feet Iii«h, hushy. 

Leaves, [.arjri., coar.si., hmrl-shai)f(I, (....tlud 

punir"- "^^"'^^ ""^'^^^'^' - '-"'-'' -"' axillary racemes, pink- 

tion with seeds ciinKin, !<".; 'I^.I^^^L' wi'lJed ''""^""'' ^""•^>- '•^'^"- 

The characteristic- <,f Lunaria whirl, «ives i, .,ar,ien v.Iuo ! • ,h 
extraordinary decree to whieh the seed-vess.^ i::!:,::^:: 'l 

vanes between oval and orhicular 
■" outline, and when the valves 
<lrop olY the seeds remain attached 
to a thin pearly memhrane from 
which they soon slip away. This 
thin, translucent partition-disk has 
Kivcn the plant the name Money- 
wort, though it is commonly eallJd 
Honest V. 

The i)Iant as a whole is large 

., . , ''"•! <<)arse, its (lowers ordinarv hut 

t. cunous tlat seed-vessels, called the -PopeV monev," 'ha e 

bng been pr.ed for winter bouc.uets, and it holds a record it^ 

I-^nghsh gardens of more than three hundred years. 




Sili<iu,- and I-I„„cr ..f Lunaria 



SWEET ROCKET. DAME'S VIOLET 

Jfrsprn's matron.'iUs. 

irespcns cyomnfT, „f r.n-.k .leriva.ion; hcaus.- ,lu- fl ,„,-rs of 
.s...n.. s,,cvK.s are more fragrant in the evening. 

A vigorous, hardy, herbaceous perennial, forming dumps two to 
three feet h,gh; branched from the base and covered with oj ur 
-mal, loose spikes of four-petaled flowers resembling sto ^ x^ ^^ 
to KuroiK,- and northern Asia. May, June. 

io^, clumpf "' '' •''"■' '"■"• "• "-- f-' '''K''. hispid-pubcscent; 

Leaves. .Alternate, ovate-lanceolate, three to four inches long, tcx^thed 

216 



SEA CABBAGE 



Flourrs. White, lilac, ])ink. or imrpK' criififtTs home on 
flowuml tiTminal raiviiK's, traj,'rani al ni.i,'hi with the odor of vi, 
Silii/iir.s. Loiij;, slender, contracted JHiween tlie seeds. 

Jfcspiris nialroiuilis has heen loni,' in culti- 
vation. Its native land is southern i:uroi)e and 
western Asia, hut it has esca|)e(i from "gardens 
ami f,'r()\vs wild in many parts of Ijigland. 
The early Knjjlish gardeners record tliat its 
fraj,'rance was such that ladies were fond of 
having it in their apartments; hence the name 
Dame's Violet. The colors range from white, through lil 
pink to purjile. The llower douMes readily and the double 
are popular; in general ai)pearance it resembles the stock. 



loo.sily 
ilet.s. 




I'l.iW.T ,.f 

Koik.i. 1 



[ic and 
fornis 



SEA CABBAGE. WILD CABBAGE 

Br.hsita olcriucii. 

Brnssiai, the Latin name of the ratilmpo. 

^ A biennial plant growing wild • .n the sea-clilTs of western and southern 
Kurope; the original stock from which has sprung ail forms of cabbages, 
caulitlowers, Brussels sprouts, and kales. 

Root.— Tou^h and woody, habit of plant dilTuse. 

/.r,nr5.- -Large, thick, deeply lol)e(l; in various tints of green, flushed 
with red, more or less glaucous. 

Flourriiii^ .v/cw.- Tall and branching; flowers yellow. 
Siliqiics.- Long, i)ointed. 

We possess in the Wild Cabbage a most interesting example of 
the e.xistence of a ])rimitive side by .side with the (leveloi)ed and 
cultivated forms. As a rule our domestic plants have varied so 
far from their wild forebears, both in time and in environment, 
that the search for the original is a hopeless quest; it has either 
disai)|)eared or is .so ditTerent as not to be recognized. 

Anne Pratt, in "The Tlowering Plants of (Ireat Britain," says; 
"Few plants arc more conspicuous on the sea-cliffs of Lngland 
than this cabbage; from May till the end of summer it is one of 

217 



MUSTARD FAMILY 




W il.i CablMKc. hra>.Ua „l,raaa 



the loveliest ornaments of the clifTs \r,„.|, ,r •. • 

all around is fadin.- an.l d .rL i u '^ " ''""'""^ "•'^^'" 

luviiu^, unci (lark, Diiri) mh n./ t;.,<,.,i i 

with those '.vhich m. <rr,...n I T .' '^'•^'■""'^-^ 't^^^^'t's HunKle 
'SL Allien are green, and with others which -.rf. ,>f i 

Boys occasionallv gather it 
from the ch-fT and larrv it 
into the town for sale, 'hut 
it d(K>s not seem to k- much 
used in the neighhorhood 
either in- rich or poor. 

"This Sea Cabbage, small 
as it is, with its few scatterecj 
leaves is important as hav- 
ing been the origin of all the 
giant and small cabbages 

ntsn> nx>ts. The flowering stem is about 

3l8 



SEA CABBAGE 

two feet tall, much l)rancheri, the (lower a vell.m cruiifer and the 
sduiue from one to two inches Um^. Tlu^ plant is biennial. 

Black Mustard, lirassua ///,(,t,/, and White MuMard, /inis^im 
alba, are the mustards of commerce. The >eed> ;;erminate so ra|,id- 
iy that It has been extravagantls- .aid that a salad might he grown 
while the j..int of meat wa. roasting. l{„th siaries are common in 
tields thn.ughout Kurope. The powdered >ee(ls are used as a con- 
diment JM'cause of a fixed and very acrid oil whii h thev contain. 
The seeds of White Mustard are c.n.sidered more delicate than 
those of lilack. 



Other si)ecies of Cniri/cnr in lultivation are: 
Rock Cres.,, Anihis alph,,,, one of the earliest and i)rettiest of 
spring-blooming plants; gr.nving in tufts which are covered with 
terminal llat-to|)|)ed clusters of pure-white cruc ifer llnwers soon 
after snow disappears. It i. a perennial of ea>y culture, and 
thrives even in i)oor soil, but recjuires jjlenty of sun. Native to the 
mountains of Kurope. 

Arahis dlbiik is also a favorite and its llowers are a little larger 
than those of alpiita. 

Whitlow (Jra.s, I)n)b„, is a genus of spring-blooming plants ad- 
mirably adapted for the alpine garden. Its llowers are small 
crucifers, white, yellow, or purple, and the leaves grow in dense 
little rosettes. When grown in mass the plants are effective. 

False Wall (Vess, Auhn'tl,, dclloidc,,, i> a favorite plant for 
rock work and edging. It is a perennial evergreen trailer with 
spatulate or deltoid leaves, producing violet or purple irucifer 
flowers in early spring. .Many variant, fn.m the type are in . ulti- 
vation. Native to weMern .\>ia and southern Kurope. 

Wall Flower, Cliardiithns rhc'iri, i> not hardv in .\ew Kngland 
and the idea jmnails that it is not hardy elsewhere. A> a matkT ol 
fact it bears the winter well on the .hore of Lake Krie in northern 
Ohio, and i> regarded as one of the best of earlv blooming plants. 
Its color range runs through all the yellows' to orange-brown. 
With us it live, in the garden only, but in Europe it -.sings among 
the ruined walls and covers with light the grieving sioncs," 

219 



MUSTARD FAMILY 

Tootlnvort and Hitter Cress, Dclaria -mrl r ,■ ■ 
native genera of verv attractiv itt^ n i "•'"' "' 

I linger n-und my >hingW bars, 
I loiter round my i resses. 

— " The Rrook." - Tk.vnvsov. 
The stems are spreading and take root at the l.nver n.Kles Th. 

Hr-'-:i, .r:::r ™r;' -r™'- '-■'■'- 

fnno It ; • . • '^"^"'■'^^' '^''^''^'r abundant, appearing in 

»n l«"rl,ut,c vah,e. The r,„„.U,,vos .re ^rv I 1' , 
"l*.nR, crcna,c, m,„ ,.r less l,ear.-*,,.e,l ,' f I, "• 
;an....la,e. The .,„... ..e „,,i,e e™! ■[:;;; j!:;: .ii * t"! 
airos., h„rne on an ascendin- lerminil rurm,. Ti • 

'>:..;™^i..«,,,e„,,:;':jt:;;^:i;r: :;■:-:;:*« 

neglected runlets in e'lrlv Af,,- r . ^■'' "^ 

-. cr,„™ ..,■„ „.«,„„ „„,,,„. ^, .,„^^.„ J^,^„;^^;^>>^ ^_A »^,e 

220 



SEA CABBAGE 

each hoarin^' a showy panidcl >|,ikf <.f l.rillianl ycll.,w ll,nvor>. 
The louiT loavos an- lyratr, ihr tiTminal IoIr' round; the lateral 
lol>es in one to four pairs the upper leaves ol.ovate, rut-toothed 
at tlie base. Apparently introduced, hut really indij;enous from 
Lake Superior, northward and we.4ward. It is hiennial. whii h 
is always an ohjeetion to a . uitivate.l plant; hut it is capable of 
producinij admirable color elTeet> in ma». 

(Ircat Spi.ler Plant. Clrdnir p,ai-nis, i> ;i robu-l. >tronfr- rented 
annual, i)r(Kluiinfr tall spikes of rose-pink llower>, witii >ix |,,„t,, 
luirple, antenna-like stamen> and four dawed petals the whok' 
K'iving a certain spidery aspect to the llower. The plant is wee.ly 
in looks and also in its ability t,, ,;,ke |.o»es>ion of ;i garden. It i', 
n<.t a crucifer but belongs to the closely allied family of C„p[„iri 
daica-. 



231 



RESEDACE^ MIGNONETTE FAMILY 

MIGNONETTE 

Reseda iitldriila. 
Reseda, Latin, ,o caln,; fn.,„ su,,,h,sc-.| s,.,la,ivo ,,r„,K.r.i.... 

""«^r.s of .IchKluful fraK'rancc. Northern Africa a,ui Asia Minor. 






.^/m.- Upright, finally more or less .leciim- 
Dcnl, hranrhiMf,', 

Leaves. AlternaK., varial.le, spatnlate, or 
ovate mostly ..niire, sometimes notche.l or 
tnree-lobed, apex obtuse. 

/•Awrr.v. Small, irreKular. in spicate racemes 
that heconu- l(H)Sf and open witli aire. 

Sepals. Four to seven, usuallv s^n^ sprea.linK 

ldah.-\-,,ur to seven, attached l,eneath the 
ovary; the ujjfK-r cut into a nuinber of sf-i-ments 
like white tnnf,'e. 

Stamens Ten to forty, home on a one-sided 
disk; anthers larf;c, dull, reddish-oran-e con- 
spicuous, KivinK the color to the tlower ' Disk 
l)r()ad, apjjears hetucen the petals and the 
stamens, dated at the up,,er sitle of the flower 
back'' • '''^'' '''""'■' ■'^^•c'-eting honey at the 

0?v7n'.— Sessile, one-celled. 
.S7/>;«r7,v.- Three. 

r<;A.«/r.- One-celled, three-horned, opening 
before the seeds are mature. 

A I.IoominK stem of Mifrnonette consists 
principally of jrrecn sep^'ls, white fringe, 
reddish anthers, and fragrance. The white- 
fringe is the petals, the reddish anthers give 
the color, and in the fragrance lie^ the value 

Mignoncttr. Kru;l,, ..doritti "f the flower. 

223 




MIGWOWETTE 

Reseda adonita is a [)Iontifiil weed in northern Afrit a and par- 
ticularly K^vpt, wlienie it came into Italy and from that rentre 
was (hVlrihuted over Kiirope. In 1742 it was intHKliued into 
Knj,'land from I'rance where it had l)eeome a ^reat favorite and 
had received the common name which it now bears— Mi;,nionetti-, 
"Little Darling." 

With u- the jilant i- an annual, hut in the suh-troiMcal (ountrio 
where it is at home it hetomo a perennial. 

The gardener's ideal of Mi^rnonelte has been a plant with a> 
larjie a si)ilve as pos>il)le. The (olor and form of the llower and 
the hahit of the plant has been .-e((.ndary to size and abundanif 
of spikes, consetjuently the blo»om ii>elf has varied little from 
that of the wild plant; only the anthers, in size and .Mlor, have 
shown chanfic 

Knlar^'inf,' the spikes has not always improved the odor; in 
some casc> this has been transformed into M)methin<,' un|)le.i-ant, 
in others totally destroyed, in others strengthened. 

Take it all in all, the old frarden form, with its li<;ht, >weet, 
I)leasant fragrance, holds its own fairly among the fifty improved 
varieties ofTered by the trade. 

-Mignonette is a late i)loomer; may be found along the garden 
walk long after the tender plants are destroyed. In order to have 
.satisfactory late blooming, sow the seed> the last of July. 



ttl 



333 



SARRACENIACM^.^HTCHER PLANT 

PITCHER PLAHT. HUBTSMAH'S CUP 

Sarracatitt ptirpiirca. 
Na.n.1 in hon.,r of Dr. Sarra.in. a l.tanist of Quebec 

Perennial. May, ;„„"''"'' "^ "^ I'^"^"'''^'- trum,K.t-.ha,Kd leaves. 

the base narrowing to a m-tble iL? ' "" .'"T' "' "i^' "'I' an.l a 
f.lle.l with water an.l th frr«men. of i " '"^'^^■■'* '""«. usually half 
inner side of the ho,„l -L ]^ ■ V"'^"'^'^- <'lal)r()us extent th, 

ciothe.i with hairs ;:;;!.;;:;;; itm^r'^^'^^'^ -^ "^^ ^'"^''-' -^^ - 

^^-r"':;;rth:^i;;:r'tc^':r 

-^^ve..dle-sha.,ar 

The cxtraorriinary character of the leaves of 9 
^-Mnvests the plant with a peculiar r^st ^r'""/''^- 
-cenchn. trumpet-shaped cups lined with uL J^,n 1 "'' 
ward, apparently arranged with sinister int r^ T Id " 

Averniis IS easv hut ,v,w. i .- i ■ . '*•"'• ' "c descent to 

'-tton, for h ;e ! n " 'm ' '"^'""^ '' "'^'^ ^^'^ '" ^he 

> uierc I", no I)ossi jle return T^K •• i 

weighs his feet, the hris, lip. h I i " >, T ''"^-' "^"^^"■••" 

'""o »atr. impede his ujjward progress 
224 ' 



PITCHER PLANT 




I'itchcr riant. Sdrracaiia purpurea 



PITCHER PLAWT FAMILY 

and in time he dies. It is k-lieved that the plant feeds upon his 
JUK-es; m short, that wc have here a curious monster-a plant 
that catches insects and fmis upon them. There are scveril 
Southern s,K'cies i.ut this is the only one native to the North 
It IS easily transferred from its wild home (o the bank of the 
water-garden and is an interesting acijuisiiion. 



236 



CRASSlJLAGEyE ORFFNF FAMILY 

LIVE-FOR-EVER. GARDEN ORPINE 

Sedum teliphiuni. 

Sfdmn, from srJco, to sit; iHvaii-c many of the s|.c( its ^row u|«)n 
nnks. 

A survivor of i-arly carditis, row ranly iul(ivatf<l, l,ii( f.,uni\ on al)aii- 
(loned farms, and hy the way-sidts in \iw i;ii>;lan(i and tin- Middle 
West. June Septimlicr. 

Stem. Stout, crrct, leafy, one to two feet hi^h. 

Leaves. Scattered, smooth, tlcsliy, wavy tootlud, |)ak'-j;reen. 

I'lowrs. Small, pinkish-ijurple, in a terminal com|)ound evnu- its 
parts varying from four to t'lvc, usually five. 

Sepah.V'iw, ovate, acute. 

Petals.— ¥\\c, twice as long as the sepals. 

Stamens. Ten; alternate ones ailheriiij,' to the 
ba.se of each [H-tal, 

Pistils. F-ive, tipped with a short style; ripening 
to follicles. 




Country children know the Livc-for-ever he- 
cause the under skin of its lleshy leaves .an he 
looscnefi hy childish tingers and the leaf then 
hlown up like a hladder. The i)!ant hl(M)ms hut 
s|)aringly; indeed, many pe()i)le sui)|)()sc it 
never hlooms at all; it spreads hy rooting a! 
very tenacious of life, and though long since (!:>( arded from the 
garden list, has lived in (HJd corners and hy the roadside in ajj- 
parent contentment. All comes, the proverh .say.-, to one who 
wails, and the waiting Live-for-ever is welcomed ha k to-day to 
the rock garcicii where its merits are appreciated and its j)l 
assured. 



Lc-.if of I.nc-for ir 

'le nodes. It is 



ace 



337 



ORPINE FAMILY 



T\\v Ki'mi> .S,<li,m niimlxr- :.l..nil ..nc liun.lr.d m\,\ dftv ,|„,ics 
of wlii.li ihiriy arc uiihiri ihc limit- ,,f ||„. |nil.,| Slat,,. .\tiy 
r.Kk ^,M^I»■n .an su. . i.»fiill\ u^r tin- wild .Si-dums nf ii, I.Kality; 
all Ihc >|Kt ii'.-, art- «(hkI r.nrr plants, and man> l.l.inni aluindantlv.' 

Of <ulti\ati(l Sfdiinis. [.rnhalily 

SalniH ii,n\ Storu'i t(.|), Wall I'i|i|kt, 

Low Knlanj;li', In the >|K(i.'> ni(..,t 

(oniiniinly Msid. it i> natiw I., jai;;. 

land and well known to the |k,)|.Ic, 

as it> thrri' nanus testify. 'I'hf l.ar- 

rin stcm.s an- (rir|iinK and hram lud, 

two <ir thriT ini Ill's li.nj;; ihf Iravrs 

small, irowdnl; the- iIowits viiluw, 

starry, half an indi across in forked 

lynus. Muih iiscd fnr fd>iin« and 

rarpftinK, as it will thrive in po.-r 

soil. There is a variety that in spring 

shows yillow leaves; those Usuallv 

eiianjie to jjreen in midsummer. 

Scduni >loloni/'rriii>i, from Asia 

Minor, makes an admirahle ground 

cover three to four in. lies thi.k, l.riKliten.'d l.y clusters of rose- 

I)ink (lowers. The lleshy leaves at first seem whorled, hut as 

the stem Ien>,'thens they heeome alternate. 

Showy Sedum, Salimi spctahilr, is a favorite hoth for its foliaKc 
and its llowers, which vary fn.m rose to |>urple. It varies greatly 
•n hahit, f.)liaj,'e, and in florescence ; hloonis in Seplemher or latei", 
and is helieved to be a native of Japan. 

.SV(///w Icnnilnm, a species found in rocky woods from 
Xew Kn^land to the Mississippi, does very well in the ro. k 
garden. 'I'he leaves are tlal; the l.iwer wh.)rled in tlireis, 
wedge-ohovate; the u|)per scattered, ..hl.mf,'. The .vn.e is three- 
spiked, leafy, and the petals white. It is a ty|)i.al exam|)le of 
the >,'enus. 

Tiiere is a gmup of succulent herbs with llii.k an.| il.'sin leaves 
which are used with the Sedums as bedding' plants. They api)ear 

228 




Slf(iir(ni|i. Siiliiiii I'licc 



iSW 



SEDIUM 




Srdiini. Sniiini kniiiliim 



ORPINE FAMILY 

in the catalogues as Erhex'tria. The generic difference between 
them and Sedum lies in the union of the petals which in Sediim 
are distinct. The best-known species is saunda glauca, a variety 
with bluc-green leaves. 

HOUSELEEK. HEN-AND-CHICKENS 

Seiiif>ervivii>n teclorum. 
Semperfivum, always living; l.ccausc of the vitality of the plant. 

This is one of the common species larj,'ely used for cari)et-bc(l(h'nK. 
The plant appears as a rosette of thickened leaves and i,roj)agates by 
offsets and short runners. 

/.ratr.v.-Thick, short, oval, or obovate, smooth except the marmns 
mucronate; sixty to eif^hty in a single rosette. ' 

I'lowerhif; slems.Six to nine inches high, leafy. 

Flowers. —Home in panicles; pale-yellow or dull-purple. 

Flower /x/r/.v. -Sepals, pctaLs, stamens, and i)istils normally twelve 
but varymg six to twelve. ^ ' 




Housclfck. Simpenhum Irnirum 



The Houseleek is so called because in EuroiK- this variety is 
found growing on the thatched roofs of houses. It also has 'the 
name Hen-and-Chickens, which is popularly given to manv re|)re- 
sentativesof the genus because the j)Iants increase bv little rosettes 
that are sent out from the parent plant. The genus numbers 
about forty species whose family resemblance is so marked that 









HOUSELEEK 

Hcn-and-Chickcns fits them all. They arc mountain plants of 
EuroiK.' and Asia, accustomed to clinj^ to nnks, to hear dr(»ught, 
to cover sandy, rocky hill-sides, in fact, lo grow anywhere that 
Providence pleases. The many sfjccies vary in size of rosettes, 
color of leaves, character of llowers, and are perennial whenever 
the latitude permits. A beautiful display of these i)lants can l.e 
seen in the botanical garden of Harvard l'niversit\-. .\mong the 
many tyjx's is a curious group called Cobweb Houseleeks, so 
named because the little rosettes are covered with a veil oi line 
fleecy threads suggesting a spider's web. 



a^i 



SAXIFRAGACE^ -SAXIFRAGE FAMILY 

EARLY SAXIFRAGE 

Sdxifriiqii -.iri^iiiiriisi!;. 

Saxifraf;,!, from su.xum. ro, k and /r„i,,i;rrc U, break; maiiv s|„Tics 
rooting in thi- i Iffts of r(Hk>. 

One of the early wild flowers .,f the N,.rth, j;rowinK on expos..! rocks 
and dry hill-sides. Perennial. Ajiril, [une. 

Acaitlmrnt Iravrs. In a l.a.sal rosette; ohovale, narrowed into a 
l)road petiole, erenate-t.-oihed, ihiekish. 

FhniTrs. Dull-white, horne on a nake.i .seai^e. in clii.stered loose!. 
panicled cymes. 

Cdlyx. I-'ive-cleft. 

/V/(j/.v. Five, imbricated in the Ijiid. 

S''imciis. 'I'en. 

(h'dry. Two-celled; styles two. 

Capsule. Two almost .sejjarate I'oilides. 

This litllo roclc l.reaker is attractive lurause it presents itself 
s.) early in the year; in northern Olii.. it i. one of tiie few April 
flowers that must !)e x.ufrht on dry hill-sides, not in moist woods. 
All the Sa.xifraKcs have l.een trained in the hard school of dry 
or rocky homes; many of them are arcti. plants. .\^ a result there 
are not many representatives in cultivation, and those tliat are in- 
hal)it the ro, k warden rather than the honler. Prohal.Iv the l.est 
of these is the Thick-Lea \ed Saxifra-e, Saxifrai^a missi folia, a Si- 
berian plant, which is a .^tronj^-^'rowinf^ species; the tufts of large 
thick leaves rise from a stout rool.Mock. The leaves are dotted 
with many small, punctate -lands at the surface; the petiole is 
sheathed at the l.a.se and the plant is slemless. T!ie scape rises 
a foot or more and hears numerous lilac or pale purple (lowers on 

2J2 



HEUCHERA 

the intiiiu'd or (lr(>o|)injj liramlies of a imnitle. Tlu' plant should 
have half shade and in winter needs xmie slij^ht protection. 

Tiarella, I'aise Milrewort, iiarclhi rordifoliii, is a low little 
herb whose feathery spikes of white llowers appearin)^ in mass 
from f^reat \)\:^\^ in the open woiKJhmd is one of the pleasant sinhl> 
of early spring in the region of the (ireat Lakes. The leave> 
fairly carpet the forest lloor and suggest maple leaves, tlioiigli 
rough and hairy. The |)retty name, I'iarcUa, little turban, refer- 
to the form of the seed-vessel wliic h is cleft like a tiara. The 
plant i> exiellent for eitlier nn k garden or wild liorder. M ItvUa 
di[)hyllii, Bishop's Caj), is a more delicate plant tiiough verv simi- 
lar. Its little blossoms are m) ( ut and fringed and spread that 
they look like >now ( rysials, and eai h is about the .-ize of one. 



HEUCHERA. CRIMSON BELLS 

Jleuiherd san^iiiiu-ii. 

Ilfiitlirnt. in liDn.ir nf Jcihaiiri von IIcikIut. IV(iff<si)r of H'ltariy 
at W'ittcrihcif^; I'l;^ 17 17. 

.\ j.lant recently introduced I'rom New Mexico and .Vri/.ona. 

Roiil. .\cri(i and astringent. 

f.ciivrs. Radical, forming a ciu.ster rather i\i><'.- to the ground; 
orbicular, cordate, crenati' 

I'l'iuvr srupi. Downy, about two feet high, bearing a one-sided, 
panicietl raceme. 

Cillyx. .\ crimson, ti\-e lubed, (Irooj)ing liell 

Pclm's. I'ive, minute, borne on the caly\ bell, allernale .villi is |,,|)es 

SitiDiciis. rive, inserleil cm the (al\\ lull. 

Ovary. ( )ne ceUed. 



Hctiiiura .siiiii^iiinra, like .->o many of the -a.\ifrages, grow> in 
tufts, forming a duster of radical kive-, from who>e lentre rises 
.several >ca|)c-, each bearing a racemose panicle of -mall, deep red 
bell-, .\lthougli red i- the tyjjiial color, the i^ell- vary in the 
cultivated form- from re<l to white, Thi- little Ifntilura bell i- 



SAXIFRAGE FAMILY 



r ,TTu'' ' " " ''"' "•'^"^ ''"■ ^J"'^- "^ ''•'"■acting 
m.^r s has falk-n up„„ the calyx. The red I.ell is all ealvv ,he 

corolla ,s represented by five tiny points to he l,„.ke.! for between 




HruduT.i. Il.u.h.r., s,„m,im,a 



an.1 a little helow the Iohe> of the hell. So in.l.nin.ant has the 
corolla heeome that .some species of /fmrlur,, dispense with it 
alto<,'ether. 

The astrin,.ency of the root juices gives the common name 
Alum Root to the genus. 



234 



LEGUMINOS^E -PEA FAMIF.Y 

The Pea Family is (li.-.linf,'ui>hf(i liy a ju'ciiliar i)l()>M)m wliicli is 
charaitcristic of tiie greater numher of the >|)ecies. It is tailed 
papilionaceous and consists of live petals; the upi)er or (mI(I 
petal, called the sin ml, ml, hiinf,' larger than the others and em los- 
ing them in the hud; this usually turns backward or spreads. 
The two side jietals are called tc7//,i,'.v and are exterior to the two 
lower which grow together more or less dosely and form the krrl. 
which usually encloses tlie stamens and |>istil. Stamen,-, tt'n, 
very rarely five; inserted with the corolla; sometimes all grown 
together by their (ilaments, forming a tube; usually nine grow 
together and one is separate. Ovary one-celled, often long and 
slender, with a short style and simjjle stigma. The ovary de- 
velojjs into a ]mkJ of wl'.ich the pea and bean are goini examples. 



SWEET PEA 

Liithyriis odnriilus var. I: vhn'dti. 
Ldlliyriis, an( iciil (".rcik name, of u'h^c vm- mcaniiif^. 

A favorite annual, universally grown Ik. ause of the beauty and 
fragrance of the (lowers. 

.S7<7»;. - Rough, hairy, wingeci, tendril-climlting. 

Afinr.?. -Kciuaily [)innate, ending in a tendril or a point; leaflei.-, 
ovate or oblong; .stipules lanceolate, 
Pfdunclrs. Two to four llowered, long, 

/•'/.J-arrv, -I'apilionaceou.s, fragrant, blue, red, purjilc, i)ink, and 
white. 

C'(i/y,v. -Five-parted 

Sliindunl. Large, roundish, notched; wings falcale-ol)ovate or 
oblong; keel .shorter than the wings, incurved, oljtuse. 



f ■. tt 



PEA FAMILY 

.V/<Jwe>«.- DiacklplK.us, nine and one, <.r monodelphous below. 
Style. Curved, usually twiste.i, tktlene.l, hairy along the inner side. 
/W. -One to two inches long. 



The native land <.f the [.resent garden race ..f Sweet Peas is 
divided between Sicily and far-awa\- Ceylon. The white \ariety is 
native to Sicily; the famous <.ld-time i-ink-and-white species, 
known as Painted Lady, is credited to Cey- 
lon; thence, likewise, came the original red 
«>ut of which all the crimson->carlet sorts 
have been [.roduced. 

Father Franciscus Cupani, a devout 
Italian monk and enthusiastic botanist, 
is believed to have been, in 1699, the first 
cultivator of the Sweet Pea, and he i> known 
to have sent its seeds t<i Kngland and else- 
where. Jiy 17,^0 Sweet Pea seeds were an 
article of commerce, and in 179;; a London 
seed catalogue li>ted five varieties of tiie 
flower: black, purple, scarlet, while, and 
Painted Lady. A few additional varieties 
were added to the number from time to 
time, but it wa> not until 1876 that the 
great improvement wa> made which placed 
ilie Sweet Pea in tiie royal group of garden llower^. "I'his devel- 
"l.mcnt wa> due to the -kill of Henry Ixkfonl, of Shrop- 
shire, England, a speciaii>i, who in 1876 began work upon the 
plant as it then exisied. Working pati.ntiv l.v means of .t.k,- 
ferlilization and seleciion. he smreeded in obtaining new , ulors 
and larger lluwers. His surcess was especially recognized bv the 
R(Aal Horticultural .Soci( 1 v, and by 1898 he had put out ab.-ut 
scventy-Cive va.ieties of w.mderful colors and remarkable .ize. 
Florists on the Continent and also other tlorisis in Fngland took 
ui> the task, .\bout 1890 an interest in Sweet Peas appeared 
in America, especially aroused by tlie .size and color of the^e 
new Knglish >lrain>. A demand fnr .^eed led to the sue- 

2^6 




Swi'il I', :i. I.dlhyrus 



:Sg' 1; 






EVERLASTING PEA 




Everlasting Pea. Liikyms latijoliiis 



PEA FAMILY 

a-ssful cxiaTimi-nt .,f ^nminK it in Calif„rnia. The di-mancl has 
.ma-as.,1 until n.,vv practically the worl.l's su[,|.lv is pr.Hluml 
l.y the ( al.f.,rnia seed-growers, an.i amounts to hundreds of tons 
annually. Such an enormous j;rowth of plants naturallv led l„ 
the i.nKluction of new sorts; the numl,er of named varieties is 
now le)^ion. 

The f.rst Dwarf Swe.'t IVa, a sport, was disccvered in a Cali- 
fornia neld in iX(;,5, and >ince ihat time the dwarfs appear in all the 
colors ., ; ine standard. In this form the plant makes a mat of low 
foliage; the blossoms are of the usual size hut the Mems are short. 

Kitunately no encouragement has hvvn K'iven l.v the public t.. 
a double Sweet Pea. The lar^e si.Kle form is the'aj.proved tv,,c 
as It IS certainly the mo>i graceful. The aim of the llorist is to 
obtain two to four lar^e tlowers on a single lonj; stem. 

Many (lowers clearly force cross-fertilization; the Sweet Pea 
blossom, on the other hand, show, itself independent and self-fertil- 
izniK. The keel is a sac containing the stamens and pistil and 
in a healthy blossom the latter is rarelv exposed. .So Jealously 
does each blossom fertilize itself that it sheds its polk-n when half 
o|.en and the sac at the upper end draws snuglv up around the 
anthers i)ressin>,' them closely about the stigma. 

I-verlasting Pea, Lilliyrus lali/dlins, is the common i)erennial 
pea, native to the wockIs of Kuroi,e and one of the hardiest and 
most easily cultivated .species, thriving in almost anv location 
It succeeds in shade and grow, rapidlv, but is impai'ieu) ,f re- 
moval owing to the size and length of its roots. Tm- siem is 
winged and tendril-climbing and the leallets ovate. It produces 'i 
full raceme of beautiful rose and white blossoms and the pod is 
four to live inches long. 



238 



ii^^>«3^^S?«vS^^!5S^!k^? 



GARDEN PEA 



BUTTERFLY PEA 



Ciiitrnshiiii viriiiiii.tHum var. K'lindillontm. 

Onlrnseiii'i. (Ircck, with >|mrrfi| >laM(ianl. 

Stent. Twining, two tn six firt hinli. 

Lonrs. I'iiinatrly o>m|«)un(l; icalUis thriT to scvin. 

b'lourrs. I'apilionacoous, <tiif to four in iW axils of tin- leaves, showy, 
violet-purple. 

Stnndard. Sjmrred on the hack; keel broad; stvie hearded at the 
a|M.'x. 

l'od.~ Siraifjht, four to five inches lonj,'. 

The Hiitterlly Pea naturally j^'rows in sandy woods, soutliwani, 
and was intnwluccd to c iiltivalioii many year^ ajio, Imt, nenlec te<l, 
<in>|)|)ed out of sij,dit. h now reappears in the variety ^nnidi 
Jloniiii, and is hi),'hly recoinmended as a hardy and desiraMe 
])frennial sine, blooming ihe first season from seed. There is a 
while varietv. 



GARDEN PEA 

P'tsiim siit'ivmii. 

Pisiini, (Icrivcd fnirn /)/,?.', lu heat; riffrrin;^ lo the mantu-r of 
separating' llie set-ils from the pods (,r j^riiiijini; lluiii into llmir. 

The common I'ea of our markets, ulahi.us and },'laucous, tendril- 
climhinf,'. Annual. Native of .A.sia. 

Stfm. Weak, climbing by leaf-ten<lrils. 

I.oivf.s. Comiiound, of one to three |)airs of leatlets, the leaf ending; 
in a tendril or point; stijjules lar>,'e and leuiy; leatlets oval or ovate. 
/•Yowrrs. I'apilionaceous, white, few, on axillary t)eduncles. 
Calyx. ()bli()ue at ba.se; the lobes more or less leafv. 
Standard. Obovate or orbicular; winjjs adhering to the keel. 
Style. Mostly rigid, widened above, bearded <lown the inner margin. 
I'od.K. Oblong; .seeds globular, five to ten in a jxhI. 

The (iarcien Pea has been m(Klifie(l by cultivation into several 
well-marked races and many varieties. With one c.\cei)tion all 

239 



PEA FAMILY 



arc cultivated Ic.r the dilicious xrd. wliidi they pnKluie; there 
is, however, a variety who^.' |mh|> .ir»- edit«l( when ureen. 

'F'he (uhivation of 
the I'ea, hke that of 
I lie liean, was one of 
the industries of pre- 
hi>lorii man, yet txiih 
its native land and its 
|)rimili\c form are in 
douht. Having' now 
lK'e<ime part of i lu' 
foiKl of all civilized 
inmmunities, there is 
no limit to ihe fornrs 
that may he priHkued 
by seleition and varia- 
tion. 

The Field Pea, 

PisHw 'inen.sc, differs 

from the (Kirden Pea 

in heinK li'ss delicate to the taste. The llowers are red and hut one 

on a llower stalk. The plant is raised in Kurope largely a.s food 

for cattle and horses. 




(i.irilin I'l.i. I'l^um \iithum 



BAPTISIA. BLUE FALSE IWDIGO 

Bapt'isia (iiistriiUs. 

linptisw, (Ircck h„pio, t,, ,|i,, „r ,|y,.; in nfiTciK c 1., the ,<,l,,rii,>; 
iriattcr in somr >[ii'( ics. 

.\ hardy perennial pnxhirinK heautifiil, loose, terminal ra(cmes of 
papilionaceous flowers. In rich, alhnlal soil from I'ennsvlvania, we.st 
and .south. June. 

Stem. .Stout, frect, branching', two to five feet hi^h. 
Leavts. Three-foliate; leaflets ohlancenlate or ohovate; stii)ules 
lanceolate, j)ersistcnt. 

i4o 



3im€^r^fmi 






HAPTISIA 




|{a|)li>ia. liiipt'tsia aiistralis 



U^F^^^^ 



MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No. 2) 





mUlA 



|: 



1^ 

1 40 



2.5 

2£ 
1.8 




^ APPLIED IN/MGE 



lesi Etjl Wain St'eel 

^Chester, New Vork i4609 
(716) 482 - 0300 - Phons 
(716) 288 - i989 - Fa, 



USA 



PEA FAMILY 

/•■W.V.- Papilionaceous, l.Iuc-, in lon^ tcrniinal racemes 
■Stamciis.-Tfn, distinct. 
iW— Oblonf,', stalked. 

The IJiue False Indian, ornamental l.oth in tl.nver and foliaRe 
■s a strong speces, abun.lant along the ( )hin River and southuar.l' 
I grows naturally in alluvial, sandy soil wl.ich is often submerged 
I^y an .nertlowmg stream, and when transferred to the garden 
.should be given a moist location. Wnh some reason it i.s regarded 
as a shy bloomer. There are many native liaptisias, but this is 
considered the best fur cultivation 



CLOVER 

Triftyiicm. 

Xanied from /res, three, and /„//«»,, k-af. 

^^Tuftal or ciitTuse and creeping herbs, cultivated for their economic 

/-r(/7r.?.—PaImatcIy trifoliate. 
.SV/>;</f5.- United to the j)etioles. 

/•/wm.-Papilionaccous; all the petals 
-standard, wing.s, and keel -more or less 
unite; at the base; borne in dense heads 
or sjjikcs. 

t'(i/\'.v.— Five-toothed. 
.S7(/wr;;,?.— Ten, diadelphous. 
Pods.Sm-dU, one to six seeded. 




The Clover group are not garden 
plants, but they are beautiful in them- 
selves, admirable for decoration in 
country houses, and, moreover, an indi- 
vidual plant of any of the species iso- 
lated and treated as an honored 
inmate of the garden will by its size 
and beauty astonish its protector. 
^ ,. 'T'l^' <"ft-^ "f Ked Clover, In/oliu,,, 

Pr.tcn.sc are usually found wherever grass grows. The leaflets 
are oval, ovate, or oblong, bluish-green and conspicuously marked 

343 



Li-af of R,.,| Clover. 
praunsc 



Trijbtiunt 



CLOVER 

r llull 'if' ;'7-r; '^'-^«'- 1''- ^'l- is ohtu.. and s..nu.,inu.s 
a little nottlu'd. JV,, st niiliN more ..r I,. 

s eathc th. hase of .von. leaMalL T,. «,„,.,L .W ^l ^ 
r n... ,„ color ti,rouKh dec,, and pak- ro..,,i„k, sometinu. . 
almost wh„o. TiK. tiny .lore-., viel.l plentiful 
nectar wh.cl, is mainly the ].ro|.ertv oi the 
biimhlehees. 

U'liite Clover, Trifolium rcpats, i. a perma- 
nent resident of the roadside and >eeks to he 
(.f the lawn. The slender stems, n.otin- at the 
nodes, ereep and spread, are ,jui. k to jiave 
and strong to h.,ld. 'J-he leaves are lon-- 
petioled; the leullets much smaller than those 
of the Red Clover, ovate, ohovate, or ohcor- 
date, ol.tuse at apex or notched, and fre- 
quently marked with a little i)ale triangle \t 
night the two lateral leaflets eome forward 
and meet, the middle leaflet bends over, and 
the leaf holds this position until morning. 
The heads stand up on long slender stems 
well above the leave.s and us eaeh ,in>- tloret matures it becomes 
brown and relieved. Thus by a glance it is possible to tell 
exactly the age of u \\-hi.e Clover head. The nectar is extrenK-K- 
dehcate; belongs chiefly to the honey-bee, and White Clover 
honey commands the highest price in the market 

\\h,te Clover is one of the claimants to the name .Shamnnk 
The plant was certainly brought to this countrv from JCurope- it is 
also believed to be native here. ' i > 

Alsike, or .Alsatian Clover, Trijolh,,,, Inhridu,',, is somewhat 
similar to the White Clover, but a larger plant with a stout, branch- 
ing stem. The finely serrate leaflets are ovate or obovate, but not 
of)eordatc, though sometimes slightlv notche.l at apex The 
(lower heads resemble those of White Clover but are larger in 
color varying from soft-j.ink to pinkish-cream and white- 'are 
exceedingly beautiful, fragrant, and rich in honcN-. The tlorets 
darken and turn downward as the>- grow old. 

24J 




Hc.lil ,if Wliilc (-[..vrr. 
I rijolium ripens 



PEA FAMILY 

The two yellow iloj) Clovers, common in fields imd alonj,' 
roadsides, rrijolhtu ^rjrarium and '/ri/oliiiin priHunibnis. are 
hotli of Kuroj.ean origin. The (lower liead> are j.ale ,<;olilen-vellow; 
the tlorets when withered turn l.rown so that the head lo()k-- like 
a small dried liop. The leaves are trifoliate hut are not very 
much like the kaves of the other clovers. 

Rabbit Foot Clover, 'I'rifolium anaisc, with j^rav pink, hairy 
heads soft as silk, adorn- the wa>te jihui-- in jioor Miil, old fuld^, 
and worn-out i)astures. It <,'row> in ma- and Inrin- lari^e be(N. 
The tlower heads are cylindrical, very hairy, the (or.illa ,i,'reeni>h- 
white, the calyx \\\. pinki-h, and the abundance of jiale hair- !.i;ive 
the gray effect. 

Crimson or Italian Clover, 'l'rifoliii>n iiunrualum. i> u-ed a- a 
cover |)lant in orchar(l>. The erect stem i- one to two iVei hii,rh, 
the leallets obovate, the ?;tipules broad with leafy tip>, the tlowers 
crimson, .scarlet, rarely cream, in long terminal headr,. 

LESPEDEZA 

l.rspnlizd Sirbdhli. Pi-.snidtliiiiii friulitlillonnii. 

Lrspcdeza. in liDiKir of Li'spfdiv, :i S|iiini.>h nuvcni.ir ,.f Iloiid.i, 
who aided tlu' Imtanisl Mii Ikuix. 

.\ hardy perennial herb ihrowinj,' up stron.i,', wiry shoots each veur 
from the crown, Jaimn. Sej)teniber, ( Jctobcr. 

Sinn. Reddish or brown, hairy, two to four feet liiuh; in summer 
looking; like a bush. 

Lravrs. I)ull-f,'reeti, pinnately trifoliate; leallets elliptic-oblon<,' 
pointed. 

Flowers. Papilionaceous, half an inch lonj:, rose-purple, droopinj,', in 
numerous long racemes which at the U>\) of the |.lant are panickd. ^' 
yW. Small, pubescent, one-seeded. 

The American Lespedeza- are a f,'roup of weedy |)lanls with 
inconspicuous, pea-shaped llowers, neither ornamental nor eco- 
TU)mically valuable. They are often found aloni,' \\h- road-ide, in 
thickets and tangle-, in company with their friends and relations 
the De.sdemoniums or Stick-tights. 

^44 



i 



MANY-LEAVED LUPINE 




Many-!c;ivc(! I .iij.i f,c. /.upimi, fwlyphylius. 



PEA FAMILY 

The onh mcml)crs of the g. in cultivation arc a few Oriental 
species, of which the most valu;.,)le is Le.spcdcza striata, the Japan 
clover, now naturalized in the South and regarded as a good hay 
and pasture |)lant. The l)est of the ornamental species is Lel 
pedez,i Siebohli, which in the si)ring sends up strong, wiry shoots 
tliat in time hecome thic kly leaved, take on the asi)ect of a hush, 

and in Septemher and October are 
covered with a wealth of rose-|)uri)le 
hlossoms. Lespctkza hicolor, also 
from Japan, is a slender, hardy 
shrul) which is sometimes cultivated. 
Lepedeza jiiponituiit with white 
•lowers may he a botanical variety 
of Sieholdi but seems to be horti- 
culturally distinct. 

MANY-LEAVED LUPINE 

Lup'tnus polyphyltus. 




Lcspcdcza. Lcspcdcza siiboldi 



Lupiiiiis, from lupus, wolf, l)ciausc 
these plants were suppost'd to de- 
stroy the fertility of the soil. 



^/cw.— Erect, three to live feet high. 

Leaves. —l^\a.ny, radical, !<•• .r-petioled, digitate; leaflets five to twelve 
oblanceolate. 

/•Vouw.T.— Papilionaceous, showy, blue, in terminal rammcs. 
C.;/y.v.— Two-lipped and toothed; sides of standard reflexed; wings 
united at apex and enclosing the keel; keel scythe-shaped, j)ointed. 
.S"/(iwfH\.— Monodeiphous; anthers of two forms. 
Ov'iry.— Sessile, style incurved, pod flattened. 

This is the prlnci])al hardy perennial species of the gardens. 
Above a handsome clump of satiny, many-fingercd leaves rises a 
long spike of bluish-purple, ])ea-shaped (lowers in June and July. 

Wild Lupine, I.upinus perennis, is a native Lupine bearing 
si)ikes of jjale-blue and violet flowers above a tuft of beautiful 
palmate leaves. Commonly there ar.^ about eight leatlets, though 
soinetimes seven and rarely eleven. The j)lant grows lu.xuriantly 

346 



•^ai.:^^ ■' A 



SWEET CLOVER 

on poor soil wliicl, makes it a dosirahlr a( (lui^iiinn. All tin- 
Lupines are of similar appearance; tlie\- have palmately o.mpoun.l 
leaves and >lio\vv ll.>\ver> in lerniinal -pike.- or raceme-. Of the 
one hundred known s|>e( ies, seventy are \..rtli American, mainly 
west of the Rockv Mountains. 



SWEET CLOVER. WHITE MELILOT 



Melilotus, ("iri-i'k, from meU 
plant. 



Mr/iloliis lillnt. 

liiiiuy, and /«/;/.?, some Ict^tiniinniis 



Biennial, Krowin>,' alonj; roadsides and in waste 
places, naturalized from Kuroijc. Cultivated 
under the name of Hokliara C"lo\cr. Flowers all 
summer. 

.S7<VK. — Erect or asceiidinj;, three to six feet 
hi<,'h; hard to break. 

/.nn'M. — Alternate, pinnately three-foliate; 
leatlets ohlonf; or slightly ohlanceolate, finely 
serrate, notched or roun<led at ape.\. 

/•Vourr.?.— White, pajjilionaceous, home in 
slender racemes two to si.\ inches long; racemes 
often one-sided, 

P«/.— Ovoid, wrinkled, one to two .seeded. 

From many points of view Sweet Clover is 
a weed; it no longer adorns the garden, hut 
lives on the roadside and loiters along the 
railroad track. The hecs love its tiny 
blossoms heavy with nectar, and they never 
forsake them so long as there is enough 
daylight ..-ft for wanderers ^afelv to wing 
their way homeward. The plant ojpce had a 
place among sweet hcrhs because its leaves are fra.grant in drying. 

It has been cultivated under the name of Bokhara Clover, but 
is reported punr among forage ])lants owing to the wofnly char- 
acter of its stems. Sweet Clover in mass is beautifid, e-^pecialiy 

247 




Sweet (■ 



.M.lilinu 



PEA FAMILY 



vvl.on i! .„vns will, I.^f ;m.l i1„w.t lu-ltrtr.l pla.rs; H,,. |.,„« 
><|>r;iy> a-c very dcinialivc a> ( ui iIc)\\it>. 

Vcl!.)\v Mrlilot, Mclilotu.s oiluimilis, vv>vm\,V> tiic WhiU' 
Mi'lilnl, an.l a|.|.rai> will, ii. TW , l„Vf .litTcvn.c i> ii„. ,.,l.,r 
of tlu- i.l.,>M,m, lii.ni.nh ii, some .iiiaihr> ,.//„ /;/,//,\ |,|n..m, 
later. 

Indian M.I h.i, Mdilolns huii,.,, l,a. apiuMml at tl,.- Pa. ii„ 
sfa|,..rl., Iiavin.i: l„..n iiun..lu...,i in l.allaM. Hlo>M,ms arc vdl. 
an.l small. 



low 



CORONILLA 



i'liroiiillii I'.'in'ii. 
Ciirniti//,!, little I r.iwii. 

Sinn. Strajijilinj,', cr.'fpinj;, and clinil.iiij;. 

l-"nrs. Od.i-pinnat.'; I.'ai' is rUwu to hv.-nlv-tlv,-, ..hlont; <.r oh.,- 
vat.', iihlusf and niucroiial.' at apex. 

rio'urrs. Papilionarcous, pink and wl,il.>, or pale 
purpl.', born.- in ntnluls ihal look lik.' link' heads. 

/V'r/.v. ("law.d; standard nrarlv orhnular; wiii"s 
i)l)ii.|n.ly ..l).)val.'; k.^.l incurvi.l, hiaki.l. 

St,imciis. l)iadi'l|)li.)ns, nine and one; anili.Ts all 
aiiki-; |)od jointal 

I'Vw perennial plants llower for so lont; a time 
as this pretty lej^ninie, wlii.li (lisi)lays an arrav of 
pink and white halls ui)on ilu' surla.e of a mait.d 
l)ed of i)ale-fireen leaves. This i.s ihe only mem- 
I)cr of the •,'enus in this .ouniry; ii came hither, 
evidently, as a vafrrant, for it is rarely seen e.\.i-|)t 
on r.)adsi<les and in waste |,Ia.esin New Knj,'land and the Middle 
States. It is re.Dnim.'nde.! f.ir the earpeting .if ledges. 




C'lronlMa. Cur 
omlhi \,)ri,i 



248 



1-. 7^i. 



COMMON KIDNEY BEAN 



COMMON KIDNEY BEAN 

Phiixruliis, the aiic iiiil imiiic ,,I llir kidney licaii. 

Tliis islu'licvid In Ik' the orijjinal «>f most nf tlu' . iilliwitcd Hcaris of 
our market willi the eNception ol" the Lima licaii (Inml (>|iinic>n refers 
the jilaiit It) Soutli Ameriian ori^^in. Aiiiuial. 

Slrm. Short an<l erect, or hmfs, and twining. 

Lcnvvs. 'rriloliate; lealkts ovale. 

Htiusrs. I*a])ilic 'aceous, in lo<i.se racemes on stout iiiMhiiules; the 
white tlowers have a dark, silky spot in tlie mi<ldle of tlie two lateral 
jK-tals; other j^-tals entirely white. 

Ci//y.v. With two liraits at has*-, 
somewhat two-lip|)<.'d. 

Krrl. lU'aked and, lo^jether witli 
stamens and style, s;)irally twi.sted. 

Pod. Many-seeded; seeds kiilney- 
shaped, varj-ing f,'reatly in color aii'd 
tiiarkinj^s. 

Our present Garden Bean is be- 
lieved to he of Ameriean origin and 
of ( Mmparatively recent cultivation, 
aitliouj^h it is clear that several other 
si)e( ies of liean have heen cultivated 
in liie Kast from most ancient times. 
This, however, is rej^arded so highlv 
that it is now well distributed over 
the world and has, in the main, 
sup|)lanted other Beans. 

The fo(Hi value of the Bean, of whatever species, has long heen 
recof,mize<l, and mtHiern research has referred this value to the 
nitrojjen which it contains. I-'or years, the standing,' (juestion has 
heen, -'Where and how did you get it?" for Beans growing upon 
soils meagre in nitrogen were themselves rich in nitrogen. It is 
now known that the entire leguminous family, especiallv Ik-ans 
and allied species, harbor on their roots colonies of bacteria which 
have the power of transforming the free nitrt)gen of the air, which 

249 




Ki<lnt\ Hiaii. I'hauiitii\ iiil);arii 



•9 J*./ 



PEA FAMILY 



thr plan, .ann... u .... inlo ni.n.us a.i.l.ulnVh .ho plan, ran n.o 
an.l whuh ,n >nnif f-.rm i. Mnrc> up in j.s smls. 



I'liiisroliis liiiiattis var. 




H\;uimh Hi-an. Doli,li,is Ijhlah 



munuarpus i. ||„. Lima lk>an ,.f nur 
K'anli-ns, cliai;ui. ri/ed !)v i.s ro- 
•hi>. KKnv.ii, late ripcninK. Iar>,'f 
|>"<l>, and larf,'c, lla. mt.Is. Sfv- 
t'. fnrnih arc in < iiltiva.ion, all 
K'-kI. In llu- in.pio ilic plan, is 
jHTi'nnial. 

HifACINTH BEAN 

VoUthos iihlnh. 

Ciiliiva.id lurr as an ornamen.al 
clh hiiiK luan, Imt in ihc troiurs tlu- 
:«(is arc lalrn. Annual. 

Stem.- TuininK.ofttntcntotwcntA 
fi'f.. 

l.fiivc: .- Trifoliate; leafiets i)n>a<l- 
<:vate, rounded at base, iK)inted at 
apex. 

/•'Arurrv- rai)iiionaceous, iiurjjle, 
violet, or white, rather iarjre, in a 
lon^;, erect racer ■; standard rounded, 
spreadinL'; keel narrow and hent in- 
ward at a rijjht anj^jle, l)Ut not coiling. 

Style. Hearded under the terminal 
sti;.;ma. 

Poih.~'\ hick, flat, hroafllvohlonR, 
conspicuously tipped with style. 
>S'm/i-.- Tawny with a white .scar. 



Do Candolle hclicves that 
Dohrhos lahhih was the ancient Lean „f India, l.ut lu.t <.f 
'■•fjypt. In fact, what p rti.ular hean the ancients ate is a 
pn.hlem to those who care about the matter. We, however 
regard the plant solely for its heautiful llowers which are vcrv 
showy both in the violet-purple and the white varieties The 
clustcis of seed pods are a lasting ornament, as thev turn a 
nch dark-purple and keep the color until killed by the frost. 

250 



4: 



GROUND NUT 



GROUND NUT. WILD BEAN. APlOS 

Afiins liil>cri)<tit. 

Af>ii..;, C.riMk, fn.-n .//>.?/, a ;,tar; allii.liiij,' ti. tli" >li,i| 
tultrrs. 



.r llx 



A climlinK ami Iwinin^,' iwrcnnial, f.'und in low, nioisi jjroimd frum 
N'rw Hruii>wiik to llori.l.i, ami wcstwan". I'r..|'icnlly a>s xiatni wiili 
Clrni.ilis virniiiuiihi, tlio two lluiirisliini; iin.liT >iniilar i-ondiiions. July, 
August. 

Kool. -iias undiTKround slioots wliiili produa- strinjjs of cdiM,. 
tuhiTs one to two inclics lonj;. 

Stem. -SlrniliT, four to fi>;ht ftrt lon^, climhinj; ami twining ovrr 
.lushi's; juicf milky. 

/.rives. I'innati'ly compound; Icaflet.s five to .sewn; ranly tlircr. 
ovate orov&te-lana-olatr, acuto at apex, roundid at hasr, mai.nin .iitirt' 

Fltmrrs Papilionarfous, hrownishrfd, or cliocolaU-hrown, iialiT 
without than within, fraKrant, hornc in dense, .short, axillary rutenus 
which are .sometimes branched. 

Calyx. Small, campanu^ite, somewhat two-lipped. 

Standard. Very l.road, shghtly turned out and hack at the sides- 
wings ohiiiiuely ohovate, adherent to the keel which is lone, incurved' 
.scythe-.si.apeii. ' ' 

.S7(J»if;i.s.- Diadelphous, nine and inc. 

Ovary. Nearly sessile; style slender, ovules many. 

Pod. Linear, c()mi)re.s.sed, many-.seeded. 

Al)i()s is a wild vine of extensive Iiahitat, hut rarely found in 
cultivated grounds. Its (lowers are jurhaps more interoting 
than beautiful; in form they are i)apiii()n;ueous; their pe( u'iaritv 
lies in their color. The hooks dexrihe tl.jm as hrowni>,i or 
ch<H()late-re(I, hut words convey hut little idea of the dull, deep, 
lurid hue of the inner part of the hanner ana wings, or the curious 
red, dusted with gray, of the exterior. 

The crowded racen.. ; ;>re home in the axils of the leaves and 
are from two to four inches hng. So fragrant are they that one 
often finds the plant in a wildv .mkI tangle hy its inlor alone. The 
foliage is loose and comparatively open. T ike Clrm.itis t/n'/;.'/./).',.-, 
Apios requires moi.st ground, loves to have its root> cool and 

251 






PEA FAMILY 



;'^'':"; ""• i""" ;'-•" ^-'-^r^ ... ,iu. c-x,k.,w. .„• ,.....,,, f,, „..• 

|..h| fn.iurn.lv .I.k. „-, f.,rm. and wlun fnn.u.l ..f...,, laiU ,.. 
r.a. I. MK.,uri.y. I„ . ul,iva.i..n .lu- plan, .ill ...v.t a iVn... ..r 
irtlli. Ill ounparalivcly >linrt .inn-. 



OlIuT IfKuminc.iN s,,,.. i,., i„ . ul.iva.i.m ar»> 
'V>t Marrnw, (}„o„is rol„„difoli„, -^u a..rar.iv. .hrul.l.v plan, 
frnn, .lu. .M..,|,u.rranc.an r.^rinn al...u. a f...., hi^rh;.!,. Lau' ar.. 

Irifniia..- aiKJ .lu- pca-likf l)lns>,,m>, 
whi.r an.l n.>c, appt'ar in c hiMcr- 
of .wo and ilirtv. It i> rci nni- 
mcndi'd f,.r tin- roiijrj, |,;,rt ,,f nn k 
Kardt-ns. 

I'ca-Likc W.cl), VI, 1,1 orohohirs, is 
a Siherian |)lant .wo .,, ilmr iVti 
liiKli which pnKJiHos di-nsc < lusters 
"f viok't pt-a-likf lln\v(T>. U ill ,|,, 
wi'll on poor soils. 

Milk- W.rh, Orofiiis (rnii(\, i- also 
rfcomniondtMJ as a hardy, early 
Ijioomer. 

Thi" Kudzu Vine. J'tferr , TIiidi- 

hvrf^uiua, is one of the most rarTi|)an. 

growers ever in.nKliiced int.. our 

K'ank'ns, and it is well to think 

-"- "'-n' Plamin, i,. Xative ,o een.ral and M.uthern |apan 

a> w.ll a. central China, it tlnds the elima.e of eastern Ann. i. a 

• onj^'cnial. 

''''•<■ plant is a woody .limber with iar.e, dark-^reen three- 
fnhale leaves and hearing sh..rt, cmpaet racemes of viole.- 
c«>l..rc( pea-shaped Iknvers. followed by bnnui, hairv p.nls h 
rarely bloom in Xew llngland and the stems die down .hrou.h- 
<'"t .he North. Although earlier in.r.Kluced the vine came into 
spc-c.al notue at the Chicago Exposition, as the Japanes... there 

252 




Kuil/u \in,.. n„,r,iria 
I lniiil»rgi,i„„. 



WISTARIA 




\M3taria. W'lilarij ciiincnsis 



PEA FAMILY 



used it wherever a quick-growinf? vine was needed in their land- 
scaiK? gardening. To us Kudzu is merely an ornamental ])lant, 
hut in Ja])an its roots are used for foinl; from the l)ast a thread is 
made; while the dried leaves and stems are focnl for cattle. 

Wistaria, W'islan'n chindisis, one of the i)est and commonest 
of hardy climbers, is a strong grower, long-lived anrl healthy. 
The foliage is i)innate and not sulTiciently dense to afford a per- 
fect screen, hut is airy and graceful. The (lowers appear in long, 
drooping racemes of puri)lish i)ea-shaped Mossoms. These rac- 
emes are often a foot in length. 

The Chinese Wistaria was introduced into 
England in 1816, and in 1S40 there was a 
specimen recorded with branches attaining a 
hundred feet on each side of the main stem and 
another covering nearly a thousand scjuare feet 
of wall s])ace. 

The \\'istaria used by the Japanese, which 
figures so largely in their decorations, is Wistaria 
mitllifuiia, which with us is often called sinen- 
sis: its clusters sometimes attain the length of 
three or four feet. This is not regarded as suffi- 
ciently hardy to become a favonie. 

The Soy IJean, Glychie hispida, and the Cow 
Tea, Vij^na sinensis, both Chinese j)lants, are 
widely grown as forage i)lants. 

Alfalfa, Mcdicago sutlva, is the deei)-rooted forage i)lant of 
luirope so extensively grown in the arid regions of the United 
States. It grows al)OUt two feet high, bears pinnate leaves and 
small racemes of small, violet-pur])le, cl()ver-shai)ed tlowers. 

Cassia, Cassia floribilmia, is a frec-llowering plant with large 
orange-yellow llowers. It can be wintered in a dormant condition 
in a cellar or similar place where not e.\j)ose(l to severe frost, and 
])!antecl in the spring. It will bloom throughout the summer 
and fall, [)roducing the most dazzling effects by its profuse and 
brilliant bloom. 

The Peanut or Goober, A rat his liypoi;av, from South America, 

254 




Alfalfa. Mtdiciigo 
saliva 



GROUND NUT 



prcKluccs the familiar nut-liko jxmIs whosr oily Mrds, w lu'ii roasted, 
arc the |)eaiuits of diildrcn's devotion. 

The leaves are j>innale, the llowers, papih'onaceous, yellow, the 
banner veined with red. After hioominf,', the llowerinj; stem 
grows l()nj,'er, hends toward the earth, and fairly tlirusts the jiod 
underj^round to ripen. In cultivation tliis ])r(Kess is ussi>led 
and earth is hea])ed up about tlie stems. 

The Peanut is cultivated all over the world where the c limate 
permits, i)Ut ])rol)ably is of the greate-t economic value in .\frica. 
It was Ion-,' supposed that li\poi^a;i was the only species, but 
several others have recentlv been discovered in Brazil. 



linXce^-flax family 

FLAX 

Liu II III. 

The Rcmis /,/■;;/(;;; is credited in the hooks with ahout eij^hty 
species, which fall into two f^roups. annual and perennial, and all 
possess certain family characteristics. All have herbaceous, sub- 
W()(Kly stems, alternate leaves, llowers made on the |)lan of live: 
five se|)als, the i)etals, five stamens, and a five-celled ovary which 
sometimes becomes ten-celled. The fruit is a globular capsule 
and the seeds are com|)ressed. 

Common I-'lax, Liiiiiiii iisilatissiiiiiini, the most useful, is indeed 
worthy of its specific name. Its native land no man knows; 
evidently it has clothed the world in linen since the dawn of civ- 
ilization. Its use ante-dated the founding of Habylon, its libres 
are among the remains of the lake-dwellings of Switzerland. 
Herodotus described it; Pliny extolled it. 

This most useful |)lanl is an annual herb, its smooth, slender 
stem growing to the height of two to three feet. The leaves are 
lance-linear, acute, an inch and a half long. The bright-blue 
llowers are borne at the summit of the stem on slender i)edicels in 
a loose cluster. 

The one thing which makes tills apparently insignificant |)lant 
of such transiendent value to the world is that the stem pro- 
duces a cortical fibre just strong enough and not too strong to 
make a thread which can be woven into cloth. Undoubtedly 
l)rehistoric man made the discovery, f<jr historic man has been 
using it all his recorded life. 

The seeds contain a fi.xed emollient oil which is very drying, 
hence used by painters. 

256 



>* 



FLOWERING FLAX 



Mournnj, Flax, I.Jnun, ^r,nuUjlonnu, is an annual of orcrt 
l.ranrlun,', Ic-a.y l.ahil ah..u, ,w., l.r, I,!.!,. The llowc-rs varJ 
.n l.nl. and M,acl.> of rci, arc very l.ri^lu an,! ^hinin^, and arc 




Fl""<ririn 11. i\. 
l.'iinim i:r,iiiiliiUin(m 

I-nrnc in consi.k-rai.lo ninnbcr on .Jcn.lcr pc..ii,d> at ti,c summit 
'" tlK. stems. The plant makes a very sati>l-aelorv l.looming I,ed 
l)Utthe indivi(hial lldwers t"aii (juiiklv. 

Perennial Max. I.huin, parnuc, i's a hardv summer-hIo,.min<' 
>i.ec,es w„h rather small. I>Iue, >nmetimes' white .lower. In 
these the styles an.l ..amens are ot dilterent Ien^th> in dilTerent 
•lowers, a condition which is believed to have to do with cross-fer- 
tihzation. 



257 



I il 



OXALIDACE^-WOOD SORREL FAMILY 



WOOD SORREL 



( Kxalis. 



Oxalis, (ircck, sour, from the acid juiic. 

Oxalis is a genus largely of tropical and sub-tropical plants, and 
although there are many species native to the North, none of the cultivated 
species are hardy in our gardens. 

Plant. — Annual or perennial, iften with rwHstocks or scaly bulbs, the 
sap sour. 

/.fai'fi. -Palmately three-foliate in our species; leaflets obcordalc. 

Flowers. -Whhe, pink, purj)!'.-, or yellow. 

Sepals. Five. 

Petals. — Five. 

Stamens. — Ten, five longer and five shorter, all anther-bearing. 

Ovary. I'ivc-celled; styles five, separate; stigmas terminal. 

Fruit.— .\ capsule. 

Violet Wood Sorrel, O.xali- vioUicea, is native to the Middle 
and Southern States: has rather fleshy, glabrous leaves and rose- 
violet flowers in simple umbels. Is used in rock work but is tran- 
sient and hardly desirable. 

White Wood Sorrel, O.xdlis acetoseUa, lives in the open wo(xls; 
has solitary flowers, white, veined with deep-pink, on sca])cs si.\ 
inches high. Has a world-wide habitat, as it is found in America, 
Europe, Asia, and northern Africa. 

Our best-known representative of the genus is the delicate little 
plant that lives about our house yards and gardens and by the 
edge of cultivated field>, O.wilis struta, often called by country 
people Sheep's Sorrel. 

258 



GERANIACE^ GERANIUM FAMILY 

GARDEN GERANIUM. PELARGONIUM 

Peliirgdii it) III liortoru m. 

Pelargonium, l,«ausf the fruit is l,.ng and slun.kT like- u st„rk\ 
bill. 

The Kenus Pdarnomum includes the race <,f garden Geraniums, 
lender to frost. Summer. 

.SV««. ^Shrubby or fleshy, in the erect forms becoming' a leafv bush. 

/.f.j7w. -\-ariai)le, usually scented, plea-santiy or othervvise. 

/Vrwm.-- Usually ix.rne in terminal corvmb, in color varvini: 
through reds to white. ' • ^ 

Sepah.—Y'wc, acute, hairy. 

Petals. -Five, the tw<, on the upj.er side .lifTering from the rest more 
or less m size and shape. 

.S7./wr«i-.- Usually seven anthers; filaments often ten. 
Oi'ary. Five-celled; style one; stigmas tue. 

Fruit. Consists of five one-seeded carpels, each with a long tail by 
which It IS attached to the style. 

The commonly cultivated forms of Pelargoniums are all clescencl- 
ants of South .\frican plants and can he grou|>ed into four general 
horticultural classes: Fish (leraniums, Ivy-Leaved Geraniums, 
Rose (ieraniums, and Pelargoniums. 

The Fish, Horseshoe, Zonal— the bedding types— are known to 
gardeners as Geraniums and in their present hybrid forms have 
l)een named by Professor Hailey Pehirgouium hortonim. These 
are believed to be in the main descendants of two species: Pelar- 
Soniiim zonule, characterized by the horseshoe mark on the leaves, 

359 



GERANIUM FAMILY 



a sfronn fisliy odor, and ratlu-r narrow ]H'ial^, and I'cl^in^ouUiin 
iiK/iihiiis, which is witlioiit liu- zonal mark, ha> vilvttv foh'aj^'c 
and i)roa(l(,T and morr rounded i)C'tal>. In Ix.iii tlu- ((dors ran^e 
from scarli't and crimson to white. Tiic present <,Mrden rare was 
fairly well estal)li>iied in i:nf,'!an(i by the end of the eif,'hleenth 
century, hut its vogue as a heddin;,' |)lant and the j,'reat develoj)- 
ment of the douhle forms are of eom|)aralively recent date, i)rol)a- 
My since iS6o. 

The Ivy-Leaved (leraniums are the <Iescendant> of /VA/r- 
i;oii'ui»i pcllafiim, a ])lant of weak, trailin-,', zif,'/a,u >tems, thick, 
shininf?, anj^ular leaves, and llower> in loo>e uml)el>. The plant is 
a favorite for window-hoxes and hanj,'inj,'-l)a>ket>, where over- 
hanf,'ing foliaj^e is desired. 

The Rose Oeraniums are of several varieties, the l)e>t known 
and most desirable are marked hy the rose-like frajrrance of the 
much-divided leaves. In the trade are forms known as api)le, 
nutmef,', lenK i, and others, all differentiated by the fra«;rance of 
the foiiaf,'e. They arc used prineii)ally as border |)lants. 

The fancy type is known to jjardeners as relar<.;oniums or 
Lady Washington (ieraniunis. The .American climate is verv 
trying to these ])lants, and in order t<i do well thev need 
more care than the amateur ordinarily has to give. Thev are 
very beautiful but, as a rule, whoever buys tiiem buvs (lisa[)- 
l)ointment. 

The botanical characters of the genus Pclari^ouiiim are a five- 
parted calyx; five ])eta's, mostly obovate, com])rising t .) upper 
and three lower; really leu stamens l)ul three or more of them 
sterile t'llaments; a style dividing into tive stigmas and the fruit a 
group (<f carpels. 

The botanical difTerence between the real C.eraniums which the 
cultivated (leraniums are not, and the Pelargoniums whicli the 
cultivated (leraniums really are, lies ch.ielly in two ])oints: In 
most cases the llowers of ("uranium are regular I)Ut those of Pelar- 
gonium are irregular, the two ui)per |)eta!s dilTering from the under 
in size, shape, and often in c, loring. The most constant difference 
between tlie genera i-. the pre-ence in Pelargonium uf a spur e.\- 



WILD GERANIUM 

t-ndinR from the lu-c ..f il„. upper >tp;il wliidi is nm unil.td i.y 
llie ia>u;il ohMTVor hocaiix- it i> gn.wn \nihi- f...! talk. In many 
of tlic iiiltivutal forms ii Mrm> virtually ■ ; ]v.i\v disippcarc-d. 



WILD GERANIUM. CRANESBILL 

Cicriiiu'iini }ihi( ulatitiii. 

r,Vrrt»,/,„»,(;m-k,,, ';;«.?, a . ran.-; alluiliiii; I., ihc 1,,!,^; l>,-ak ..f tin- five- 
<ar|icll((l fruit. 

.\ nativf jRTiMinial (".iTanium found on tlu' liordrr of woodlands, 
with fivf InlR.,! ^rrirti Iraus l,!,,i. lu.l with pal.r -nvn and diii.atc pink 
l)l()s.soms two inchi's across. Common tlirou;,dioui liie Xortii Mas- 
June. '■' 

Slvm. Kreci, liranctiinf,', hairv. 

i.r,nrs Pahna<r!y j.arted into live to .seven wedtre-shaped divisions 
cut anil elelt at tl.e end, .sonielimes whitish lijoielied, rouuh, hairv. 

Flowers. In terminal or axihiry loo.se dusters, pale ma-ema i.ink an 
inch •,)r more acro.ss; l)eiliceis one to three (lowered. 

Sepals. Five, acute, awned. 

Pel'tls. Five, pale magenta-pink, veined, heard on the claw. 

.SV<;w,-«,v. Ten, the five inner ones the l.-n-er, ,ach. with a honev 
gland at its ha.se. • 

Ovary. Five united carpels; styles united; stiVmas, live, recurved. 

l-ruil. Separating Irom a.xis into five akenes and ui>lifte(l on the 
curvng styles. ' 

Tliis native (Icraniiim is wortliy a i)lace in the wil.l border if 
not In- the garden walk. Tlie opening cor.,lla i- a deei. magenta- 
I)ink, hut heromes paler with age. Cranesi.ill i> a |)opular ?ran>^ 
lation of Ceranium which is derived from a (ireek word meaning 
crane and which was given to the i)lant lRrau>e of the resemhlance 
of tile fruit, with its i)roIonged heak, to the hill of a crane. 

Herh Rohert, ikrauitim Rolurtiauitin, i, a hand>ome j.lant ad- 
ventive from Kurope. There is always m..re or less red ahout 
i.otii leaves and stem.s. 'I'lie Mowers are bmall, rose-pink with 

261 



ig^fff 



GERANIUM FAMILY 

darker lines, and while the tranesl)ill see(l-ve>sel rk-arly marks 
the family afTiliations, it sends its seeds away a little more strenu- 
')usly than the other si)ecies of the f^enus. It loves to live on nn ks 
and Mask in sunshine. 

Kdward Stej), in "Romance of Wild Flowers," explains the 
name Robert as an example of interihan'" (»f meaning. Me 
says the redness of the |)lant caused the country people to f,'ive it 
the name Rolnvort, that is, Redwort. and in course of time the 
w disapiR-ared in jmrnunciation, leaving; it Roi)'ort, to |)u/,/lf a 
later >,'eneration who spelled it Robert and wondered if ever the 
plant h;-d been dedicated to a St. Robert. Linn.ius regarded 
this Robert i?, a |)ers()nal name and j^ave it a Latin termina- 
tion by which the i)lant will doubtless always be known. 



NASTURTIUM 

T-i)f>(ii)liim niiijiis. var. Iiyhrida. 

Troh(TolHm, Greek, a trDphv; the foliap- of the (oniin.yn sort sug- 
gesting a group of shields. Xaslurliuni is the Latin name of 
Water Cress. 

Tender South American plants bearing very irregular and unsym- 
mctrical flowers; often climl)ing by their long leaf-stalks; and filled 
with a watery juice of pungent odor and aromatic taste. Small N'astur- 
tium, Tropceoliim m'lniis, is similar to Tropceoliim majus, but smaller; 
petals with a bristle-like point. 

.SVrw.— Either climbing or decumbent. 

Leaves. -Circular, peltate. 

/•Your/-.?.- Irregular, si)urre(l, yellow ar orange. 

Calyx.— Five sepals, united at the base, and on the upper side of 
the flower extendeci into a long, descending spur. 

Corolla. -Five petals; the two ujjper more or le.ss dilTerent from the 
others and in.serted at the mouth of the spur; the three lower clawed and 
more or less fringed at the base. 

Stamens.— Eight, unequal; filaments usualh- fumed downward and 
curving. 

262 



NASTURTIUM 



Chiiry. ThrtT lohcs surrounding tlu- t.aso of a sin^'li- stvli'; in fruit 
limn thrif inick and Ik' ' ■ ■ ■ 

seed. 



I.ec.,min>; three thick an.l lleshy closed car,x;is, each onmiiniiiK a'sin^le 



Three hundred years ajjo, when the free-hooting ships of Kng- 
land were saihnK the un. harted ^as. one .lanner and one alone 
l.roUK-lit fear to the heart ..f a Drake or a KaleiKh-the dread of 
scurvy amoP)< his crew. Conseciuentiy 
plants possessin>{ antiscorbutic pro|R'r- 
ties were eagerly soujjht in e\ers- new- 
found land. Anions such i)lants was 
the .Small Nasturliu-'i, rtoptcohiiu 
minus, intHMJuced into Kn^lish gar- 
dens from Peru hy way of Spain and 
France before 1 546, and cultivated for 
a hundred years because of the liij;h 
value placed upon its seeds, which were 
I)i( kled when full-jjrown l)Ut yet green. 
Owing to the ])ungent and aromatic 
juices of the plant it obtained the com- 
mon name of Indian (Vess. The 
leaves and (lowers were used in making 
salads, and the i)lant wa.s ;-. denizen of 
the kitchen garden. About a huncired 
years after the arrival of the first Nas- 
turtium came the second, Tropirohim m.ijiis, whether to join its 
smaller brother in domesti( service the books do not tell, but 
the event proves that even if it came to drudge it has remained 
to reign. For the garden race of XasturtiMms is at ba>e Tro 
p(Coliim mijiis, modified by cultivation and seledion, and po>sibly 
hybridized with one or more allied spec ics. The plant is uni(|ue 
in habit, in foliage, and in llower. The circular leaves, each 
borne upon its stem like a shield on the arm of a x.ldier, stand- 
ing close together or slightly overlapping, really make a leafy 
roof which keejis cool and shaded and dewy a space six inches 
above the surface either of soil or wall. Out of this sh.aded re- 
treat the rlowers emerge on slender stems, looking forth with a 

263 




H.ilf i.f a \.i-.turtium Flower. 



GERANIUM FAMILY 



sidrwiM' ^'lanir and a (harming; |.ui,«'. A> tin- Mimmcr wau-s |.. 
its jirinu- llu- nilirt- Led Ihtuiiu-^ a hla/c ..f lilo^um- whidi 
fairly radiati- MinliKlil fr«)!n llitir ^,'l.|<k•^ < ii|)^. TUv plant tlinihs 
till- fi'n(i'> nr traii> al<>n^' tiic Kii'iind, I mi ulurfviT it i> it iravt's 
li^lit and sunshine. 

Till' individual lluurr is in it-cif mn>i intiTr-iin;,'. Tlu- lalw 
is colored as tin- (omija o.ily in lower toiu-. li-> tut- s«'i)aU aVf 
fairly ^rown to^'ctluT and tlu- tlircr ui)|ht iinitr :o form a lonj,' 
>lcndiT spur whidi i> a >torfliou>f of nr tar. I'pon the (aly\ 
and hftwtrn its jx.ints j,'ro\\ the jn'taU; thf two upprr dirn tly 
attached, tlu- thrt-f lower >,'rowi?i;,' on lonj; fringed {la\\>. 'I'Iutc 
an- various markings >efn as one looks into the heart of the IImwit, 
and all i)oin. 'own into ihe spur. .\o wandering liee nIiouKI 
mistake the directions; they are there (onduHve, unmiMakalile. 
No ant^ need ai)ply; the j.etal frinj,'e i> a dixourager ol ant in- 
dustry. There are normally eic,'ht Manuns. and tiiesi' do not ma- 
ture at the same time, hut disc harj^e their pollen one after 
another. As the stigma is not receptive until the home jjollen 
is fairly c.vhausled the plan con.^ideralily lengthen- the life of 
each llower, for as a rule the petals (onlinue the lionev call to 
the l)ec until the siigma is fertilized, or failing tluu until the 
vitality is exhausted. 

After fertilization both calyx and corolla wither; the llower 
stem begins to curve, sometimes makes two or three turns so as 
to draw the fruit down into the cool retreat under the leaves that 
it may not be harmed i)y the sunshine. 

Nasturtium behaves as if it were a niount;iin |)lant in its native 
land. It craves light and heat, thri\. i)e>t on a thin >oil and in a 
dry, warm location. At the same time it bears a verv con>iderable 
degree of cold. It-- leaves change their poise when night comes 
so as not to radiate heat. 

Tro[>iColiim I.obbianuin is a specie> from Columbia with blos- 
soms of the normal ty|)e, red to nearly red-black. This species 
has enriched the i)resent garden nice so that a grouj) of Nastur- 
tium blossoms now gives a marvellous .cheme of color— vellow^ 
to orange, orange to red and red-!)rowns— all radiant with im- 

364 



NASTURTIUM 

prix.nc*! -rnlijihi; a . nnil.inalion ihal u.,ni. .an miK -iiji^.^i. 
ni)t (lf«.i rilu 

Canan Hird I |..uit. 1 ropuolnm prr(i;r}„inii, iiiilik<' ii> I.I.mnI 
l)r()tlur> uhi. dimh when llifv ,1 lik.- ii, alua\> dinil.,. '|'hc 
UaU" arc fivc-lul.cd. not very al.tin.lanl, and ilir |.,tals nf ihc 
l-l..-nm arc ( .mM.l.Tal.ly i iit and .la>lii'(|. 'I'lu' [.Imt (crlaiiilN 
i> inliTcMinH. 



2^,5 



RllT>CF/E-Rl F FAMILY 



COMMON '.UE 

Riilii qrir.ni/riri. 

Rul.t, ihp anficnl namr of iIh- plant; iiuaiiitin iinkniiwti 

A stronn-sa-nted, hardy iHTcimial <ituv t uliivau d hut now found only 
as an iscaiK-. Native to thf Mfdittrrancan rifjions of Kuro|H- and 
western Asia. Juias acrid. July, August. 

Sicm. Slightly woody at the liase, two to 
llirir feet liinh, leafy, liiisiiy. 

I.iiivis. Alternate, pinnateiy deromixiund ; 
Uray-K'reen, dotted with snii'M, transparent 
Klands resemMinj,' punetures, containing an 
acrid, hitter, aromatic oil. 

Lfiijlrts. Ohlonj; (»r ohovate, entire, the 
terminal one often the hroader. 

l-'linfcrs. In few -dowered corymh.s, 
Kreeni.sh -yellow, parts spreading, produced all 
summer. 

Calyx. I'our or five sepa's. 

Corollii. I'"()ur or five yellov, |)etals, curved 
and archinj; at the apex. 

Stamens. Kij,'ht to ten, twice as many a.s 
the jK'tals. 

Ovary. Four to five lohcd, four to live 
celled. 

Seeds. Si'veral. 

Coinniiin Rur, A'/iM graveoUns 

This ])lant is fiiled with acrid juice 
which contains a v(.'at:i" oil that is a i)ouorful stimulant and in 
large doses acts as a narcotic jjoison. At one tMue the stems 
were employed to sprinkle holy water in the cerem-mies of the 
Catholic Church, which is, jx-rhaps, the e.xplanation of Ophelia's 
saying, "We may call it herb of grace o' Sundays." 

s66 




"W^ 



DICTAMNUS 




Diclamnus. IHilitmitus dibits 



RUE FAMILY 



Hero, in this place 
I'll set a hank of rm\ sdiir IhtI) of f;ra(e: 
Ruf, even f.,r ruth, here shortly shall he seen, 
In the ri'mcnihraniu of a uccjiiiif; ,|U(tn. 

— "Ridiard II," Alt III, Sc. 4, Sll AKESI'K AKE. 

Among the amicnts Rue was in great rei)Ute as an amulet; in 
media-val times it was a common witch's drug; hiter it had a place 
in the nuikria medio,. To-day it is simply a coarse, (li>agreeal.le 
herb, interesting because of the ass<Kiation> that gather about it, 
of Itself worthless and unattractive. 



DICTAMNUS. GAS PLANT. DITTANY 

Dictdmuus (illiiis. 
An old Greek name, Rui)|)ose(l t,) indicate foliaRe like the ash. 

A garden favorite of longstanding, with gl.Kssv, leathery leaves, having 
strong smell of lemon. Southern Kurope to northern Asia. Summer. 

Stems.— Three feet high, forming clumps. 

Amw.-. Alternate, o.l.i-pinnatc; leaflets nine to thirteen, ovale- 
serrulate, dotted with oil glands. 

1'lnurr.s White or pale purple, pencilled with darker lines, fragrant 
borne m long, showy, terminal racemes. ^ ' 

SrpdLt. — Five. 

/W,?. Five, long and lanceolate on short claws, the lower declininji 
the others ascending. "' 

Slamcrs. -Ten; filaments long, declining and curved, partly glan.lu- 

(h;,ry.~.\ little elevated, deej.ly r,ve-l,.l)cd; stvles five; in fruit the 
ovary s.^parates and becomes five, llattene.l, two 'to three-seede.l pods. 

Dictamnus was a great favorite in old gardens because of its 
fme clumps of glossy, dark green, aromatic leaves ^vhi, h make 
It a very effective plant tiiroughoul the entire seaxm. Flowers 
and flower stems are covered with glandular hairs which secrete a 
vohude oil so abundantly that at the height of the flowerin- rea- 
son and when the fruit is forming the i.lant ignites for a moment 
at the Ltiiiimg of a match. 

268 



lar 



celastrAce^-staff tree family 



CLIMBING BITTER SWEET 

( 'chistrus scdnJciis. 
i'elaslrus, an atu icii! (Ircck naiin- f^r some i-vt'ri;rirn. 

Twiiiiiii,' shrill), common alon,-; streams and in thkkcts.from M 
Manitoba and southward. June. 

Stem. -Ciimbinf; to twenty feet or more. 

Afi/tr.v. Alternate, ovate-obionj,', finely 
serrate, ])()inte(i. 

Flowers. Small, >,'rccnish-\vhite, poly- 
^,'amo-dicecious in axillary or terminal 
racemes. 

Sepals.' Small, five-cleft. 

Petals. — Five, stamens five; both inserted 
on the marj^Mu of a cup-.shaped di.sk which 
lines the ba.se of the calv.x. 

Ovary. -Two to four-lobed; two to four- 
celled; style thick; .stifj;ma lobed. 

C"(j/ii7//r.--Oranf,'e-yellow, dehiscent bv 
two to four valves, each containing; one or 
two seeds enclosed in a lleshy scarlet aril. 



line to 




('liml>iiiH ])ilti'r swci t. (.'iiiUlrus 



riimhinij Bitter-sweet is a verv vigc.r- 
ous twining shrub. leafy in summer and 
in aiUumn, rii)ening a mass of beautiful, 
herrydike fruit, orange and crimson, which remains ujxm the 
branches wfll into the winter. 

Eiiihiymus radiums is a Japanese climbing shrub of the Stall 
Tree Family. The climate of northern Ohio seems not particu- 
larly favorable to its development; it lives, but dcx's not thrive; 
at the south it (lourishes a])ace. 

269 



EUPHORBIACE/E-SPURGE FAMILY 



SNOW-ON-THE-MOUNTAIN 

l-MpliOrhia miiri^iiuila. 

I-M/ihorhiii. said hy Pliny to \k- nanu'd in lienor of Kiiphorhus, the 
piiysi.ian of Kin^ Juha; jiossiljly from tl- (Iri-ck word f(,r fat. 

A very handsome annual, cuhivated l)eraiise of the l)eaiitiful white- 
mar^'ined leaves and bracts that crown the stem and surround the incon- 
spicuous flowers. Native to Ohio and westward. July and .\u«ust. 

.S7r/H.— Erect, stout, two to three feet hi^h, covered with white, woollv 
hairs and topjK'd l)y a three-rayed umbel of whitish flowers and leafv 
bract.s; juice milky, acrid. 

Z-rarM. -Except the whorl subtending' the umbel, scattered, ovate to 
oljjonj,' or obovate, two and a half to three inches lonj;, entire. 

Lraj-lmirl.s. Subtending the involucral groups, larj^'e, white-marRined, 
clustered, consjjicuous. 

//;:W«frf. -(]reen, bell-shaped, bearing,' four or more ^reen Lrlands 
each with a white, petal-like ap])en(ia>,'e. ' 

/•Vwrn.— Monn'cious; both staminate and pistillate destitute of ca- 
lyx as well as corolla, and together contained in a bell-shai)td involucre 
which imitates a calyx. 

Stamens. Four to several, each regarded as a .separate (lower; 
each is p().s.ses.se(l of a tiny, white, thread-like bract; all are enclosed in 
the involucral bell. 

Orwv.—Three-lobed a- three-celled, rises from the centre of the 
involucre on a lonj,' curvi.l pedicel; stvks three, each two-deft • stig- 
mas six. 

/•>«;7. -When rijje bursts into three separate cariK'ls each havini; 
one seed. 

This is one of the most inlercslini; plants in cultivation, because 
its floral structure is so unusual. The slender, pale-grccn stems 
are about three feet hif;h, each one bearint,' al its summit a flat 
cluster of white-marjiined leaves, the whole being fr )m four to 
si.\: inches across. Upon examination each cluster resolves itself 

2''0 



SNOW-ON-THE-MOUNTAIN 




Snow-on-lht'-Myuntaiii. liitpliorbia murgiiiala 



SPURGE FAMILY 



into at least three smaller dusters of wliite-marfjined leaves, these 
surrouiKh'nj,' a ^roup <>f iiui)ns])ieuous white llowers. The booivs 
tall this inlloreseence a three-rayed iinihel; often tliere are several 
of these at the top of the stem. At the |)oint where the three 
umi)el rays eome together rises an erect 
stem ahout an inc li hij^h hearing; a sinjjle 
llower i^roup (juite destitute of leafy hraets. 
/"^J ^ jnSy^ The invokural j?rou|) looks like a four 

or t'ive i)etaled white corolla with four or 
more stamens. A minute f^reen cup is at- 
tached at the hase of each apjjarent petal 
and the stamens come out from anion;.; a 
cluster of greenish-white threads. These 
rbi)resent bracts and each stamen is re- 
garded as a distinct and sei)arate llower. 
There is one |)istillate llower in the cen- 
tre of each involucral group: this, likewise, is regarded as a 
distinct and sci)arate individual. 

It is rather curious that a ])lanl native to the dry plains of the 
West should in cultivation obtain the name of Snow-on-the- 
Mountain. 




Inviiliiinil ('■roup df 

I'liiwirs; riilurKi-il. 

I-Uiphorhiu mar^iniUa 



WHITE-FLOWERING SPURGE 

F.uphorhid coroUata. 

\ native Spurge, sparingly found in gardens, whose ir.vokicre rufjs 
bear five conspicuous appendages imitating a five-cleft corolla. (Irows 
in gravelly and sandy soil from Massachusetts west and south. Peren- 
nial by a long, stout rootstock. May-October. 

.%w. —Erect, two to three feet high, diffusely branching; juice milkv. 

/.nzTr.?. -Scattered, whorled or opposite, ovate, oblong to lanceolate, 
varying greatly in size. 

I'lowcrs. White, each group closely imitating a perfect flower, but 
really consisting of a single ovary on a long stem; three-celled and three- 
seeded, crowned with three styles; and .several staminate flowers consist- 
ing each of a single .stamen. Pi.^til and stamens are surrounded bv a 
cup-shaj)ed involucre with five lobes each bearii.g a white a|)pen(lage. 

272 



••■^ 



POINSETTIA 

This prcity, ulHtc-ilnwiT.d, forkin- c rcaliiro is u pu^^Ie f,,r 
amateurs. Its ll.miT ,ui) is mkI, a |.frlV.t mn-lia, its tiny sta- 
mens look s.. natural aii.l iaw-ai.idi.i-, the |.i>til i> s,, oviclontlv 
in i.lacf that the tl.mer ha> a ton.len, v tn .jcreive even the elec't 
I'-tanist, until the Um^i, threa.l-like >iem that . arries ,he ovarv is 
nute.l an.l the puz/.le i> >ulve,l. The inllure>enre i> ahun.iant 
and i.orne m l....se-ll,mere<l uml.el>, hut the milkv juice of the 
stem IS an oNjertion. for the j,'ar(len value of the plant lies in it. 
cut (lowers, which, like tho.e of (Jyp.ophila and JJalium, are at 
their hest only in combination with others. 

If one wishes to study the curiouslv abnormal inflorescence of 
the i-.uphorbias, i, is only necessary to pick up the little, half- 
prostrate, forkin- mat that lies in the sand bv the roadside's or 
rretps over the ed-e of the -arden walk and sj'.reads out over the 
pathway. My July t.ie little creepin^r ,hinj,r ^,U\ have (lowers in 
tlie axil ol nearly every leaf, whose tinv jjlobular seed-vessels on 
stems protruding out from the minute reddish Hower will show 
the fann-ly characteristics. For this is I-Hphorbiu nuuulata, the 
Sl.otted Spur-e, a citi/.en of the world. Its knaves are small ob- 
lon- or ovate, obtuse. slij,rhtly serrate, obli.|ue at base, anc'l on 
rc.l, lunry stc'nis are themselves blotched wiili red. ( )n the sands 
..I the sea-shore or of the (ireat Lakes one may studv Euphorbia 
polygonijdha, a very similar plant. 



POINSETTIA 

I'.uhJiorhiii ;-'i/,iurriii!,i. 

The most brilliant of the Kuphorbias. At the- Xorih, i,Tuwn in-dours 
and used ,n Christmas decorations. Native to tnoist, shaded places of 
tropical .\merica. 

S/nn. Woofly, two to six feel hii;h. 

/.r,nrs. (hate-elliptical or lanceolate; ..ntire, sinuate-tooth,.,! or 

linS;;;:::,'""" «"'■"= ^'''i'^-- '--^ --• '-'H'^^ '--cs briiianJ 



h 



SPURGE FAMILY 

Poinscttia, is the most gorgeous and tropical of all the red- 
flowered plants grown for Christmas decoration. The true 
tlowcrs are the inconspicuous yellow dots in the centre of the 
glowing rosette of leaf-like bracts and leaves at the summit of the 
stem, but nobody cares about those; it is the red leaves that call 
forth our admiraiion. 

The plant is trojMcal and at home it glows in the shaded gloom 
of a swampy jungle. At the North it must be grown in the green- 
house; in Florida it romps at will in the gardens and lawns. The 
gardeners iiave develoi)ed varieties with white and with yellow 
bracts; also have succeeded in increasing the bracts and en- 
larging the leaves of the type. The plants were first introduced 
to horticulture by Dr. Poinsett, of Charleston, S. (.'., about 1853. 
and their garden name is in his honor. 

Annual Poinsettia, Eupltorhia liclcropliylla, grows two to three 
feet high, bears variable leaves, the ujjper ones bright-red, and 
can be grown in sunny places. Native to our Southern States, 
and blooms fn 1 July to September. 



CASTOR-BEAN 

Rkinus cnmnnhiis. 

Ricimia notes the rcscnit)lance of the seed to certain inserts. 

.\ tree-like herb, common in cultivation as a decorative plant. Trop- 
ical. 

.SVfW.— Bright-green to dark-red, three to fifteen feet in the United 
States, thirty to forty in the tro])ics. 

l.favrs. Large, alternate, peltate, palmate, seven to many lohed; 
lobes serrate. 

Flowers. — Moncccious, without petals or disk; in terminal and ap- 
parently lateral racemes; the fertile above, the staminate below. 

Calyx. — Five-parted. 

Stamens. — Very numerous, with repeatedly l)r.Tnrhin,t,' filaments. 

Styles. — Three, united at base, each two-cleft, red. 

Capsule. — Large, thrce-lobed with three large seeds 

274 



CASTOR-BEAN 

The Castor-Bean is a tall, stately annual, exten-iveiy grown as 
a decorative plant. Its native land is unknown, i)rohal)iv India 
()r Africa; but it is now naturalized in all tro|)ical lands. Oil 




(".i^tiir liian. Riiinii-. mmmuni^ 



obtained from the seeds is the castor-oil used in medicine and the 
arts. The species has varied into manv horticultural varieties. 



The genus Pncliysdndra, Mountain S|)ur},'e, appears in two 
species, one pronimhnis, native to the .Southern States, and the 
other tcrmuialis, from Japan. The Jai)anese s[)ecies is a true 
evergreen with thick, glossy foliage forming a dense mat, making 
a very desirable cover j)lant. The (lowers are inconspicuous but 
rich in nectar and ai)pear very early. The plant is desirable 
only for its foliage. 



27.=; 



SAPINDACF'/E SOAPBRRR^ FAMILY 

BALLOON VINE, LOVE-IN-A-PUFF 

( arilinsjiirmum 1 1 iHoiiiihitni. 

Ciirdiiisprrmiim. (Irctk, h(arl->tT.|; from the- uliiU', luart-:,ha|n'<l 
s|"it (111 tlif rouiiil lilac k -cfd. 

A rapKl-;,'r(.\vin^,', annual climlicr, doincr h^st in a warm siliiation; 
with small white llowcrs, and sird -vessels that look likt' linv hallunns.' 

Native to tlu' South -wi'sturn Stales and 
Mexico. Sumnur. 

Stem. (lri)<)\ed, climliini; '•)• hook- 
like tendrils in the llower tlusicr. 

I.ra-rs. Alternate, twice ternate, 
Coarsely serrate. 

h' lowers. Small, white, in few- 
llowered axillary clusters. 

Sepals. Four, the inner jiair lar;,'er. 

I'elah. I'our, each with an append- 
a},'e on the inner face; disk enlar;,'e(l into 
two j;lan(is, one before each lower petal. 

Stiimciis. ~V.\)i}\{, tllamenis of \arvini; 
lenfjth. 

C)T'(7ry.— Trianj,'ular, tliree-celled, one 
ovule in each cell. 

Potl- Hladderv, inflated, ihree-lohed 
with win>,'ed rid<;es, containing one to three lionv seeds the si/.e of 
small peas, each with a heart-shaped aril adherent to the base. 

The inlkted pod of the Halloon \'ine is an inch or more in 
diameter. As the round i)lack seeds are each marked with a 
white heart, in accordance with the old idea of si<;natiires. 
they have long been considered efficacious medicine for heart 
diseases. 

276 




^^ 



ItalltKit) \'int'. Ciirf!inKf}trmum 
Ilah'fd. ahunt 



BALSAMINACE^-TOUCH-MF-NOT FAMILY 

GARDEN BALSAM 

Iiiifi.'iiiriis Ihihi'nnin,!. 
I w Pali,;,'!, named fnun ih,- M„|.l.n l.urMin^ ,,f ilu- |«h1 uhrn 

lolK luil. 

An rnrt, h.df-siuTulcnl animal, l,.nK since ii.lrodiucd from India and 
now widdy iiillivalcd lor its showy llovvirs. 

Stem. I'.rcct, low, jt-afy. 

/.onrs. Lanunlalf, crowded, liic lower opiHJsito. 
/■/ourr.s. Clustered in the axils of the leaves on very short stalks. 
Srf,„ls. Similarly ciored and not easily distinguished, one of the 
.sei)als, ol which there seem to he three, loni^spurred. 
I'cliils. Apparently three. 
Stamens.' I'ive, anthers cohering. 

Ovary- Five-celled; s t i g m a five- 
toothed. 

Capsule.' E.\j)losive, of five united 
car|)els \vith very thin partitions; when 
ripe a pinch or concussion will causi- 
the valves to .separate and contrad, 
throwing the seeds with considerahh' 
force. 




H.il.-..ini. lmp,'tli,ns l>iih,lniiii,i 



The Common Halsam is a MikmI- 
lirother of the Inipatinis of our 
shaded ravines and cool hrook-sides. 
It was l.rouKht from India into Knj^land l.efore i ,-,/,, became at 
once a favorite, and has since heen developed into manv garden 
forms. The llowers of the type were ^in.ule and noe'-red, hut 
under cultivation very (loul)le l)|(Ks,,ms h.ive heen ppxlucei! 
ranjiiti- in color throuj,'ii wliite to various reds and yellows! 
The full-doul.lo l.los.soms are known a> the cameilia-liowered 





Jiwclw. ' ImpAlirni /(i/tij 



TOUCH-ME-lfOT FAMILY 

varirtio. The individual (lowers are very l)eautiful, hut they 
<linn NO clo^e to the >teni and are so oversha<lo\ved hv th»- leaves 
that their value is greatly le»ined. 

ImpittieiK siilli'ini, often >im|tly ( ailed Sultana, is a well-known 
hou^e |ilant of >un ulent brittle stem^, hri^ht-^reen >hininn leave>, 

U-arin^; in the primitive form Inau- 

tiful irim-on lilo>Mim>. HvliricU 

and >|><irt> have ^.wn (olors from 

pink to purple and a white variety 

e\i>ts. Th'- front view of the llosvers 

su>{nest> hy it. outline a pan>y, hut 

its structure i> hy no means |)ansv- 

like. There are three >e|)al>, two 

very small and ^reen, the third wi'h 

a larger hlade than the olher> and 

a lonj; slender sjiur. This spur 

seems so inconseijuent and irrelevant that it never teases to he a 

wonder. The petals are five and their arranj^ement suj<f,'ests 

the pansy. 

This child of the tropii> finds the warm, moist atmos])here of 
the country kitchen most aj,'reeahle, and thrives there heyond 
measure. It possesses, moreover, the j^reat house-|)lant \irtue, 
it increases hy cuttinj^s which root readily, consecjuentiv no 
neighbor who wishes a plant need go without one. 

The two Jewelweeds or Touch-me-nots, Imputieiis fuha and 
Imptit'uns pdllidit, the Tawny and the Pale, are among our most 
heautiful native jilants. Lovers of shade, growing in great num- 
bers in moist places and along mountain watercourses, tliev often 
l)ossess and holtl, without a rival, really large tracts. The trans- 
lucent stems, with leaves which under water look silverv, hear 
a flower of such peculiar .shajw as to attract attention from the 
most casual observer. Its shape suggests a cornucopia with a 
curved and attenuated base and a frilled border. Sepals and 
|)etals have become virtually indistinguishaljle in respect to color. 
The flower is credited with three .sepals, two lateral ones small 
and green, the third saccate and spurred, a veritable horn of 

278 



GARDEll BALSAM 

plenty. The [M'tals are five, or tiny may he re^anletl as three 
with two of them tworlelt. Slamen> are live ami the fruit is 
<|uite us interestit)j{ as ilic flower, an olilonjr (ap-iile that ^rows 
irritalile as it heeomes mature, when a -ii^ht pre>-ure will make 




KtpI'hIhI C.ip-iili ..f /mfaliiH , 

l'>il.ilt;til 

it exphxle and stnd the entio>t'il .-ee;i> iivIm^;. The techniial 
explanation of ttie matter is that the i apsule i)reak> u[) into live 
>|)iral loiled vaive>, e.\i)e!linj; llie ^<eeds. 

The Tawny Tou( h-me-not i> Mimewhat variaiile in color, 
sometime> deeply frei kled with red-i>rown over a deeplv golden- 
yellow ground, other times nuu h |)aler. 'I'he |ilant .dso prin 
(hues ileistogamous llower> late in the M-ason. 



279 






VITACF'Mv-VINr: FAMILY 

WOODBINE. VIRGINIA CREEPER 

tilpfl<i;>.us ,iiilii,/i„-/„/i,i. Psnlrni ./iiiii,iiir/,',li,t, 
.lm/'<7(i/n/v, (Irrik, likr llii- \\ni-. 

Tlif familiiir cnipinK ;iiiil irailiiiL; vine .Mtusivily ciiltivai.d, and 
ci.mmoii ill ii.swild >taif ii\ u|,cii w...Hlsaii(l tlii( k. i>, on rich |,.w ^ruimd. 
Kanj^fs In. Ml Maine u> llu' Dakuta^ anr| southward, Siininur. 

Sirni. Ch'nil.ip- hi^h l.y means ..f disk-l.earini; tendrils and arial 
nxitlets; liark with lentials; niih white. 

I. raves. Ahtrnale, 
di^'italely eiimiHiund; leal- 
lels live, elii|)tii or olilnnj^'- 
nvate, (oarselv sirraie. 

/■Inwirs. Smah, ^Tee,, 
isli, |ierteit or diceiioiis, 
liorne in li'ose cvmes. 

Ciilyx. Minute. 

/'<l<tls. I'ive, spr.al- 

in^; 

Sliniifiis. I'ive. 

(hiiry. (dohose; sivie 
short. 

Hirry. I )ark-|nirple 
with a !)hie Mooni, si/e of 
small pea, two to three 
seeded. 




UlMKlllilU'. .1 W/l,/r'/l>/\ '^Itilli/llljilliit 



A>iipclo/)sis qniiti/iic/oli:! and .InrpclopM^ \'ril,liii arc the two 
favorite wail-covcrinj,' vines of the N'ortli. Viihhii intir|irets the 
wh'ile duty of a vine as the duly to i limh. to hold fast am! 
clin.c: tight, anrj so it docs, virtually she.-ithinjf the v,a!! in a leafy 
armor. 



280 



BOSTON IVY 



Hut ijiiiuijlitfollt li.i-, ;i|>|' .riiily, ;i ililTcriiil \i<\v; with .iiu' 
arm rlinnini; \>> i |M.rili |>ill,ir nr a |ur|>rnilii iilai wall it ua\i- 
aiii>lhir nut Iciwanl llif uutld at lari;c. It^ ti'inlril- -was uitli 
fvcry /i|ili\r ami inxl with ivcin lurc/f. It i- the iiinn' |ii' lu- 
rc«i|Ui' III' tile iwii a-' it I lamlur^ over the Miaiula ><v liillnu^ 
al< n the tiiK (', I lilt vM h li.i^ 
it> oun vital ami ail-ul'rK iii^ 

I'liarm, -n that du- ii)a\ \>v /[ "•' :}mi^. 

ha|)|>\ uitli I ithir. j ^ .< . «-& 

Till' autiimtial tint- arc he 
uilihiiit; ami licwiMi riiij,', a 
( niit'ii-iiiii nf rirli m arlit aiiil 
» rim -nil, ( lum^jinj; -ntmwhat (\^ 
rarlicr thati thr Ja|>am>i' Ivv. vj^isav-yi ^-f^/W "' ^-r7 

BOSTON IVY. JAPANESE IVY 

.1 nifif/i'/>\is Vi'iUhii. 

\ liarily ami iis>iiil ('iinlHT, 
(liiiLtiiiL; lirmly ami iiivrrin^; walls 
ilciisi'ly; iiiiri»hiuil iri.ni laj.an. 

Stem. CliinlMti^ liinh liy means li'-i-n lv\. \n,p.i..f ,■ Wit.hii 

of .short and (lisk-hcirint; tendrils, 

l.favis. 'I'liree-lohed or tlireeloliate; loarsely and remotelv dentale, 
shiiiiiif,', i^lahrous on hoili sides. 

i'ltnccrs. I'ert'iit, ^'rieni.sh, small, home in short stalked raccnie-. 

Calyx. Minute. 

htals. I'ive. 

Stamnf:. I'ive. 

th'iry. (dohose; .style .short. 

/mil. One to tour-seeded hirry, dark-puriije wilii a hhie lilooni; 
si/e o|' pea. 




The Ja|)anc-i' Ivy was ! rnuiriit fmin Japan ahout I'lflv vears 
ago as a conservatory plant. It wa- s,i,,n distdvcicd |o he sui'i'i- 
cieiiliy luud) to wiljisiaiid the liosion < limate. and tn-dav it sur- 
passes all other vine.-? fur covering liriik and stone walls. It 

28 1 



l^'-'^ 



.^m^smi::t^^. 



VINE FAMILY 

tlirivfs in all locations and is rcmarkahly vigorous in large cities, 
wiiere it grows to a great iieight, clinging to l.ricks and stone 
and mortar in ])()siti()ns where no other \inc so e.xjxi^ed to the 
jiower of the wind could survive. 

The close double cari)et of green, the hroad, wax-like. >hiniiig 
leaves wliich in the fail change to scarlet and crimson, unite t" 
make this the most desirable of all our climi)ers. Its tendrils 
adhere best to unpainted surfaco and it needs no sujinort of any 
kind. Wtv young ])lants are tender in winter, but a slight pn)- 
tection for a year or two will establisii them permanently in the 
soil, from which time their growth i> rapid. 



RIVER-BANK GRAPE, FROST GRAPE 

ri//.v viil/i'iiut. 
Vitis, iho ancient name of the vine. 

The River-hank is the commonest grai)e of ihc Xortlu-rn .States west 
of New England; abumiant along streams; traiueiitly destroys shrubs 
and low trees. Variable in the flavor and maturity of the fruit. 

Sinn. Vigorous, tall-dimbing, with l)rii,'hl-L;reen folia<'e- vouii" 
shoots normally glabrous; stipules large; tendrils forked and' coilintr'^ 
nodes solid. 

Leaves. Thin, medium to large, cordate-ovate with a broad sinus at 
base; sometimes three-lobed; deei)lv and irreguladv cut; apex proi,,- 
nently acute; generally glabrous, but veins and 'their angles ofteli 
pubescent. 

/•Vrwm. -Small, greenish, diaxious, or i)olygamo-dia>cious, borne in 
compound racemes. 

t'(;/y.v. -Minute, five-lobed. 

Pelah.—Fivv, cohering at the tips and falling without expanding. 

St(imcn.i. I'ive, alternating with nectiferous glands; stamens f 
fertile (lowers curved; of .sterile llowers erect. 

Ovary, (llobular, two-celled; .style short. 

Berries. Small, less than half an inch in diameter; purjile-black with 
a heavy blue bloom, sour, gcneraliv rij)ening late; .seeils rather small 
and distinctly jn'riform. 

The River-bank Grape is well known to all who live in the Mid- 
dle West, for it festoons the thickets on the river banks, where 

38a 



:-iv!ic;.»'i' 



f*r- •-(, 



NORTHERN FOX GRAPE 



it often takes entire possession of a tree. \\ iun tran>ferre(l to 
tile farni-iiou^e enclo-uris it lhro\\> a <;rei'n niaiitie of liiauty 
ovir iin>i,i;lul\' ii!'\ ,;:"! niai<e-> in all re-|ieit> an a('.iiiralile 
general utility \ .-v. 

The berries ire -mail — iv- ilian half an in( li in diameter — 
])ur|ile-l)la('k w: i. i 'hmv. Id u lilooiii. -(jiir and --nnu'w hat a*- 
irinjjent, ri|)eninji late, i li. -|ii'(ie> Minu'lirni'> Iniiridi/es with 

NORTHERN FOX GRAPE 

\"it:s Idhriisiii. 

One ol" the eommdii wild iirajn-s nf ihv Xortii and ihi ]iarcnt of the 
r ncord aiid other eiil'' aled \arietii'S. h'ouiid in ihiikits mi niuist 
^rciuiii in New I'Jiijlaiid, ea>li'rn New N'ork, and southward In ('H'orgia 
ami rennessee. HliHims in May and June and fruits in .\ui,'usl and 
Se|)tenii)CT. 

StcDi. W'o^idv, clinihinii l>y tendrils, with watery and add juiee; 
hark loose and >hreddv; younj,' shoi>ts very entiniiy; nodo solid, inter- 
ruptinj^ the i)ilh; tendrils forketl. 

I.fiivrs. .\lternate, ru.styd)rown, woolly heiu'ath, rounded, lieart- 
.sliajied, pahnatelv veined, varyinji from merely dentate' to deeply lolied 
with rounded sinu.ses; o|)]io>ite each leaf is a tendril or a tlower ehi.--ter. 

l-'!i>urrs. (ireenish, small, diieeious or polyi,'anio-diieeious, liorne in 
a ('onii>a('l eluster. 

C'lilww Minute, oliMUrely hve-toothed. 

I't'ldls. rive, coherent in a cap and fallinj^ without expandin,!,'. 

SlamcHs. Five, alternate with live nectard)earinj; disks. 

Ovary. (Uoliular; style short. 

Hrrrirs. \\\\, two-thirds of an inch in diainvter, ])uri)Iisli black with 
bluish bloom, toULjh skin anil musky tlavor; .seeds pyril'orm. 

The Xorthern I'ox drape is the common wild graj)e of Xevv 
I'.niiland and ea>ti'rn New York, and has a well merited liaim 
upon onr attention a> the ]>arenl of the l>aln'lla, CoiKord, and 
Catawba — in fact, of mo>i of the American cultivated grapes. 
Tlie vine is strong, robust, (limbing high in thickel> and on trees; 
the voung shoots are tawny with much scurfy down; the leaves 
are large and thick and broadly cordate-ovaie; they vary con- 

2»i 



VINE FAMILY 



siderahly as to lobes and margin hut underneath arc denseiv 
.-vered with a tawny, dun-cnh.red. or red-hrown tomcntum'. 
hi^ riKiractenslic- per.i.ts in many of the cultivated varieties 
he l.lossoms are both fertile an.l sterile upon the same plant • 
tlH' eorolla never opens, the small greenish ,,eta!> grow together 
a' the tip and fall without separating. The perfume of the 
l'l""mmg grape is subtle and deli.ious as all who have .rp-me- 
vmes know. The fruiting ra.eme is sliort, carrving les.",hui 
twenty berries in the wild type; the berries, large and nearlv 
spherical, ranging from purple-bhuk, the cmmon eolor to red'- 
i.rown and amber-green; variable in .a>te. but mo.stlv .sweeli.h 
musky, and sometimes slightly a>tringent. ' ' 



2S4 



sv.' *:^««»j£:^!«Br>-T^ 



MALVACE/EHVI ALLOW FAMILY 

Herhs or shruhs wiih allt-rnatf, nalmatcly wiiu'd Icaws. Tiie 
tlowers are rt'j,nilar; sepals five and jtetals live. 'I"he filaments of 
the numerous stamens form a tul)e connected with the I.ase of the 
petals; and this tube hears, either at its summit or aloni,' its >ide>, 
kidney-sha])ed, one-celled anthers. 'J"he stvle>, live or more. 
push out at the to]) of this tube. I*i>tils are >everai, either unitini,' 
in a rinj,' or forminf,' a several-ceiled pod. A whorl of Iiractiel- 
either separate or f,Town to.i,'elher, called an involucre, >urround> 
the calyx. All member^ of the family are more or less mu. ila^'i 
nous. Its best-known f^arden rejjresentatives are HnlKhcKk and 
Hibiscus, its plant of greatest economic value i> Cotton. 



HOLLYHOCK 

.Mill ('a rosrii. 

Alllurii, to lu'al, of Circck (k-rivation; some of Uif spci ii-s haviiifj 
brcti u-'i'il im-iliriiuiilv. 

.\n old-time ^Mrden favorite; a plant of vi.Ljorcnis growth, noble aspect. 
and ornamental character. Hoiii biennial and j)erennial. The I.c vant. 

Stem. Tali, simple, hairy, bearing the llowers on >hort peduncles. 
I.cairs. Rough, rounded, heart -.sha[)e(l, angled, or live to Mven 
lobed, i)almately veined. 

f-'lourrs. Large, rose, red, purj.le, white or yellow, siii,i;le or double, 
borne in a s])ike. 

Calyx. I'ive-pointed, hairy, re-enforced bvan involucre of si.\ to nine 
bracts. 

C'oro/Aj.- Single lljwers of live large jietals, we<Ige-shai)ed, con- 
volute in bud. 

2S5 



'nBKT>'^^y4J«MVM;Bfti^f «in#<«Kyi7f ~ viiB»L.<ssnrinaKniEHH 



MALLOW FAMILY 



1 





Tulics of HoUvlifx-k Sta 



Si.iiHiih.. Many, filanuTits ((iniUTtcd with the has' nf tlic pi'tals and 
united intii a lul)f; anilurs kidney. sliapiil, ontd'll 

Styles. Many, slender, mncealed at I'irst within ihe corojhi tuhe. 
Ovtirif.s. Many, united in a riti^', se|)aratin),' at niaturiiv. 

Till' Ht)llyli(Kk |)Ut> into caijitaU llu' e>>enlial c haracler- nf tlie 
Nfalliiw Fa.iiily, and i)y larefully >tii(lyin,i? tiii- llower it i> |i()»ii)le 
to gel tliu >lructure of the mallii\\> so licarlv in mind that whether 

liig or little they are rea<iilv vmdiT^tood. 

The rive"i)ointe(i wjvety eal\\ i> re-en- 

foned l>y an iiivolu^ re whit h looks like 

an extra ( alyx, and togetlier thev form 

tlu' otUer L;reen ('U|) in which tie largiT 

eu]) of the corolla sits. In the o|)eninL; 

liud^ till- f,M-eat petals are rolled and 

twisted, then carefully and tigliliy tucked 

in at the end. 'Pile :-lender filaments of the stamens unite and 

form a tiiiie wliicli eiK Iom's and, in the opening llower, conceals 

a cylindrical hunch of tlireaii like stvles. 

Hy the time the jietals iiave freed tliemselves of all their tucks 
and wrinkles the anthers are mature, the iiollen is falling, and the 
nectar tlows freely at the har-e of the staminate column: the fea-t 
is ready. 'I'lie guest> arrive duly, for the liees alwavs know- 
when the Holl\lio(ks ari' in liloom. After the anthers have ma- 
tured the long >lender style- |iu-h out at the to]) of the stamen 
tiilio frequi'iitly extending half an inch or more lawond and curv- 
ing over. .\t this time the petal- are full of life the nectar continue:^ 
to tlow, and the hee come- again hringing jiollen from some 
younger llower. After fertilization the petals become llaccid, 
twist and drop, while the hlooming impulse |)as-es on to tlie 
l)U(ls aliove. 

The life of a Hollyhock hlossom continues from three to five 
days, and u-ually from t'lve to nine l)lo»oms in dilTcrent stages of 
bloom adorn each well-grown stalk. 

The Hollyhock is the Holy Mallow, brought into we-!ern Ku- 
ropo, it is believed, i>y the Crusaders. The orig'nal color was rose, 
but ^election and hybridization have produced a garden race whoso 

2«w 



.?»^ 



HOLLYHOCK 



4 




Ili)llvh()ck. Allliica rosea 



MALLOW FAMILY 

n)l(>rs ninj^'r throuj^h a w'ulv sitIi'S of reds and vcllnws nultinf^ 
into wiiilc. The doulilo f<)rm> an- ])i)|)ular, Imt llic >in<^k's liold 
tlifir own because of tluir indi\ idualitv and real la-autv. A 
j^rou]) of \vill-i,'p.\vn Ilollyhoi 1<> in Moom is worth j^'oiiij,' far to 
see and the time ha> heen when they were ea>v of cultivation, 
I'Ut of late years tile |)lant> have fallen victims to a i)ara>itiial 
fun<,'r,s, I'ltitiuhi malvaa\inim, which Ikis discc)uraj,'ed and dis- 
heartened glowers. 

MARSH MALLOW 

Altll'iil Kljuilhllis. 

An cTert jH-rennial, natiiraii/.c'il from luirope in liic sail marslu^s of 
the Atlantic coast from Massachusetts to New Jersey. .\uj^u.st, Scp- 
tcmhcr. 

Stem. — Two lo four feci liii,'!), hrancliiiij,'. 

Leaves. — Velvelv-downv, ailernatc, ovale', toothed, soniclimc.''. threc- 
lohcd. 

Jliiurrs. ~-^^aI^)w-like |ialc crimson-pink ami veined. 

Ciily.v. — Surrounded hy an involucre of six to nine bracts. 

The name .Marsh Mallow, freciuenlly applied to the Swamp 
Rose Mallow, jiroperly helonj^'s to litis species. Naturalized Irom 
Kurope, it lias found a home on our Kastern sea-<'oast anci in 
midsummer heautifies the marshes from Ca])v C"od to Cape May. 
Its hollyhock (lowers are a |)ale c rimson-])ink liornc in small 
terminal clusters or at the leaf axils. The thick, mucilagimms 
root is used in the making of confeclionerv. 



SWAMP ROSE MALLOW. HIBISCUS 

Ililiisciis )ii(>scluuli>s. Hilii.'iiHS piilustris. 

Jl ibisius is an ancient name of ()l)>cure origin. 

.\ tall f)crennial sending up strong, leafy canes each year which hear 
al their summit large hollyh!)ck-like tlowers. Found in marshes alonu 
ilie coast from Massachusetts to I'"lorida and in interior marshes west 
to Michigan. 

2S8 



CRIMSON EYE 




Crimson Eye. Hibiscus mosclieiUos 



MALLOW FAMILY 



Stem. — 'I'Jirci' ti) tivr ft it !ii,L;Ii, li;iiv, hairy. 

I.cdvrs — Alliriiatf, h\\y.v, ovate, Miimtimi s ^lij^liily iliri i Inhcd, cri- 
iiatL'-to.itlu'il, with Mitt liaiis ln'iitatb, intioUd. 

fltmrrs. Malluw ly|)i' am! >lin« y (ni uiu -llnw end jKdiiiulcs, I'dur 
to six iiKlii's across, rose or uliitf, will) or witlioiit a iriniMHi vyc. 

Ciilyx. I''ivi'-ckfl with an iiuohiiro of tin linear lirai tiits; not 
inllateil iti fruit. 

i'cnillii. I'ivi-oliovati' |)ilals, rani;ini,' in color ihrouirli rose to white. 

Shiincus. L'nileil in a loiij,' column, hearing; antliir> for imiih of its 
KM^lh. 

Styles, rniteil, hearint; in full \iew a'love the .stamen column I'lvu 
capitate stigmas. 

C'lifisiilc. Smooth, I'lve-telliil, >ul) t^loliose. 

Sauls.- Several or many in eaih nil. 

'I'lic- llowiT of Ilibi^iUs iiiiisi hctilos LTiatly re-cnilili'> a liol!\-- 
liock; it i-. in fact, quite a:^ .■>hi>\\y, hut tlieiv are tint --n inanv 
iii(li\ idual- on tlie stem an<l ilie -i ale of colnr i> not -oxarieil. 'I'lie 
J)lo>Mim may ai\va_\s he known a-' Ilihiscus in ili>tiiutiun from 
hollyliuik li\' the ft\e thread-like stylo which jirntrude from the 
column of stamens, each liearini,' at the end a little siii^'maiic liall. 
Thi^ is ( haraileri>!ii of the uenus. 

At home tlu-e ma,L;iiil'i( enl lli)wer> appear aminii^ ~edi,'es and 
cat-tails, hut, like sn many others, the plant when tran-ferred to 
the u'ardi'n finds a coni^enial home. 

A variety called Crimson I'lye.a clear white with crimson centre, 
wa-^ found in a >v.ainp in New Jersey and introduced to the trade 
in 1894. 



.'.w^: 



TRAILING HOLLYHOCK. FLOWER-OF-AN-HOUR 

11 iiiisius triiiuitm. 



A low annual appearinj,' in f^arden.-^, hut rarely cultivated, hloominj^ 
only in sunshine. Nati\e to southern I'.urope aiid northern .\frica. 
Midsummer. 

Slem. — l'>ect or decumhent, leafy, hain,-, one to two feet liiyh. 

/,f(/7'M.- -Alternate, lohed or threc-i)arted, ilowny. 

Flo'drrs. — Mallow -.shaped, solitar\-, in axils of the leaves, pale-yellow 

witli a dark re;l«!is!i centr,.-, cpeii oiily in direct sur,.-hi;ic. 



TfiSfsrr<af(n 



■'^oiirsr^- 



wsanamji.'n^jifimifsrimai 



TRAILING HOLLYHOCK 

. r,//_vv. |{.ll->l,;m..l, n.rvr.l. winu'cl. liv,..!,!!, M.m,ui,.|...| l,v ,„ 

m'n;:^^.'''''^ '^^'^'^ ^'""""'■'' ^" ""' I-"- I'-''- ><H-v with a 

■VA/™. l-„i„.,| i,„„ a r..l,li>h tul,., ui,I, .uulur. alonu ils Inu'llr 
an lurs ki,!,u.v-.sl,;„K..|, ydinu ; .s,vl,> nniu,| in a . .Ik ^^ nl f^.' 

tulic of siaiiU'Ms. 

/'"</. rivc-i'lkd, (luloscd 
in a l)lacl(lcry Ini: k. 

I'lnwiT-of-an-HoiirMiiiis 

ti>lH'li)iii^ toiio nianV land; 

luTluipxiiH' r7ii;,'lit siy ihai 

it appears sooner or later 

in every j^'arden, hut is 

rarely welcomed and in 

faet usually uprooled. 

Native to tiie lands hor- 

<li'rinf,' the desert, the 

hlossoms seem to translate 

into form the burnin,:,' luat 

of the noonday sun, and 

^^lu■n the sun's direr, ray> are withdrawn, even tcmporarilv. the 

corolla do.es. Con^e-juently the tlower is either a hope or a 

cl.sappomtment, „ .ordin,, a> one look> at it in the n.-rnin. or 

m the atternoon, for onre closed it never opens a.'ain 

Ounibo, Ifihisms csculaitus, i. a mallow of the\efre,aMe j;ar- 
dcn. 1 he munlaginou> propertie> of the familv, in ihi. .pecies 
are cspecaily stored in the pod, which i- three to' four inche. Ion J 
and, when green, is commonly used to thi. ken >oup. The leive" 
are f.ve-lol,e,l, rounded, an.l cordate; the ,lower> mallows of 
grecnish-yellow with a dark eve. 




l'l.nv(T..f,ni ll,„ir. II ihi-.r„^ Irumut, 



291 



MALLOW FAMILY 



MUSK MALLOW 

Milli.ll IIKIM llillll. 

Liiliii allcralioM of a (Ircik xMjrd iiuanirij^ ,.,fi ,,r cinollii ni. 

One of the prcttii'st of uiir Kanliii (Mains; Miiiuiitr.is ciilrivatirl hiit 
oftciicr fiiiiiul by tin- mudsidf wlurf it strms at Ikmiil-. IVriiiiiial. 
Slimmer. 

Sinn. ( )nf to two feet lii^;lt, liairv. 

Lciivrs. Altcniati', lliric to five |)art(<l, (li\i.sioM.s oiut or twin' ml 
into sli'iidiT linear IoIhs, faintly sa'nli'd with niiisk. 

l-linvrr.\. Of mallow iy|H-, |ialf-rosc or while, llal, ahoiit two indies 

across, in tirminal and axillary dusters. 
Sepals. Five, involucre of three 
bracts. 

Piiiil.s. I'ivi, oludrdale, uniteil at 
the base. 

Sliininis. I'nited in a lon^^ column, 
beariiij; anthers. 

Ciir fills. United in a single whorl; 
styles many. 

Lnnj,' ap) the Mu^k Mallow, with 

its |>ri'tty ll()\v(rs and (ielicate (KJor 

of niiisk. scaled tiie garden wall, 

made itself at liome iiixm the roadside and in waste places, and 

in i'onso(|uence lost taste. Therefore, it i> now rarel)- seen in 

garden enclosures, e.xcept in the wild border. 




Mu~k M.illnw. Matvii nunthita 



COMMON MALLOW. CHEESES 

Mdlvti roliiiidifdiia. 

An exceedingly common weed in •ultivated grounds. The 
stems, procumbent and trailing, rise from a strong dee|) root, and 
')ear very ornamental round leaves with five shallow lobes irregu- 
larly toothed. The tlowers are the mallow shai)e, small, pale- 
lavender with darker veins, each petal notched. The po])uIar 

292 



-.•^ ^.-^ 



♦r. ^b^W vf- - 



■r-sj"* a.*"™*! "1 xm ' 



COTTON 

namr, Chn^r,, rrl.r, I,, the .li,k likr Imm ,.l ilu- >.r.| r.u|.t.ulr 
wtiidi, uhilr ^rrrcn, i. ....t,,, |,y rhihlri'ii. 

Trcr Malinu, .l/.,/:„ >v/:r:/,/,. j, ., ,,,„„„„„ ,,|,.„„i_,, ^^.,,^ ,^_^ 
m-.i l.ra.ulnnK -Ifm .,n.l l.u,l,y lu.l.it. n.miraliA.l fn,,,. Fur..].,. 
Ilu- \vAU: arc livr i.. ^ov.n Inlu,! an.l th.. ilnu.r, |.alr . rin...,,,. 
pink, i-aih [H-tal uiti, al.nul l..ur v.in. of ,|,,.|Kr .,.|,,r 'Ilu. 
llowiTs are Imrno in -niall . lu^t.r. at tl.r Iraf aiiKK-. < )n. r . iilii- 
valcd. It i> n.m luimd diiolly m, rua.l.i.U- an.l In uaMc pla.iv 



COTTON 

(iii\syfinnii liir/i,'ii,-iiiii. 

It may !.c a nalt.-r of intm..t .,, „,„,. ,Ih. l.nUnl.al aflillalinn^ 
of till. m,Kt vali.ahU. tmnnnii. j.lant. Cnilun i> an annual n.ai- 
I'.NV. l.c-annK a l,|n,M,m |.alr ydl-.w with a dark vu: I,. iV„i, j. , 
capsule, rnntainin.i; nr.]. with a -|,„njry tf>la onvrnl with w,...IK 
hairs called loi'on. 

IV Cnttnn plant ..f cultivati-.n i> ,.f .luuhtfuj ..rifrin, l.u, ih,. 
ancient >ptH iVs ..f .\>iatic plantation, and tiu- ..nc n,.w , uitivaKd 
in ••.ur..pc and the Tnitcd Stato i. referred tn(,Vvvv^//,;„ l„rh,unn>, 
w.mh ■:- nnly a way nf .ayi„. ,1,^, j, ;. ,„ herl.xeuu. n.ttun 

he genus „ not well underst. and autiu.r, difuT a. m 

tlH. number ..f wild Cottons in exi>ten(e, l.ut there are .ertainlv 
se\eral. 

ilossyi,,;,,,, ,nlwra,m i> a Tree Coiion helievel to W native to 
I.Ky|)t. <on,erninK wluVh I'liny makes the following,' inien-.tin,. 
statemi'nt: ' " 

•"'■Ih' iipi.er part of Ki^yp, ,„wanl Aral.ia pr.KJuces a .hrul. 
uhlch >ome .all ^'os.ipi..,, an.l ..ther. xvlon. when.e the name 
xyhna given t.. the threa.ls ol.taine.l fn.m it. I, i, low ..rowinL' 
and hears a fruit like the hear.le.l nut, and from the interior .if 
this IS taken a wool for weaving. Xon. is . omparahle to thi. in 
softness an.l whiteness." Ik- ad.ls. -The . lo.h ma.le from it is 
used hy prelerence f..r the dress of the Kgvptian priests." 

It IS to he e.M.ccted, in view .,1 the increasing scientific interest 

293 



MALLOW FAMILY 

of the Sniiili in a^'rit iildiri'.llial in llic mar fnliirc llif ("citinn |>Ianl 
will lie finally in)|iriivtil ami litiur >irain-> (ii\tln|ic(l. 



< itluT >IH'( ic-v of Miilii'iinr in < ii\aliiin an-: 

I.ii:dlir(i lrinii'slri\, a rci iiit iniriidut liun I'mni Spain, an an- 
imal Malliivv with lu-arl >ha|it(| liasf- and larnc rx^v lluwcr^. 
If till- -cctU art' >n\vn in Ma\ llic llnwcr^ will a|>|>far in lunc an<i 
tnMtinut' until Sc|itfnil)(T. 'riic ^ttiii i- Im-ln ain! rra( iic-^ tlic 
luMfjht iif two firt. 'I"iic plant i- narii(<l in iionor of the lirothers 
I.avatiT, Swi-> naturaliM-. 

Miilopc Iril'iil.i, a iialisi- of Sjiaiii and iiortlurn Africa, wliiih 
^rc>w> tlirir fcit hinh. It luar- liaml-onu' mallow (lower-, rcd- 
vciiu'd with purpli' or darker reel. Tiuri' i> a w iiiti- varirtv 
( ultivati'd a> Miilopr !i^r,iii<!i/li>rit. 

I'oppy Mallow, Cillirrlioi iiivoliii rata, i- a di-limtl\ WV-tcrn 
j»lant of trailinj^ habit, hrariii)^ ( ontinuoii-K , from carlv Mimnitr 
until fail, larjii', sliowy, (rinNon, purjilr, or (lurr\ <d |]owit>. 
TIk' k'avo arc [laimatily I'lw to -(.-viii parud. IVrcnnial. 



294 



*^A- 



TFKNsrK(i:\iiu:i:.i:-rKA famii.v 

Aitiiiidiii. 
MHii. r.iy; rrhrriiig l.i llic raili.ili- -ivl^-. 
Stnn. ('1111111111^, wiHiilv, 

/.c./rcv. l)f( iiju.ais, .ih.rnali', l.'ii'j priiMlid, ,( rralc 
Hnurr'.. Soliliiry ..r in ,..i\nil,-, |M,lv;,Mnii.ii>, uliii,, i up >li,i|Md, 
li.ill lo ihrcf I'niiiilw ..| ;iii iiii h .1' i'>-„. 
Srp,il\ iiiiil pri.ih I! .iii I'lM , 
Stiimvii^. Many; -liL'tna-, many. 
iriiit. \ many Mill. .1 lMrr\, r.liM,-, 

The ,!,'cnii- l.liniiii.i. wiMpiK ilinihcr- n\ ihc / 
Himalaya- ami la-irrn .\~ia, i- n |ir(M'nli'ii in 
"ur i,'anl'ii- l.v \\\i, Ja|iaiu-.' -.|,c, ii.,. •|'|,, 
lari^c-t ami -irnnm'-l i- .1, ////(/// ,ir;^i)l.i. imw 
fairly wi'll f~ialili-li(<l, wln'cli i,'r..\\- with .^mmi 
vi^'nr and ra|>ii|ii\. ii- !(.i\r~ aiT flli|iii« al, 
I'liir I.I U\{- ill. he- Imiu'; ii- I'liiii a'H.iii tin- 
^\/x ill a ( licrr\ ami liiu'lil\ c-iccnicil in lapan. 

Adiniliii l^i>ly:^,uihi i- a niuir -Kndir |ilanl 
than iir:^iit.i, with «lli|iiii al, -litjliily -rrrair, 
1(111^ |Kiii'li'il li'avc-, lime |i. f.iiir iiulu lun^. I'nii'. 
jiiail, w riling; fn.m japan, >a\ - nf ii ; •• |i- -n ni- lorni u'n ai 
tani,'lf-,-.am-limt-. iwinly fen r niorc ai r<.-- iii.i uilwu fret hiuh. 
'I'lir iiio-l roniarkahlf lliin^ alhuit ihi- plant i-- liiai in -iimnicr 

tin Ivavc- p. ward lln- laid- of llic hram he- I tnc palc-\.i|(i\v. 

fitluT over liii'ir entire -uri'ai c ^r laiiy al.MVt \\w middle, ma l,e- 
rau>c'tliey are dr\ ini; upnr riiienim;. I.iii apparentK I'min an ln- 
suHkient Mip|ily nt"(hl,.n.pli\ll. •riie.lTeet that the plant> i.n.duce 
at this lime i- eiirinu- and intere-lim;. am when seen I'mm a di-- 
tani e they look likt' huL;e livi.-.hes ■ overed .\ iih pale-\elln\v ll.iwer-." 

The plant's altraetion I'or rat- i~ aNo \.r\- <iirinu-; !^e(l> <jf 
seedlings mu>t bo pn.tccled or (at- uill .!t>iroy them. 

^95 




-ar 



r 



HYPERIGAGE^-ST. JOHN'S-WORT FAMILY 



GOLD FLOWER 

ITypi'rkum mcseriaiiiim. 

A hybrid suh-slirul) raised l)y Mosi-r, of Frame; valiuiMe for its 
brilliant yellow tlowers. N'ot altoj^ether hardy. 




Gold Mower. Ifypi'rinifH mo^cyiimum 

Stem.— \\'oo(\y, two feet hi<,'h, erect, with the tips of the branches 
slif^htly pendulous. 

/.AJir,?. -(')[)j)osite, ovate-oblonj,', dark-f,'reen above, pale beneath. 
/•7(wrr?. Lari^e jrolden -yellow cups, two inches in diameter. 
Sfpiils.—V'wv, leafy, oblong. 
Pr/<;/\.— Five, bnnid, munded, brilliant yellow. 

290 



GOLD FLOWER 

Stamens- 'Siany, in tufted clusters, with yellow t'liaments and reddish 
anthers. 

Ovary. ~Vi\v-U)\H-t\; styles and stij^mas five. 

Capsule. — Many-seeded. 

Hyperiruni woscriihuini is the pnKluct of the union of Jlyperitiim 
pdtiiluiH, a tall evergreen shrul. from Japan, and Hypericum 
ralychtiini, a dwarf evergreen from the western shore of the iiritish 
Isles, though found elsewhere. It greatly resembles the latter, 
which, because of the size of its llowers, has the popular name of 
Terrestrial Sun. The parental nanic would not be inai)proi)riate 
for the offspring, as its slender leaf\ stems are crowned with verv 
gorgeous golden-yellow cu|)s made still more effective bv their 
wealth of yellow stamens and reddish anthers. This wealth of 
stamens is the endowment and the charm of the entire St. John's- 
wort race. 

It is believed that in the ancient Druidical worship some use 
was made of the golden blossom of St. John's-wort, probabiv to 
symbolize the sun; certain it is that both in Kngland and in (ier- 
many the country i)eo])ie were formerly in the habit of gathering 
the Imal s|)ecies on Midsummer Day and hanging it about their 
houses as protection against witchcraft and evil s[)irits. Mid- 
summer Day is sacred to St. John the A|)ostie, and the plant 
most .sought on that day became St. John's llower, 



ag; 



^' 



CISTAGE^-ROGKROSE FAMILY 



ROCKROSE 

Ileliduthcmiim ni/i^i'irc. 

Helianthcmuiii, (Irc'i-k, llii' tldwi-r (i|ii.'ninf^ in the sunshine. 

Stem, -how, procumbent fDrminj^ mats. 
Leaves. -Kvcrj^rcun, lincar-lanccolatc. 
Flowers. ^Mo9,{\y yclhw, in terminal clusters. 
Sepals. —Vive; two exterior resemhlinj,' bracts. 
Petals. —Vive, crumpled in the hud, soon fallinf,'. 
Stamens. —Mdny; style one. 
Seeds. — Many. 

A very pretty, I(>\v-<,'r()\vin,i,' cvcrgrctTi w hicli forms broad chimps 
that during the tl()\verin<,' season are quite hidden by the mass 
of bloom. Especially good for rock work. A F.urasian |)lant, 
long cultivated, running into many forms and olTered by the trade 
under many specific names. It is the best Rockrose in cultivation. 

A native species, IleUaittlicmiim canadensis, a sturdy little 
l)lant, equal to living under hard conditions, is sometimes found 
in northern nnk gardens, bearing the two names of Frostweed 
and of Sun Rose. It, too, forms a mat of spreading stems, and 
bears two kinds of llowers both yellow: some with showy co- 
rolla and many stamens, others small and clustered along the 
.stem, with inconsi)icuous corolla and few .stamens. 

It is rather interesting that the same plant should have the 
name of Sun Rose and Fro>tweed. Hut the blossoms ojien best 
under the direct rays of the sun, and the cracked bark of the 
s])reading stems holds the moisture which freezes into ice i r\ >taN 
at the root. The two characteri.stics have suggested name> that 
seemingly o{)p(jsc each other. 

298 



VIOLAGE^-VIOLET FAMILY 

Herbs with an irregular, one-spurred or gil)l)ous corolla of 
five petals, live stamens whose antliers f^row tof^etlier over "he 
pistil, and a one-celled, three-valved jxkI. Sej>als five, |)ersi>tent. 
Petals imbricated in the bud. Stamens with their filaments con- 
tinued beyond the anther cells. Style usually club-shaped with 
the simi)le stigma turned to one side. 



PANSY 

]"i(i!ii tricolor var. Ii'yhriilii. 

Viola is the ancient I^aliii natiu'. Pansy, fnini Frcnili peiisir, 
meaning thoujjhl. 

The garden representative of I'iohi tricolor, (levelope<l to enormous 
size and to a marvellous variety of color and markings. I"louerin<; 
thrt)Ugh spring and summer. 

Leaves. — Roundish, often oval, the lowest heart .shaped; stipules 
lyrate, pinnatifid, leaf-like. 

Sefiiils. —Viw, persistent, eared at base. 

/V/ij/.v. -Five, untMiual; the lower one with a spur at ba.sc. 

Slamcns. — Five, sliort; the broad, flat filaments cohering around the 
pistil. 

Oxdry.— One-celled; style club-shaped; stigma one-sided. 

C'(i/>,VH/f.— One-celled; three-valved; many-seeded. 

Tile Pansy has long been known in gardens, and, allhougli its 
origin is more or less in doul)t, tlie proi)ability i> that it has de- 
scended from Viola tricolor, native to the cooler |)arts of ICurope. 
This violet in nearly normal form is still grown in gardens. Its 
llowers are small but interesting Ijccause of their varialjility in 

299 



' II 



VIOLET FAMILY 

color. They usually have three colors, niostlv Mue and purple 
white <.r yello-.v, but in different varieties one of the colors stronLdv 
predominates. 

(ierard, writing in 1587, i)ictures the Heart's-ease or Viohi tri- 
color with small, violet-like (lowers, the petals standing apart from 
each other. Of the Upright Heart \-ease he savs: "The stalks 
are weake and tender, whereupon grow (lowers in form and 
figure like the violet and for the most part of the same hignesse of 
three sundry colors, whereof it tooke the syrname Tricolor, that is 
to say, purple, yellow and white or blew; bv reason of the' beauty 
and braverie of which colours they are verv pleasing to the eye fo'r 
smel they have little or none at all. The sc-ed is contained in small 
knaps of the bignesse of a Tare, which come forth after the lloures 
be fallen, and do open (rf themselves when the seeds be ripe. The 
root is nothing else but, as it were, a bundle of threddv things." 
Sii.-;. si)eare has immortalized the Pansv in the speech of 
Ophe'i': 



There's rosemary, that's for renicml.raiK 
there is pansies, that's for thoughts. 



I)ray you, love, rememlier: and 
— 'Hamlet," .\( t IV, Sc . 2. 



And again, in "Midsummer Night's Dream," Oben.n sends 
Puck to gather the tlower: 

Yet marked I where the holt of C"u|)id fell: 

It fell upon a little western (lower, 

Before milk-white, now purple with love's wound, 

And maidens tall it love-in-idleness. —Act II Sc i 

That this flower early won the hearts of the I'nglish peoi)le is 
evidenced by the many caressing names it ])ossesses:— Heart 's- 
case. Love-in-idleness, Pansy, \-i,.let, C'uddle-Me-to-\-ou, Three- 
Faces- I'nder-a-Hood, Herb-Trinity, Johnny-Jump-Up. 

The first improved Pansies appcareu in' England, whose cool, 
moist climate is well adapted to their growth, and for manv years 
the Knglish types were the best in the world. In the middle seven- 
ties three French si)ecialists. Bugnot, Cassier, and Trimardeau, 
devoted themselves to the development of the Pansv and the re- 
sults were a revelation to horticulturists. They produced the race 

300 



. >w^-- '-«■■• ^~t!ma£-' «^ ^^•iatii-eHi/.f'rir.XTsaKXf^-Tt. ziBKt9>^ 



PANSY 



that is sold in our markets to-day. Such sizes, such comhinations 
of colors, such wcirdncss of e.\|)rcssion in (|uaint faces painted 
ui)on the |)etals were never known before. 'I"lie colors now 
run a marvellous ranj^e: pure-white, pure-yellow (lee|)ening to 
orange and darkening to brown, as well as a 
bewildering variety of jjlues and pur])les 
and violets. The lowest note i> a rich and 
velvety shade that we >|)eak of as black, l)Ut 
there is no black in llowers. 

Our garden treatment of the Pansy leaves 
much to be desired. We set out beds of 
blooming i)lants in .\\)n\ and for a short time 
they are dreams of beauty; the |)lants are 
then either taken up or allowed to deteriorate 
and slowly to i)erish. The theorv seems to 
be that as our summers are hot and may be 
dry, no Pansy bed can survive, so the little 
lieauties are |)crmitte(l to die or are killed outright. Hut with 
proper selection of location a Pansy bed will be a i)leasure all 
summer long. The ])lacc must be shafled, given the morning sun, 
but sheltered from that of noonday and afternoon; the lea of a 
tree or a building is gocxl, and frequent s|)rinklings are needed to 
keep the foliage moist. A clay well enriched will grow the largest 
flowers, but any gocxl garden soil will do. These should be 
continually picked otherwise the bed deteriorates. 

The Pansy is the flower for all. It is cheap, it i> hard)', it is 
beautiful; and its beauty is of an unusual and personal kind. 
The bright, cheerful, wistful, or roguish faces look up at you with 
so much ai)parent intelligence that it is hard to believe it is all a 
pathetic fallacy and there is nothing there. 




(r.irilin I'.irisy 



30« 



-flt 



■:T!f- 



VIOLET FAMILY 



f ! 

\ ! 



SWEET VIOLET. ENGLISH VIOLET 

V'loUi odi<rt\tii. 

The parent of tin- llorist's violets; widely distrihuted over I'".iiro])e, 
Africa, and Asia. 

Rool.slmk. Siiort, ])ro(Uuin^ stolons. 

Stems. -Tufted, somewhat |)ul)escent. 

l.cdvrs. Radical, cordate-ovate to reniforni, nhmselv .serrate; stip- 
ules j,'landular. 

iltmrrs. Blue running; into white and reddisli-|iur]ile, fraj^rant. 

Scptils. I'ive, eared. 

Prliils. Five, une(iual; spur nearly slraif^ht and ohtu.se. 

Slamcns. — Five. 

X'iok'ts dim, 

But sweeter than the lids of Juno's eyes 
Or Cytherea's hreath. 

— "Winter's Tale," Act I\', Sc. ,^, .'^H.akksi'KARf.. 

The primitive of the Sweet Violet of commerce is a variable 
si)ecies indigenous to three continents, luirope, Asia, and Africa. 

The delicious frafj;rance of the ilower iias caused the i)lant to be 
cultivated and developed until many sorts hearinjj both sinj^le 
and double flowers have been derived. IJut English poets speak- 
ing of the Violet mean the simple, single, blue, wild form. 

HORNED VIOLET. BEDDING VIOLET. 

Viohi corinita var. hyhrida. 

A tufted perennial plant with dilTuse stems who.se hybrid forms arc 
the Bedding Violet of the Horists, Pyrenees. Entire summer. 

Stems. — Tufted, difTusc, ascending. 

Leares. Cordate-ovate, acuminate, obtusely serrate. 

Stipules. Large and deej)ly cut. 

/'//ravr.v. - In type, lilac-blue; hybrids pansy-colored. 

Spur. Half the length of j)etals, ])ointed. 

Se pills. Awl -shaped . 

Petals. Five, uncnjual. 

Stamens.' Five. 

302 



s.i/iwsi.vie? 1 



COMMON BLUE VIOLET 

Tlu' liyhn'd licddini,' Xioki^ lixik likr >n);ill paii^io- and lilc-Mini 
])n>l"uMly tli<' nitiiv >uninHT, if in a r. .;Minal.ly >luidrd loialioii. 

'I iu'v arc lalitvi'd to 1k' iIh' prndud nf ( r(i->in<,' l/o/,/ mniiil-i 
a mountain violci of ilu' l'\rriur>, wiili a varitiv of l/o/,/ ir'uolor, 
tlic romnion wild violet of l'.uro|ii'. 'rimuuh lonj^ valurd in V.w^- 
land, tlicv have Ijul rcrcnllv iKromc fav()rilc> liorc. 



COMMON BLUE VIOLET 

Viola lUiiillatii. 

Till' commoni'st of our native vidliiN-, familiar on roadsides and in 
fields. In addition to the usual Mossoms it al.M) produces cleisto<;amous 

tloWlTS. 

RoolsliH'ks.^ Flesliy and thickened; steniless. 

Leaves. Radical, lonfipetioled, heart-shaped with a hroad sinus, the 
sides rolled inward when youn;,', ol)tuselv serrate. 

l-lo-d-ers. Irregular, deei) or ])ale violet, blue, rarely white, solitarv on 
scape.'. 

Sepals. V\w, extended into ears at the ha.se. 
I'etals. Five, uneriual, the lower .sjjurred at the hase. 
Slameus. I'ive, closely surroundini; the ovary, slijjhtlv cohering,', the 
two lower hearing' .spurs which project into the spur of the corolla. 
Ovary. One-celled. 
Capsule. One-celled, three-valved, many-seeded. 

The \ioli't hlocHiis witii everv ^pri^f;, 
With I'vcry >pring the l)ree/es Mow, 
.\n(| oiue aj^ain the robins sing 
.\ Ming more sw<'el than June can know. 

.So with :':u' \ inlet conies doire 
For sonniriing eKc than common gain 
The glow (]f more than earthly I'lre, 
The >ting ol" more than actual pain. 

A liiossom of returning light 
An .\pril llower of sun anc] cli-w; 
'i'he eartli and sky. tiic- clay anci night 
Are melted in her clepth of blue. 

— Dora Read (Ioodai.k. 
303 



! I| 



H. 



M 



VIOLET FAMILY 

There are many Violets in our woods and fields— all lieauti- 
ful— but the ore Ijcst known and hest loved is the Common 
Blue, which sometimes covers hollows and hillocks in such purple 
crowds that 

One might gui-ss 
A storm of Mossoriis had falli-n there 
And covered the ground with a sweet excess. 

One broad distinction between s|)ecies of Violets lies in the fact 
that some are stemlcs<. that is, both the leaves and the llowers 
apparently spring direuly from the ground, while others have 
stems upon which the leaves and flowers are borne. Blue Violet 
is one of the stemless species. 

Possibly more than one observer has noted that no matter how 
abundant may be the Wue blossoms — they may fairly carjiet the 
earth— there is no corresjjonding pnxluction of seed. When one 
comes to think of it, there are never very many seeds on the Blue 
Violets; and thereon hangs a curious l)()tanical tale. iMir it 
appears that this profusion of blue l)iossoms is largely for show 
and not for use, and that when the plant really wants to mature 
some seeds, it puts forth under the leaves and next to the ground 
some flov/crs which never open nor develop petals but are fertil- 
ized in the bud and are e.xceedingly fruitful. These are pnxiuced 
throughout the entire summer and are known as cleistogamous 
flowers — that is, fertilized in the bud. 

The Violet is mentioned both by Homer and by Virgil. It was 
dear to the Athenians who deemed themselves most complimented 
when called violet-crowned. Ion was its Greek name, and Shake- 
speare, referring to Ophelia, alludes to the old tradition which 
said that this flower was raised from the body of lo by the agency 
of Diana. 

Lay her i' the carlh. 

And from her fair and un])ollutcd flesh 

May violets spring! 

"Hamlet," .Vt V, Sr. i. 

Every garden is the better for a bank of Blue Violets, and 
they can be had simply by going to the fields for them. 

304 



COMMOW BLUE VIOLET 




Common Blue Violet. Viola cucullata 



f ! 
I i 



PASSIFLORACIvK PASSION FLOWIvR 
FAMILY 

PA3SI0N FLOWER. MAY POP 

Piissilliirii iiunruiitii. 

A strong,' vine wliiili is a tr<iiil)l(S(imc winl in tin- cuttcin fulds of tin- 
Souili; hut at tl -• Norlli makes a liiif CDV.r for arliors ami viraiidas. 
KiM.ts will survive tlie winter as far North as Hailiinon , and even farther. 
From \'ir;,'inia, south ami west. 

Stem. Tr'tiiini; or ehmhin},' hy axilhiry tendrils. 

Lrairs. .\iternate, tliree-johed, cordate-ovate in outline, serrate; 
petioles hearing two glands near the top. 

llo-d'crs. Axillary and solitary, ahoul two inehes across, white with a 
light pur])le corona handed at its centre. I'sually three hracts heneath 
tile tlower. 

(Wv.v. With short tuhe and five divisions, which are colored in-'de 
like the jietals. 

PtUils. Five, home on the throat of the calyx; within them -n 
spicuous crown of numerous ray.s, forming a fringe ahout as lonj. the 
petals. 

Slamats. Five; anthers versatile; lilaments united in a tuhe, sheath- 
ing and adhering more or less to the long stalk which .sMpjiorls the one- 
celled ovary; styles three; stigmas cajiitate. 

I'rnit. \n ohiong herry, ahout two inches long; yellow when rii)e. 

The natne of tliis tlower thn.As an interesting light upon the 
methods of the early f "athoiic missionaries in their efforts to make 
dear and to fi.\ thei eachings ujion the minds of the simple ah- 
origines among whom they lalmred. 

The hlossom is large and striking in ai)i)earance, it has three 
long stvles terminating in small heads, five stamens whose anthers 
are attached at the middle, a very prominent lorona, live sepals 
and Ave petals very much alik-. In their cloistered gardens the 



PASSION FLOWER 




ras>ion I'lowLT. I'lissi/loni iiuaniala 



PASSION FLOWER FAMILY 

monk- nu'ditiitid iii)nii ili. vondfrfiil plants that surroundrd 
tlu-m and, (luii k to take .id\ . i.age of ivory o|»i»ortunity, they >aw 
that these lloral orj^ans nvi 'i Ik- use(l as convenient symliol> of 
the irueitixion; >• thi .: ' I the l)lo»om in their teaehin^s 
and named it the Fl > i ■ i un- I'assion. The styles were the three 
nails; the stamens t, i •mivi -- th;t drove them in, or, a> others 
put it, the antiiers ar ih- !iv< woUikK, tiie corona i> eitlier the 
crown of thorns or tl' r.i >! :!ory. 
hut ten and these w^ri Ou . . stirs 
plained; only ten \\>'r !■ • 
the one having hetr.n '• jukI . m 

palmate leaves were th. ha.MJ ■>) i;. 
inmendril> the scournt 

The elTorts of thoSt simple earn' t -ouls to teach their wild 
pujjils have l)et m com iiemorated for .ill time in the name Passion 
Flower. This is the only (()iiirii)Ution of the Western worlfl to the 
svin' .lical flowers of C"hristendom, and these star-like blossoms 
I'ivc taken a worthy place heside the mystical Roses and Trefoils 
of ecclesiastical decoration. 

The genus I'lissijioni is in the main iropiial .American. Our 
weed of the cotton fields is typical of all the sjR-cies; it is also the 
most Northern, if we e.xcept a small flowering plant of Pennsyl- 
vania. 

The Passion Flower of the greenhouses i> Pussifloni Ktriila 
with its hvhrids and \ariants. This si)ecies is lirazilian and is 
n'|)orted hardv as far North a- Washington; it will grow readily 
from seed and is a pleasant summer llower. 



.\> the lloral leaves were 

" -atter had to he ex- 

;.iid IVter were absent, 

Uni"d his Master. The 

■ .secutor> and the ding- 



308 



LOASACH/F -LOASA FAMILY 

BARTONIA. BLAZING STAR 

Hiirtoiii.i .iiin.i. Moilz.li.i l.imllcyi. 

/•/<wm. Solitary „n short l.ra>,. h.s. ahn,, ,wo ;,,,.] a half i,Kh..s 
across, l.riKhtu.llow, iraL-runt in ih.. .vn.in., .liuriuil 
Calyx tube. CvliiHlricai; fiv.-, kfi, |„,-i,|fni. 

/V/,//.v. Fivf l.roa.lly ..(„.vai., sprca-lin^, i„s,.rt,.| „„ t,,,. ,|,r„at of 
the calyx, convolun- m the- luul. ' 

Stameus. Many, inscricl with ih. ,Htals o„ ,|,.. throat of ,!,,. calvv 
J>.,ry. (,„..,,,.,,; ,,,K.. „,,,,^ „,.,„ .,^ ,,,^^ ^__^^_^^,. ^^.^^^^^ 

r,;/)v«/r. -One-cfllcd; o|KninK at tlu- summit. 
Sffds. I'lat. 

Tlu- [M„s,„ac are a family of rcuf;!,, thiMlc-liko plants natlNv 
I., cur Wfslern plains and mou.ilain.. 0,1,. specie. lUrlom,, 

.n/m/, ^fcutKlscmetimesinilu-Kanlen In.t Is not vc-rv .'c-,ur,lh 
known. ■ '" 

There are, however, tw, . niKlit-hloominK spec us of Mnitzvh • h ,1 
>iioul.I l.e >n eultivation. They are wonderful plants- U, .i.v 
rouKl. and thistle-like, unprc.posscs.ing and undc'sirahi. • !a„ 
when the sun g.K-s down th.^ buds awaken, op..„, transfortn 'them- 
selves „no Huffy musses; the thistle stick. Mo.,m like Aaron', 
rod, while a delicate fragrance tills the air. .S.nne dav these wild 
Mentzehas will be cultivated for evening dec ..rati. 



i.in. 



.^C) 



(f 



LYTHRACEyE-LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY 



.• s 



SWAMP LOOSESTRIFE 

Lythnim salidirid. 
Lythrum, (ireck for hl<H)<i; a|)|)li(;iti()n obscure. 

A perennial sjwcies naturalized from Kurn|K' and larjjely used for 
planting aijoul the border of |K)nds and in low, wet places. Variety 
roscum is the garden form. Midsummer. 

/?(W/.?/ofA'." Creeping. 

.SVcw. - Krect, three to five feet high, crowned with spikes of many 
bright, crimson-pink flowers. 

Leaves. — Lanceolate, heart-shajx'd at base, o])jK)site or whorled in 
threes. 

Flowers. — Ciimson-pink, small, crowded in bracted half-whorls on 
a wand-like si)ike at the summit of the stem; honey -bearing. 

Caly.x-liibe. — Ribbed, with five to si.x teeth and as many intermediate 
minute processes. 

Petals. — Five to seven, oblong, slightly twisted, borne on the throat 
of the calyx. 

.SV(/ »/(•;/.?. Ten to twelve on the throat of the calyx; filaments vary- 
ing in length, really trimorplious. 

0^'(jry.— Two-celled; style one; stigma capitate. 

Capsule. — Many-seeded. 

The Puri)le Loosestrife came to lis from Europe and has become 
naturalized along the Hudson River and, here and there, in New 
I'-ngland. It loves to grow in masses on low, marshy lunil, and is 
a favorite for water-side planting. 

At the summit of the wand-like stem, in the axils of leafy bracts, 
are grou])s of bright pink-|)urple llowers, whose narrow, sliglitly 
twisted petals give the stalks a rosy, fringed apiK-arance. The 
flowers present an interesting example of trimorjjhous stamens 

310 



SWAMP LOOSESTRIFE 




■y (I 



Swamp Luoscslrifc. L'ythrum saliraria 



f 'I 



LOOSESTRIFE FAMILY 

and style; that is, on dilTerent i)Iants in tlu' same f^nuij) three 
(lilTerent furms of tlowers will lie found, tlie variations hcing in 
the lenf,'tli of the styles and stamens, and relating, it is jjelieved, 
to their cross-fertilization hv insects. 



CUPHEA. CIGAR PLANT 

Ciiphca 'ignai. C'iiftlien />/(ilyci'iilrii. 
Cuphea, Greek for curved; from the sha|)e of the ralyx. 

A delicate ixTennial, with glossy, dark-green leaves and small tubular 
flowers, cultivated in greenhouse and for borders. Mexico. 

5/f;«.— Kight to twelve inches high. 
Leaves. -Opposite, glos.sy, ovate or lan- 
ceolate, acute. 

flowers. Small, bright vermilion tubes 
about an inch long, .solitary in the a.xils of 
the leaves. 

Cr;/y.v.- Xarrow and tubular, about an 
inch long, with a short, blunt spur at base; 
the narrow border and minute teeth dark 
violet, edged on the u])])er with white. 

Corolla. Xonc. 

Stamens. F.leven or twi'lve unecjual. 

Ovary. I'lat, two-celled, one smaller than 
the other. 

Potl. -V.ndnsvd in the calvx. 




Ciiplua. Ciiphea ii;«™ 



The little Mexican, thougli tender to frost, makes an excellent 
border plant, as it supports a continuous bloom. The bright 
scarlet tubvlar tlowers tipped with a ring of black and white have 
suggested the common name Cigar Plant. (Ither sjjecies are in 
cultivation, but this is the old-time favorite. 



,1 1 • 



B>.c k.ltt^ ^•■V" 



EVENING PRIMROSE 




I'ivi'Ming J'rimrosf. (Kiwlhh,! hUnnis vnuulijloni 



.1 



ONAGRACE/E-EVENING PRIMROSE 
FAMILY 

EVENING PRIMROSE 

(Rnothera hiiniiis. Oiniqrd hiriiiiis. 

Oenothera, a {irevk name of obscure appliralion. 

Wild in open ground^, ofu: in the Middle West tukinj^ possession 
of ncf^lected tracts in the cities. The large-flowered forms are cultivated, 
especially the variety f^nindijlora. Common ihrouj^hout the United 
States east of the Rocky Mountains. Midsummer. 

Stem. — F^rect, stout, leafy, more or less hranchinf,', two to five feet 
high. 

Leaves. — Lanceolate to oblong, acute or acuminate, sessile; the lower 
petiole<l, repand-denticulate, two to si.\ inches long. 

/•Vouwi-. — Yellow, borne in a terminal, leafy, bracted s])ike, opening 
suddenly in evening twilight and fading av.ay when bright sun.shine 
comes. 

Calyx-luhe.- One to two inches long, prolonged bevond the ovary; 
border four-lobed; lobes valvale in buil, ti[)s contiguous, turn back 
quickly as the corolla opens. 

Petals. -Yellow, four, convolute in bud, unroll riuickly as the sepals 
turn l)ack 

.S7(/wf«.?.— Kight; anthers linear; [)ollen grains rol)webhv. 

Ovary. Four-celled; style long, slender; stigma four-K.bed. 

Capsule. - Oblong, four-celled, many-seeded. 

It is worth while to stand in the dim and dewy twilight and see 
the blossom of the Evening Primrose burst its bonds. All dav 
the life within the long jxjinted bud has been restless, the ])etals 
have been slowly unrolling and steadily pushing against the green 
walls of their prison-house, and as the sun sinks they are readv 
to free themselves, only held in leash by the tips of the sc;)als, 

3'4 



'--JSPliIT 



SUNDROPS 



which cling together. Finally, the supreme moment arrives, the 
sepal tips are forced to give way, and the corolla, a pure clear 
vellow, surrounded hy an atmosi)here of perfume, looks out into 
the darkening twilight, fresh, fragrant, e\(iui>ite- to endure for a 
night. The pollen in cobwehhy masses was freed from the anthers 
before the tlower opened and is carried away hy the honey-loving 
moths. As the (lower opens the anthers lean away from tiie style, 
showing that self-fertilization is no ])arl of nature's ])lan here. 

We call the Evening Primrose a weed. It is a weed; and in 
late midsummer at midday, a coar>e, dishevelled, unhappy-look- 
ing object; hut in its youth and its 
strength it is not unha])i)y, it is 
splendid. 

SUNDROPS 

(T.nothcra fniti<osti. Kiirijfia friilirnsa 

This is the common perennial Sundro]) 
of northern fields and well worthy a place 
in the garden. Variety ]'(>niif^ii is the 
horticultural form. 

Stem. — Erect, more or less branching, 
one to three feet high, leafy. 

Leaves.- Reddish and hairy ovate to 
narrow lanceolate, usually acute, mostly 
sessile. 

Flowers. — Brilliant yellow, two inches 
acro.ss, showy, borne in a lengthening 
cluster with linear bracts, oi)ening in 
bright sunshine. 

Ciily.v-lube. — Long and .slender, enlar^'ing at the top, four-Iobed, 

Peldh. — Four, bright yellow, opening in direct sunsin'nc, obcordate, 
convolute. 

Stamens. — Eight; anthers versatile; style slender; .stigma cajjitate. 

Capsules. — (Jblong, four-angled; seeds many. 




('.iriUn I'lirm cf iliiiolliiTa 



These vcllow-noweied diurnal primroses called Sundrops a()- 
pear in luUivalion in nian\ s.iiiabii.- fiirni>. Tin- brilliant \eiiiiw 
dowers, standing erect, and open in the >unlight, are worthy of 

3'.S 



!•! 



I li 



-^ 



EVEWIWG PRIMROSE FAMILY 



11 



If'sun'^hrnr"" """'"' ^"'' '" """' """"''' '""''■' '^'^' '""'^ '■■•'^ '^^^^"^^ 
a-nolhera/ruiirosa covers a very extensive range; is tolerant 
o( many so,ls and different l.Hutions but needs sudight The 
vanety J o,o^ii, the form most commonly cultivated, is a little 
better than the type. 

GODETIA 

CEnolhera umtviia. 

it ranges the Pacific coast from Vancouver southward. 

5/m.-Erect, slender, one to two feet high. 
Z.^<i7.«.-Xarrow, " „ceolate or oblong, neariv entire. 

an^s;c:^^::;fSi:nt'!::;^rr ' "- '^^^^ "--'^-' - ^-^ 

C a/>'.v-/«6f.— Short, four-lobed. 

Petah—Tour. 

Stamens. — Right. 

Ca/»i«/«.— Four-sided, not vv..,gcd. 

The (i.Kletias are very showy gar.len annuals, native to the 
iacific coast. 



^* 



FUCHSIA 

/' iichsia m>tcrosth)ima. 
Namcl in honor „f Fu, hs, an early (uTman Inuanist. 

hy™k ' '""""' " '" ''' '"" '"'"'""• "f ""^ «-''- -- "f Fuchsia 

.S/OH.— Erect, woody, branching. 

Leaves.--( )p,K,site, ovate, dentate, thick, shining 

the^X;fTh"Ss re/'"- ''r '"''r^'^^'^ ■" '^''••-'"^' ^-^--^ and in 

civv TIM,' ' ^" ' ^'"'■'''"' ''"^ ^■''''^' '" combination. 
fou?fc7d"f/ib:f ' '"'"'^^ "^ funnel-shaped; border split into 

i^lamens.-Eight; filaments long, slender. ^ 

3 ' '> 



FUCHSIA 




Fuchaia 






EVENING PRIMROSE FAMILY 



Ovdry. -Olilonj;; style longer than stanu'iis, slender with capitate 
sti^;ma. 

hrnit.—X red, pulpy, foiir-ielled berry. 

The Fu(.lisi;i was t'lrst discovered l)y I'atlier I'iiimier, a nii>->i<)n- 
ary in South America, who named it in honor of I'lu lis, a (Icr- 
man hotaniM, and puliiished the name in 170,:;, calling' his new 
llower Inttlisi I trlpli'ylhi. 

The |)opiilar inlnxluclion of the j^enus came about in an entirely 
dilTerent way. 'I'he story j^oes that in the year 17SS a sailor lad 
who had returned from South America brouj^hl with him to Lon- 
don a j^rowinj; plant which he ^ave to hi> mother. This was 
])laced ujxm the window-sill and carefully tended. At length it 
llowered and attracted the attention of a nurseryman, Mr. James 
Lcc, who chanced to pass that way. Im|)ressed by the beauty 
of the (lower, as well as the unusual form and habit of the |)Iant, 
he succeeded in purchasing it. He struck cuttings as rapidly 
as possible, and as soon as his stock was sulViciently lar^e put it 
upon the market, realizinj;, it is said, ,^,500 upon his investment. 
This ])lant is believed to have been Fmhsij loainca, now regarded 
as a variety of Fiuhsi i macrostcutiUii. 

The Fuchsia does well on the Pacit'ic coast, es|)ecially in San 
Francisco. There it develo])s into a sturdy, com])act little bush, 
two to five feet high, drijjping blossoms at the axil of every leaf. 



GREAT WILLOW-HERB. FIRE-WEED 

/■'.f>il(')liiiiiii (iiii^iistifdliiiiii. 

'■./)ili)liiiii)i, (ireck, upon a pud; referring to the P wi-r phu eil vipim a 
long (ivary. 

A tall [)ereniiial with ruddy stem and willow-like leaves. Common 
on newly cleared woodland, especially where the ground has lieen burnt d 
over. Europe, .\sia, .\ Vvricu, north and north-west. 

.V/f/w. "Slender, erect, two to four feet iiigh. 
/.d/ivv. -Alternate, narrow, lanceolate, nearly entire. 
Flowrrs. .Magenta-pink, rarely white, in a terminal showy sjjike, 
each blossom set upon the summit of a long slender ovary. 

318 



GAURA 

Ciilyxtiihr. I.niij:, >Irn(lir, I'dur K.lu'd. 

J'clals. I'oiir, i(in\(ilutr in laid. 

Sldiinns. \:\iih[, (Itlltxrd. 

(hiiry. I niii-iilkd, wiili Imij;, >lin(Kr >lyU- ami a four loh, >tiuma. 

/'<"/. Lon^', .sIiikKt, (.iMiiiiij; l.nj,'iluvi-.i' to disirihulr inaiiv ^ilkv 
liilU'd sii'ils. 



Tall and -^'raicful and willowy, dinii.ini; the liill-idi-., waiidrr- 
iii;^ al<»nf,' the iViiivs, lakini; i>n-.c-.>iun n|" I, unit trait- ( iii/ni 
of till' world -tlii> i-, tilt.' Willow-wti-d. The (Irirlo tailed it 
/■:pi/<'/iiinn, .-ittiiii,' on the Ion;,' pod; tlie i:n;;!i-li. Willow lierl. 
I.eiaii-e of its K'ave>. and I'ire Weed hetaii-e it lovi-, the a-lies 
of l)urned trad-. On the ( ontineiit of I'.iirope it i- known a> 
Ko>e Hay and IVem h Willow. i;nterin,t,' America \>\ way of the 
Atlantic loa-t in colonial day-, it ero>>ed the While Horse Pass 
with the railroail and ha- reientlv 
lieen rejiorted from the h.iiik- of the 
^'llkon. 

i'.pilohiuii! lias value anion?,' -hrtiit- 
liery, to hri^hlcn the mid.-umnur 
};reen. hut it i- ])o--es-ed of indefati- 
gahle runners, and the silky-winced 
seeds seek homes anywhere and 
evtTywl-.ere. One should think twite 
hi'fore 1 lantinj; I'.pilohiuin, ii i-^ -o 
elVKJeni in i)lantin,i,' it>elf. 



GAURA 

(ill Hill [iiirvifo'iii 



(i'iuir,i. (imk fur su|)(ii); ■,:|;iiiil\ lien- 
nii.-iiuinrr. 




<;.i^lt.i. Cmr.i f.ir. i;olia 



Sinn, l.niii,', sjriukr, Ion;,'! hen in;,' as die season advaiues. 
Leaves. Alternate, dentate or sinnale or entire. 
Flowers. W'b.iic or ro'.c, in Ion;; rai :-n;cs 
i'cily.y. 'I'uhular with four retlexed lohes. 
J'elals. - I'om, aliiiosl trian,i;ular in sliajie. 



EVEWIlfG PRIMROSE FAMILY 

Sliinifus. Kij,'ht, i'Xs«T(t<l, with a small apiK-ndaKi' at the bast- of each 
tilanu'iit. 

Ihary. rour-annliil; stylis thrcad-liki'; .slinnia fourlolud. 
Ciipsulf.—Orn: to four-sirdi-d. 

(iaiira> tlii)u>jh Iuhk niltivatnl in I'.nniand |m)*-.cs> Imt linli. 
.Harden valiu-, as the hloum axrnds llu- stem too >l()\vlv t<> make 
them in any >ense >hi)\vy |>!ants. What value lluy have i- shown 
when planted aniung sliruljs or in tiie mixed Ijorder. 



CLARKIA 

( liirkiii i'/ri^iiii.i. ( liirkiii [tiildullii. 

Named in hntiDr uf ('a|ilaiii Williim li. (lark, i Diiipiniidii of I,(\vi>; 
^hf two were r\|ilortTs uf llic Km k\ Mountain r<ni<in. 

Clark-id rkf^tins. Stem.—i )ne to three feet liigl), reddish and glaucous, 
somewhat branched. 

Leaves. Alternate, broad-ovate to li.iear. 

Flowers. Purple or rose-color running into white; in cultivation very 
double. 
C"(//y.v. Tul)ular. 

Petals. Four, clawt'd, with s|)reading border. 
Stamens. ICight, alternate ones shorter. 
Slif^mas. Four. 
Pod. I'"our-celled, 
Annual. Native to western North .Xnurica. 

Clarkia pulehella. Stem. Tufted, branching, twelve to eighteen 
inches high. 

Leaves. .Alternate, linear. 

Phnvers. Terminal, forming a curiously lobed, four-armed cross, 
lilac running into white varieties. 

Caly.x. — Of four narrow sepals |)artly grown togetlur; after the tlower 
l)looms the se])als recurve. 

Petals. —Four, clawed, border three-lobed. 

Stamens. Fight, alternate ones shorter. 

Stif^mas. I'our. 

Pod. Four Celled. 

Annual. Native to western North America. 



CLARKIA 



Uolli Clarkia. 



'ire .nm,„.,n in . iiliivaii.,,,. ( •.',„//„ ,./,,,,,„, 
a|.h.ar> unK ,„ i,. ,|nul.l.. f,.,,,,,, „ ,„•,,, ,..„,;,, .„• ,...,^, ^,, ,,,,;^ ^^^ 

ddaatc c,.lur>, .n,„,,„.,.,| a,.,,arnuly ,.| ,„rmk-> ,K.talui,ls. Ul,- 




Clark i. I. C/.ir* i,i />»/, /;,//,, 

scTvati.,., pnnrs, ImuouT, thai ..yen in .l.-uhlu,^^ there i. a ten- 
deiuy toward the primitive ty|)e ..f [.etal. 

Chnkia puhlulh usually ap,,ear> in it. nn^ie form, which is 
far more beautiful than any double of it eonid be. Faeh petal is 
three-Iobed and as there are but four an.l tiiev spread at rkdu 
angles ,o each other, the result i> a curiou^lv ornamental (Ireck 
cross whieh would be >poiled bv anv doublin- 

Hnlh riarkias are hardy annual pUuUs of easv cultivation. Will 
grow in lull sun or in i)artial >hade. 



32r 



i 



: ! 



BORAGINAGE/E- BORAGF FAMILY 

MERTENSIA. VIRGINIAN COWSLIP. BLUEBELLS 

Merli'iisiii vir^iiiiiit. 
Namr<l in honor uf Franz Karl Mrriins, a CuTrnan lioinnist, 

A well-known iKTcnnial lurl), j,'n)winn in alluvial soil from New 
York, west and soutli. Is one of the favorite, early, spring llowers of 
the Middle West. April, May. 

.V/r»«. Sm<M)th, leafy, one to two feet hinh. 

Leaves. .Mternate, ohovate, entire; the lower, larnc, rounded, and 
lonn-fR'tioled; veins conspicuous. 

/•Vowrrv. Slender trumpet-shajied bells about an inch lonj;; at first 
red-purple, later bright-blue, on slender pedicels in loose, racenie-like 
clusters. 

Calyx. — Short, five-cIeft. 

Corolla-lube. Cylindric; border bell-iike; throat o|H'n and naked; 
red-purple in bud, blue when mature. 

.S'/(;/«f«.?. I-'ive, inserted on the corolla-tube; filaments protruding. 

OT'ijrv.—Four-cleft; style arising from the centre. 

Fruit. — Four rough akenes. 

Sferlenshi vlri^inicd has three common names, \'irginia Cow- 
sh|), liluebells, Smooth Lungwort. 

In a family noted for hairy stems and rough leaves Merten- 
sia is conspicuously smooth, and its foliage tender. The blos- 
soms in earlv spring are esi)eiially attractive because their color 
varies from red-purjjle to brilliant blue, and the plants naturally 
growing in clumps and the llowers in clusters, so that massed efTects 
are easily obtained. 



MERTEIISIA 




^^crtensia. Mcrtensia virginica 



mm 



M 



BORAGE FAMILY 



I 1 



FORGET-ME-NOT 

Myi'sdlis ftiiliislris. 

Myoxdlis, (iri'fk, iiiiiiisc-car; from the shorl M)fl leaves nf snme 
s|ie( ies. 

TIh- primitive of many jjarden forms; native to hot!) I'Airope and 
Asia. Perennial. May July. 

Slcm. I)cciiml)ent, loosely iiranciied, ^Towinj; from a cree])inf; lia.se. 
/,f(;"'0-.- -Aiternate, lanceolate, or lance-ohlonj,', |)iil)escent, entire. 
I'liiU'crs. — Small, jjale-bluu with a yellow eye, borne in a loose raceme 

curled at the end, and straightening as 
the tlowers e.\|)and. 

Calyx. Five-deft, remaining open 
in fruit; hairs of calyx straight. 

Corolla. Salver-shaped; lobes five, 

rounded, with appendages at the throat. 

Slamcii.s'. I'ive; ovary of five almost 

sejjarate lobes, forming in fruit four 

nutlets; style threa''-l'"'e. 




It is very ditlkull for a man or a 
llower to live up to a ti.xed reputa- 
tion, and our ])n'tty Forget-me-not 
has virtually an inijMissihie task to 
rea( h the re(|uiremcnts of the senti- 
mental iiteraUire concerning it. 
The |)Iant, apart from the litera- 
ture, has a very real and natural 
charni; is pretty when banked by 
runlet, and gives an abundant and 
continuous bloom through all the summer da}s. 

\'arious garden forms have been developed, some with {lowers 
larger ihan the tyjfe; others with stems mori- irect; .l/yovoZ/.v 
anrnsis, the F'ield Forget-me-not. is an ereit i>lant six to 
eighteen incites high, with tlowers usually blue, though some- 
times white. 

3-M 



(iarilen I-'orm of i-"orgit-nn'-ni»t 

the side of a pond or ii 



* < 



I ! 



COMMON BORAGB 

We have several native F..rKet-me-i.<,ls tha; ma\- well l,c 
transferred t<. the garden, as they will gn.w on drv lan(is and also 
in the open. 



Other si)eries of lionii^hiiiap are: 

The \-i|)er-s iiu-lo,s, Juliiinn vul^arr, which is a I.eautifiil, hold 
had weed that no gardener should harl.or. nnuh le» plant, de>pite 
the marvellous l.rillian.y of the l.roken nietallie lints of lilue and 




Common Hor:i;;i'. h.,r.tf;o ii;,i, in.ilis 



l-urple which u> ll.,.wer-; display. It is hiennial an.l f,.r that rea- 
son (an he easily dealt with, ;,nd kep. within hounds. 

Common Hurage, lionii^o ,»///V/;/,>//v, is ont^ of the ph.nls that 
I'linv prai>e<l. It wa. >upp,.M.,| to exhilarate (he >p;rit> an.l 
drive awav nielamholv. 



(live oiurai,'!', 



expresses the Ion-lived I.elief, which has hut recentiv di.ap- 
peare,!. The plant i> >preadin- l,e>et with >hari. whiii.h hris- 

3-'S 






BORAGE FAMILY 



ties, and hears very liandsonie starr\- llowcrs, violet-blue with 
(lark anthers. 

Ik'thlehem Sage, Piilmonarhi .uucliaratd, is a noticeahle ])lant 
i)ecau>e its large green leaves are curi()U>iy dotted witii wliile sjxUs. 
One ran readily understand whv the ancient sim|)lers i)res(ril)ed 
it for diseased lungs. The inlloresrence is not unlike that of Mer- 
tensia and shows the same change of jiurple into i)lue. 

Heliotroite, Jlcliotrdphim pcrinlnuini, is a well-known green- 
house and I)edding plant. Native of iVru, it is naturally a lover 
of warmth and sunshine and only in such ])osilions will do well. 
Its inllorescence is the best example among our familiar |)lants of 
the racemose ly])e called hy botanists scorpoid; the tip of the 
raceme carls itself up like the tail of a scorpion. 



326 



WILD CARROT 




W ilii t'arrot. Paudts mroUi 



UMBELLIFER/E-PARSLEY FAMILY 



I i 



A family of IhtIjs wlio^e no\vcr> have so marked a rcsemhlancc 
that the si)ecies are chielly distingiiislied Ijv tlie form of the fruit, 
and the oil lui)es in the seeds. 

The (lowers are small; made on tl.e jilan of five; the (alyx ad- 
herent to the (Aary. There an five minute calyx teeth or none, 
five petals, five stamens, a two celled ovary, and two styles. The 
dry fruit usually sjjlits into two .seed like akenes. The llowers 
are usually borne in compound umbels; the ( ircle of !)ra(ts often 
present at the base of the lari^'e umbel is the involui re. The >tems 
are usuall\- hollow, the leaves alternate, comnionlv com|iound 
or decompound. Krynj^ium is an e\ce])tion to the type, having 
(lowers in heads instead of umbels. 

Carrot, ("elerv, Parsni]), and several Sweet Herbs belong to 
this familv. 




WILD CARROT. QUEEN ANNE'S LACE 

Ihiiniis ciiriilti. 

PiiiHKS, the anririu dri-ck iKiiiu- of tin- (urrot. Meaning olisrure. 

The Wild Carnil, ol'icn called (Jueen .Xiuie's Lace, is l)elievt'(l to be 
the reversion !)f the cultivated carrot to a weed. Hiennial. Kur()])e. 
Midsummer. 

Slrm. Hollow, two to three fei't liit;li, liairy, branchinj,'. 
I.r,nrs. Tripiniiale, yellowish -L,'reen; .sei;nieiUs linear, jKiinti'd. 
Flnwcrs. Small, wliite, borne in double compound umbels; outer 
llorets the lari,'i'st; in the centre of the umbel one dark maroon lloret. 
h'ruit. Short, s])lits in two when ri])e; ]irickles in rows on the ribs. 

Two herbs, weeds by every count, without one redeeming trait 
from the farmer's stand-point, with not one justil'ication when 



PARSNIP 

brought into court, hear llowcrs of su( h suri)assing hcautv that 
they may i-asily challenge the |)ette(l darhngs of our gardens and 
greenhouses. I'louted they h've, despised iluy llourish, and only 
because they are in the wrong place do tiie Dandelion and the 
Wild Carrot fail of the appreciation that, if heauly onlv were 
to he considered, i^ their due. 

The many liny llorets of the carrot unihel are disposed in a 
radiating ])attern as hne as lace; in the centre of the cluster is 
one deej) maroon lloret, a single point of color >urrounded hv 
whiteness. 

The umbel from its first showing of white is a full week coming 
to maturity; as the llorets oj)en it is 'oncave, in its prime more 
or less convex; fading it inromcs concave again, and finally the 
rii)ening >eeds are i)rotected by infolding arms that make, in- 
deed, a Ijird's ne.st, which is one of the country names for the jjlaiu. 

Nevertheless, this lovely creature is a weed, and will take |)os- 
session of great tracts in defiance of the farmer, but, as it i> a 
biennial, it can easily be extirpated, and its exi>tence in culti- 
vated land indicts the farmer. 

Daiitns nirola var. saltvii, the (larden Carrot, was certainly 
cultivated in Holland tliree hundred years ago. Whetiier it is 
simply nirola im|)rove(l or whether it is really another species 
seems diflicult to determine, and the doctors disagree. 



PARSNIP 

PasliuiUii s,it)v<i. 
Pdstiis. focxl, from llu' use niudi' uf it., Miit<. 

The garden I'ar.Miip, native to soutliern iuinipe, western .\sia, Iiuiia, 
and .Siam. Hiennial. July- September. 

A'oo/.— Hiennial, fusiform, large and escuiint. 

/.r.nr.v. -kadiral, yelinwisii-grecn, pinnately dissected; Ifallcls in- 
cisely dentate, the terminal one thrcelolicd. 

l-'hr^rr-stem.'Vhvt'c to five feet hi^'h, ratlier stmit, furniwcd and 
branching. Umbels nearly level on the toj). 



; '! 



^0ffi -"55" 



PARSLEY FAMILY 

/V/.//.S-. Yellow, I)r(>a(l-lana'(>latc, with the aj)ox somewhat rnjlcfl in. 
h'riiil. Thin, or llally coni|)rcsscti, with a broad nuir;,'in. 

In the wild state the roots of the Parsnii) are aromatic, nnu ilag- 
inous, sweet l)Ut sligiuiy acrid. Cultivation has {greatly nuKlitied 
this acridity and increased both the size and tiie llesiiiness of 
the root. (Growers allow their Parsnips to remain in the ground 




during the winter, as frost is considered to im|)rovc their (|uality 
ratiier than injure it. Tiie [ilaiit readily sow> it> own seed> and 
con>e(iuently is often found out of bounds. 



BISHOP'S WEED. GOUT WEED 

/l\q<>l>(''iliuii! Iiii(!(\qri)r!(! viir. varir;^a'.iiiii. 

.f.gopodium, rrc", goat, and poiHiim, a liuli; foul; wiiliciut <li'riiutf 
application to this plant. 

A Common foliage plant, green and white, which s))rea<ls ([uickly hv 
creeping rootstocks. Europe. May-July. 



ERYWGIUM 

Leaves. Ra(\ka\, )ireen willi wliitc margin, tlirct- foliaU'; Ualli'ts 
ovati', scrruti-. 

Flourrs frcam-wliitf, in rather larf^c l)ra(tlt» uml.. Is. 

Calyx -teeth. — Oljsolctt.'. 

Fruit.— 0\d\.v, glabrous, ilcstitute of oil alls. 

This well-known foliajjo j)lant is ea>ily ostalilislu-d, hut dilVn ult 
til u|)root when estal)li>lit'(l. The leaves stand on rather lonu 
])etioles, >o that the pretty •.'reen an<l wliile horder that it makes i> 
ahout six inehe> liigh. J'.ai h leallet ha- a j^reen eentre and a i ream 
white margin and hold> these color> under all vii i>situdesof fortune. 

The plant is so tolerant of conditions that in Kurope it is eon- 
bidercd a weed, but it has not become such in this country. 



SEA HOLLY. BLUE THISTLE. STAR THISTLE. ERYNGIUM 

J.ryiif;iiim tiiiietliysliiim. 

An ancii'tit nanic of uik t-rtaiu meaning. 

.•\ plant with the as]K'f t of a thistU , hut blue in stem, leaf, and tlower. 
Native to the southern Al|)s. Summer. 

Slcm.s. — Rigid, steel-blue or luirpli.sh. 

/.eaves. — Stiff and spiny. 

I- lower -heads. lioth terminal and axillary, surrounded by an in- 
volucre of long s])iny brails. 

/•'/(lu'frv. Hlue, in heads, not uml)els; a point<'d bract under ea( h 
flower. 

{"(»/y.v. I'ive awl-sliaped teetli. 

Petals. —Five, blue; styles twci; fruit top-shajK-d. 

The Sea Hollies, or l'.r\ngiums are a curious and intere>liiig 
group wlii( h iiave varied ?-o far from tlieir forbears that their 
nearest relations can scarcely < iaim an at quaintanci'. 'I'heir entire 
jihvsical structure is a challenge; they out-thi>tle the thistlo; 
their swords are never sheathed; they ^leep on tiieir arms. 
Nevertheless, they are not tlii-tle- at all. Iiut belong to the un- 
armed race of i'mbcHiJcra — l>ioo(i hrother^ to tiie carrot and the 
parsnip. 

33' 



PARSLEY FAMILY 

Sea Holly is a misnomer. ( )ne si)e< ies, Ervuf^iiini tmirlliiinifti, 
growing on Kn^'lish In^uhrs, atira.te.j attention, an.! since its 

leaves were s|)iny, was named 
Sea Holly. 'I'hi> name heeanie, 
in time, li\e<l upon the genus. 

liliie Thistle is not mm h l)et- 
ter, as the i)l;int is not a thistle 
and hut a small section of the 
genus is blue. Star Thistle is 
more appropriate, hut Kryngium 
is best of all, for i'. at least does 
not mi-lead, sin- e nobody knows 
what it means. 

'I'lie cultivated members of the 
group are princi|)ally mountain 
si)ecies, natives of the high Alps, 
the Pyrenees, and the Spanish 
Sierras. 

The determining factor which 
has brought tiiem from their 
wdd homes into the garden i> the wonderful tide of blue color 
which surges up and through and over the plant, >o that not onlv 
tlower and bracts, but stem> and leaves are blue. 

Amethxstine I'ryn-ium. AVy;/.'//^;;; anirtlnslium, which was 
brought from the southern Alps into Kngland fully two hundre.i 
years ago, is the s|)ecies longest in cultivation. The j.lant has 
never achieved i)opularity because il> extreme rigiditv and metallic 
lustre pPKluce so marke.l a contrast to softer tvpes of vegetation as 
to be irreconcilable within the narrow limits of a garden. It mu>t, 
however, have value in any large scheme of landscape colorin-,' 
The ICryngiums are good inhabitants of pour sandv soils, C, 
the stout roots go down straight and deep and enable their owners 
to withstand drought. 

Of the several species in cultivation, En-ii-ium lima^ati, a 
dwarf form, is bushy and well set up and might be valuable as 
a border plant. 




Amethystine i;rui(;iuiii. Ilryngiiim 
aiiulliysliiim 



W-M 



STATICE 




Staliic. Sldliir lalijoliti 



PLUMBAGINAGE^-I EADWORT FAMILY 

STATICE. SEA LAVENDER 

StiUkf litlifulia. 

Slalirr, a (Ircck name wiihuut <)l)vii)us meaning as a])])lii"(I to this 
plant. 

A pcTcnnial herb with radical leaves and hranchinK .sta|)os, hearing 
many small flowers. Native of southern Ru.ssia. June, July. 

Lntvcs. Radical, seven to eight inches long; oijlong-diiptic, ohtuse, 
lajicring into the leaf-stalk. 

!• lowers. Small, violet, borne one-sided on the branches of corymbosc- 
l>anicle(l, naketl, flowering stcm.s. 

C<i/v.v.— Two or thrce-bractcfl, pale, funnel-form, dry and iKTsistent. 

t'.>r(»//i;.— Violet, of five [x-tals, nearly or (|uite distinct. 

S/amcns.—F'wc, attached to the jR-tals. 

Otwrv.— Ovoid, onc-ccllcd; stigmas five. 

Fruit.— A small utricle. 

The garden Sea Lavenders arc a group of seaside iH-rcnnials 
which have been brought under cultivation. One of the l>est 
is Stdlicc Idli/oliii, a species native to southern Russia, which ha,s 
long been in English gardens. The radical leaves cluster about 
the ba.se of the naked tlowcring stem, which bears al iis summit a 
much-branched, nat-toi)|)ed panicle, and upon the upper side 
of each little branchlet its a row of pale-violet flowers in a sur- 
rounding of gray-green. The color efTect is imniuced by the num- 
ber of flowers. 

The gank'n value of the i)lant lies in its cut (lowers, in their 
misty indeterminateness, which enables them to combine and 
harmonize other blooms, serving in this way as a sort of veil and 
enhancing the beauty of others without lessening their own. 

334 



THRIFT 

<lyj)s<>|ihila and (laliiim sirvc a -imilar piirposo, |)tTlia|)-^ niotr 
ofTvc tivily l)i'(au>f thrv arc uliilt'. Si'vtral >i)triis of Stiilire are 
offiTi'd hy the tradi'- all ^(kxI. Sliiliic iiiiaiiii, from tlir swanip'^ 
of soiitluTii I".iiro|H.', is iIk- siK'iies tlial, drii'<l, i^ found amon)^ 
llori>t >iii>|piics. 

W'c al>o have a charming; native Sl<itiir, common eviT\ u here 
aionj^ our Atlantic coast from Labrador to I'lorida, known as 
Mar^h Rosemary, St,ili,c tiiroliiiiiuniiii. \n later i)otanies it 
hecomes lAiiidu'uim (iirolhiiiinuw. 'I'lie little creature standi 
with its f( ' \ wet at hi^'h liije; a numlur of ohovate leave> i hi>ter 
at the liasc of the ilowerinf^ stem, whiili rise> twelve or lijiliteen 
inclu's. At the summit the stem divides and suhdividi - and 
divides a^ain to hear a shimmer of gray^reen and nale-violet >o 
dim and misty that i>ne can almost think it the outward e\|)re>- 
-ion of the spray of the salt sea. 



THRIFT. SEA PINK 

Armirid riili^iiris. 

One of a f^roup of low, free-hlooniiiij; | ■riMiiiials valua!)li' as Ijiirdcr 
plants. Native of sea-tlilTs and mountains. Murope. Suninier to 
early autumn. 

.S7(»;.v.- Tufted, si\ inches hij^h. 

f.Ciiirs. Radical, thick, narrow, in dense dusters formin;^ masses of 
grass-like foliage. 

/■'lowers. -Man\-, i)orne in round heads .^urrouiulid hy an involucre 
of hracis, on clean, long, wiry stems. 

L'ulyx. Funnel-shapeil, dry and tran>lu(cnl. 

i'oritUii. Fink, of I'lve |)etals, joined togitlur li\ duir hases. 

Stamens. Five, home on the ha.se of the jxtals. 

(yi-ary. ~ Ovoid; stigmas, live. 

I-'ruU.-.\ small utricle. 

The Thrifts are sea-cIitT and mountain plants, naturallv choos- 
in>i rocky homes, and coti>e(|uentl\- look well in the nx k garden. 
Their low hain't and tufted foliage make them good edging plants, 
hut for some reason they are not greallv u>ed in this cmmtrv. 



WP^^P^^!*"1'WWflf*P 



MICROCOPY RESOIUTION TEST CHART 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No 2) 




1^ 12.8 

yo '»"^B 


1^ 


■^ 1^ 


1^ 


if 1^ 


^ 1^ 


tM 



^ ^PPUEDIM^E 



^653 East Main Street 

Rochester. New Tort. 14609 'J^ 

(716) 482 - 0300 - Phone 

(7'6) 288 - 5989 - Tax 



LEADWORT FAMILY 



The llowcrs are sei)arately stalked, hut clustered in dense hemi- 
s])herical heads, surrounded l)y an involucre of hrac l> whose leases 
are continued as a translucent tul)e some distanc e down the scai)e. 

Armcria viili^iirh, the most common form in cultivation, makes 
broad tufts of dark-green, linear foliaj^e and hears its i)uri>li>h- 
lilac llowers in loose heads, on stems averaj^ing six inches high. 




Tlirift. Armcriii lulgaris 



The name Thrift ap[)arently was given hy some one who marked 
how the i)!ant growing on the scantiest soil possessed that virtue 
which made good use of small things. 



Shruhhy Plumhago, Pluwbai^o oipcnsis, is a tender South .Afri- 
can dimhing shruh, which is often turned out from the green- 
houses in late spring to hloom in the garden until frost comes. 
The inflorescence in flower and cluster suggests phlo.x, but the 
color is a soft azure blue. 

33(' 



POLYANTHUS 




I'olyanlhus. Primula variabilis var. polyanthus 



ill 



PRIMULACE^-PRIMROSE FAMILY 



POLYANTHUS 

Primula vnrihhilis. var. pii!y,iiil!iiis. 

Primula, Latin, firiniiis; ln'iausi- of the early iLiut-ring i.f many of 
the s[)(x'ie.s. 

A low, stcmless perennial, with radical leaves and seajje-horne flowers; 
hloominj,' in early sjirinf;. One of the i)esl of ihe hardy luiropean prim- 
roses, and believed to he of garden orij^in. 

Leaves.— R-ddicd], wrinkled, enlar^'iiii; after the llowerinf,' period. 

/•Vourrv.— Red or red and yellow, home on sea])es, tive to six inches 
high. 

C\;/y.v.— Long, slightly inflated tuhe, five-toothed. 

0'n)//<i. -Salver-shaped, with five sj)rea(ling lohes, each lohe notched. 

Stamens. — Five, inserted on the corolla tuhe. 

0-c'<iry.— Ovoid, one-celled; style thread-like bearing a capitate 
stigma. 

In our northern gardens two tyi)es of hardy primroses are 
cultivated: Polyanthus and t'ommon Primrose. Of the two, 
Polumthus is in some res|)erts the more desirable, as it seems to 
!)ear our climate a little better than the other. If the ])lant is g"ven 
a moist location where it is slightly shaded from the middav sun, 
it will nourish and blossom from year to year. Its bright blos- 
soms look very cheerful along the garden walk earl\ in Mav, 
companioned by the moss jjink and the hardy candvtuft. During 
the blooming period the llowcrs quite overtop the leaves, but 
by the middle of June the leaves become si.\ or eight inches high 
and three to four broad. 

The llowers of the type are principally yellow, or red with a 
yellow eye. There is a form with one corolla inside the other, 
known as Hose-in-Hose. 



COWSLIP 



COWSLIP 

Primula <>;n<iihi/is. I'rimuhi viris. 

This is till- true ("(wslip; a .-tcmlcss, [KTcniiial i.jant, luitivf to northern 
and central Kumpc; lonj,' in cuiiivalion. Ai)ril, May. 

Leaver.- Radical, s()ft-i>uhcsccnt, oval or (>!)IonL', niartrin denticulate 
or erose; petiole winded. 

/•limrrs. Droopiiij,', hri;,'ht-yelIow, home in an uinhel, on a scape six 
to twelve inches lii^h. 

Calyx.- A loose tuhe, live-toothed. 

Corolhi. l"unnel-shaiH'<l, the l..hes concave, forming a shallow cup 
about three-lourths of an inch across. 

Sliimciix, Five, inserted on the corolla-luhe. 
Ovary. -Ovoid; style .slender; stigma cajiitate. 

Where the lice >ui ks there -lk k I; 
In the (..\v-li|i', hell 1 li(.,-~ 
There I ( oui h : when owK tl, , rv, 
On the hatV back I do lly 
.Vfter Sunitner, nierrilv. 

—"Tempest," .\, t v, S( . i, Sii.\ki:spk..\RE. 

With cowslips wan that han;;; the pen>ive head. 

— "I-y(i(las," Mil TON". 

Of the five primroses native to Kn<,'lan(l thi> ()l.tain> the com- 
mon name of Cow-Ii]) and as such api)ears in Kn-,dish jfoetry The 
corolla is funnel->hai)e(l and so make> a iiell; while the corollas of 
the other s!)ecies are salver-haped and even Ariel would find it 
diflicult to couch therein. .Moreover, thi- i> |)rol,al.ly the tlower 
that was suj,'gestc(l to the \ew Mn-^dand colonists l.y Cilllui 
polustris, so that they named it Cow>Ii]). 

This form rarely ap])ears in American j^ardens; in fact all the 
hardy i)rimulas find dilViculty in withstanding our summer heat 
and sunshine without protection, and often that does not avail. 

Primula cidtior, Oxiip. is very like ojfiniiali^: hut with larger 
flowers and is a taller plant. Native to the northern and moun- 
tainous parts of Kurope. 

339 



PRIMROSE FAMILY 



The K^'»ii> I'rimi. nunil.cr- almut nnc Inimlrcil nnd forty 
siKTiVs, all iiortluTn and many alimu'. A i^rmI nian\ ari' ( ul'i- 

vali'd in l'.urii|H' ihat arc ncviT . rn 
luri'. Tin iir twoKr >|Ktii> ari' 
(Tcditi'd in tlif Ixink- In the (nldrr 
|iart> of N(irli) AnuTi<a. Iiul all (Uir 
( ultivau'd >|ia ic'^ are of luini|>ran or 
A>iatii origin. 

Of ,i,M-irniioUH' |ilanl> liic Chiiu'M' 
I'limnli siiu'n.sh: tiie Japanc-e I'riiiiro-c, /'riiuiil.i 
Jiipoiiiiii; and tlie Hain I'rinirn>e, I'riniiilii l'orli(\i, are favor- 
ites. The Jajianese I'rininoe i^ reported a- iiard\-. 

Prinii'lit (ihidiiidi, from China, lia> heeonie a jjopular ninter- 
Iiloominj,' i)lant. The varieties gr,indijldrii mmI Jiml»-iata are mo>t 
desirable. 




PRIMROSE 

Primula vtili^hris. I'riiinili, iiniiilis. 

\ common Knglish wild (lower, early transferred lo tlu> garden and 
there transformed into many varieties. .\ stemless jieremiial wiiii 
riulieal leaves. .* >ril, May. 

Leaves. Tufted, wrinkled, enlari^in.i; af'ir the Howerinj; perioij. 

h'lourrs. An inch across, pale-yellow, on separate t'ootstalks as |on<,' 
as the leaM's. 

Cij/y.v.— Tubular, not inllated, Ine-toothed. 

CoroUi. Salver-shaped, border spreadiin live-lobed. 

Stamens. I'ive, inserted o?i the corolla-lube. 

Ovary. -Ovoid; style slendi'r; stiirma cai)itate. 

Cd/iiH/f.— One-celled; many-seeded. 



.garden. The scajio i.s 



This is the Common Primrose of the 
sujjpressed in this species and the foot>talk< a])i)ear as sea])es, 
so that the tlowcrs are apparently solitary. The j^^.rden varieties 
arc now not onlv yellow but vhite, lilac, and pale-purple. Ijloom- 

340 



PRIMROSE 




I'riniruM. J'rir.iila ucaiilis 



PRIMROSE FAMILY 

inj; :il)iin(l;inliv in i;nf,'li>li rul(l> it ;i|)|>i'ars (untinually in Knulish 
|ii)ftry fnini, 

Till' iirinir.Kc path thai IcaiN to the ctirnal iMinlirt', 

of SlKii<f>|n'arr, and, 

The rathe |iriiiini^i' tlial fcir>akin iht--;. 

of Miltoti, to tile ( haradiTi/alioii of |'<tir Hdl, |,v W,)r(|>\vortii: 

A |iriinrii>i> hy the river'- l)riiii 

A yellow iiriinrose ua- to him, 

And it was tmthing more. 



LYSIMACHIA. GOLDEN LOOSESTRIFE 

l.ysiiniuhiii vuly,aris. 

Sujiposed to 1)C named in honor of Kinj; I.v-.imaehiis. 

An old-time garden i)Iant no longer prized, out found in fiilds and 
alonK roadsides in New Kn^dand and the Middle States. NaturaM/.ed 
from Kurope. I'erennial. June to .\uj,'ust. 

.S'/cw.— Erect, two to three feet lii,!,di, hranched above, downy. 

Leaves. Verticillate, three or four in a whorl, ovali'-lanceoiate, acute 
at l)()th ends, 

/'Votirr?.- Velio w, borne in am[)le terminal, lei'fy panicles. 

0;/,v.\-.— Five-parted, often red-margined. 

CV(»//(/.- Rotate, five-lobed. 

Stamens. V'wx', inserted on corolla. 

Ovary.- «~)ne-celled; style and stigma one. 

Capsule. —Man y-secded . 

This old-time flower has given place to later comers, but as one 
sees it now and then in a \ew Kngland yard, or a clump in full 
llower standing by the roadside, the elTect is go(Kl. However 
it is weedy — perhaps all the l.yshuadiUc are wee- >•. 

The Whorled Loosestrife, l.ysiniachia qiiddrifdlit, native to 
any soil in the eastern Unitc\i States, i> soiiieliino transferred to 

342 



AMERICAN COWSLIP 



the K'anlfn. 'F'lic l1n\\,r- are \ill,.\\, tUc-- 
liuiiitcfl. with a dark i\v, Ix.inc in ihc a\il> 
of till- U|>|)t'r kavc-. 

Miiiuy, ('rit|iin^' Charlie, l.\sii,..hhi,i 
minimuhir'n. the well kixAvn traihiii; plant, 
ha- iKiw run wild. The >ieni eree|)>, the 
Miiall round leaves are iippn^ite, and the 
pretty yellow tlowers are >olitarv <>n >hort 
peduncles. Where vij,'or i- e-pe( iaily desired 
in a ((M-er-plant, Money i< extrenielv uxlul, 
for it is arainjiant i,'rower and will romp all 
over the place. It crowij- out tlie ),'''a» 
when it j^et^ an o|)porlunity, i-, however, 
always >,'reen, car|)ets the earth ani])l\. and 
])()s>e»es many virtues of it> own. 

A japane-e Ly-iniac In'a, /.y\i»i,iilii:i rlc- 
llirohlc.s, with white llower-, lia- iatclv I urn 
introduced and i- hij^'hly recommended hoth 
for a border plant and al-o as ])nKluei'i^ nower> for rutting. 




M"iM y. /.y imi'l.hia 
mill ' -ia 



AMERICAN COWSLIP. SHOOTING STAR 

I>H(h-<-<illiCiin Mcadii. 

DoilriiitliCDii, C.rcfk, tin- twcl !,',i(k; name ^,'iycn hv Pliny t., the 
|irimni~f, wliirh was l.clii-vi-.l |.. ],v undir ihc cart- d' llu- -u|Hri,ir 
liiitio. 

A l)iauiit"u] wild tlower extremely variable, di vclopcd into f,'ar(!en 
forms hy the I'rcncii llorists. Tolerant of many locations, nioi.st hill- 
•sides, clirts, open woods, and jirairies; ran.u.s from Pennsylvania to the 
Dakdias and .south to the (julf. Perennial. Summer. 



/.razr5.— Radical, olilonjr ,,r .spatulale, risinj; in a cluster from the 
root. 

Flourrs.— Rose or white, borne in an uml .1 at the summit of a simple 
naked scape. 

t'(i/y.v.— Decj)ly live-deit, the divisions lanceolate. 

34i 



PRIMROSE FAMILY 

Coroll., \Vi,h shnrt .,.l,r, th.Vk...H.I thrnat, fivr part...! rrtlr ,,1 
liordcr; ihf divisions lunu ami narrow, l-'rud, r. lu (d 

Sl.mv„s. liu;, ..xs,.rt,-.l: |-||an,..nis >l,„ri, aniluT, lonu narrow 
KTowmK to^HluT ,„ a sl.n.l.r o,n... y. II, u ,i,„...| wi,h ,.,.r,.|.. a,' £\!^ 
(hiiry. One (■.lied; siyk- and MiK'ina oiu'. 
C'apsitlt: Manysi.dnl. 

ShnotinK Star ;.,,,,<.,•• a. a r.^.tt. of ol,Ion,i;. ,\vrp-^rvvn Icav.. 
fr..m whuh ri>..s a nrnplr ...m hrarinK a , luMrr of noddinL'' 
pomtal ll.nvcTs. The- Mo..om. ,„j-...m a mik.II . v. lanKn The' 
stamc-ns n.mr toKr.luT in a point and Mrm to !.». .|,ootin,r alu^ul 
while the petals stream l.-hin.l. thii, ^ivinK :Ih- tI,.u.T a iVHitened' 
.H.k. As a ud.llinK its tlown-> are rose or whit.., I.m 11,.^^^ 
forms vary the ruse tn lija. an.l nurple, u.nailN- with a ^oll .w cir- 
cle at the mouth of the ■ orolia. The garden fnrm> are hvl.ri.K of 
nodeaHheon .\t.;,di„ and Dodaathcon J^jjcr,, of the k.^ky Muun- 
tains. ^ 



344 



GKNTIANACK/i: GFNTIAN FAMIJ/i 

FRINGED GENTIAN 

(iriih'.iiKi iri)utii. 

All nl,| nam., fn.ni (M'l.iiiH, kintj of IHyri.i. 

One of ,|u. most luanniul of nativ ,.!.„,., ,rowin, in mois, uoo.ls 

an.lnuu,lows.fromnu.lKTiuNIi„,u.su,aa>Ml(u.,.r«ialoI,,ua, Hi.nnial 
Si'jttfmlnT, Octolitr. 

Sinn. -One to two firt hiKh, iaifv; hrandus c-r.rt 
«|v,,/amllowiTKau-s,.hovat..,.>lm,s.;,lu.,,,.,Krn|,|„Ki,,. |a,uvo| ,,.• 

^^^AWv. -Violc.t-l.Iu.., scuTal, on lon.u |k,IumcI.s at the su.nn.it of the 

imSc in^bl;:;'"' '■""'"''^■' ^""' ^""^-''"«'^''= '"•••■^ -"••• -'• 

.nV'^-'^f"; . ,^'"","-'' ''^'"-^'^'I'^'l, aI.o.lt tw,. inches lo„^- while IkIow 

^^^0,v,.v.- S,,in.lle-sha,a..l, an inch lon^, tlattene.l; sti^nu .s.,,.are, two- 

<:'i//'5;</f. -Many-seeded. 

To the cx.,ui>i,e beauty of the Frin;red Gentian has I.een added 
tlie charm ,,. elu.ive.iess, „f a certain wilfuhiess of «nmth in it. 
wild haunts: "It was here- it wa. there-where i^ it now'^" 

Two wild .'.„vers, separated In the nitire llowerinK >c-ason-tl.e 
trailing arhu.u., a veritahl.. in, arnation of the spring, and the 
Innged (ientian, the atten<lant of the dving vear-hol.i a uniciue 
place „i our a.Teetio...,. Xo ,.,hers that I know, not even the blue 
violet, has so touched the emoti^ n^ and mov,-.! the imagination of 
vav people. Une dares to invite the busiest man of affairs forth 

.US 



GEWTIAN FAMFLY 



t'.MTkarlHitu^urlin.l TrinKcK irniian, and ;,It|,nUKli li. pruhaMy 

<lm> II., I ;,',,, lir s.iMk^ 111,, I he nllM. 

Ti. nut ulut iM.in (I,,,., «|,i, 1, ,.x.,ll- him, l.iii «!,.,( ,„,,n uoiiM .|..| 

—"Saul," K M Ili.'MUMM.. 

The I...'!, havr pai.l iluir Iril.ulc i,. the . Iiartn and l.rauiv nf 
iIh-.' I.ln.„,m-, an.l ilu- - .\la\ llnu.r. " .,| \\ |,ii,i,.,-, and' tlit- 
"I'rin-i'd (;,.niian,"ol ItnanJ, uiil live l-causcuf 
ll"- ll"\\crs and the tluw,.-, |MTlia|.>, will !„■ I.ctlcr 
kn.iwn liiiau-'' of ihc puni^. 

'I'hc iwjnr .if the I'rin^fd tiniii.m l.l.i-M.ni has 
l-trn till' Mil.jVd ..f ...n>id.raMf.liM.i.>i..n a|.n.p..s 
of MnantV p-n ni, Tiif llrM Man/a sp^ak^ ..f it as 

('olcinil with ilu- luMMrrs .,uii l.kic, 
anil liu' foiirlli as 

Itlii.' Iiluc .1-. if ihal -ky I.I f.iji 
A ll.u.r fr.im it- ..lul.iui uall. 

Mr. Matthew^. <,n llic otluT hand, is vcrv Miro 

tliat "tlu- (olur varii-. fr.>ni palo to drcp viojct- 

lihic, with ()((a>i.inally a ruddy tiii>,'c, hut ni-vrr 

with a sus|.i(i.,n ..f true l.lur. th.mf,'li linc^ .,f a 

K^jm' (krpiT l.iui-vi.iiit ajipcar .m the outrr -urfaic of 

] 11 thr ron.lla." Ik- siy> w liat i- widoul.trdly true 

« W that tlu' >ul)tk' charm !•(•> in tlu- doli( air mi>ty 

• piality of ihf (iijor. 

An.itluT intirt>tinf,' spoils tiiat is soniftinu'^ 
transfiTrod t') the wild l.ordtr i> the C'loM-d (Wn- 
tian, Uaithiiui Amlrcusii, which is rcmarkahic for it. ( vlindriial 
HoH'd Dpilla. Xaturc's plan here i> evidently self-fertilization. 
The color of the l,Ios>om> is a hroken inten>e violet-hlue and 
the flowers are in clu>ters either terminal or whorled in the 
axils of the leaves. This is the mo>t cnmm..n C.entian of Ohio. 
^u the (lentian Family al>.. I,elon^> the e\<|uisite Sea Pinks, 
S\,hhului sulhiris and .V,;/,/,„//,; f^r.uilis, common on salt meadows 
along the coast from Maine to Florida. 

340 



\\ 



I'rli.Ki'd (iinti.in 
Ciitilii'iiiii iriiiitit 



AI'CKANACKl.: IHKJHWh: |v\M|i.> 

VINCA. PERIWINKLE. TRAILING MYRTLE 

\ innl Ill'lUnr, 
Viiioi, , .• ,|,-.l frcM f>,-r. ;>/,.,. I'liny', tiaiii.' f.,r p. rlu inkle. 

A trailin),'(Vtri;rifii |i<riimi,il, commnii in iniinirv;,Mrr|(ii>, (cinilirics, 
ami sluuly pLuiv Many liMriic >iliiir.il \alulil■^, s.,iiif with varii-^.H. .| 
f'tliaKi'. \ativr Im i:ur(i|..-. April, M.iv. 

Sicm. Trailiiif,' and (Tcfpiiii;, n.uiiiii; m m,,.1,>; dulv ilic sli,>ri 
llnwcrin^; stems aMeiulin^,'. 

/.c./rcA, ()|.i.n>ite, evergreen, sliiiiin;,', ovale nr nl,|,,iit. (,vale. 

riourrs. .Solitary in llie ;.\ils of ilie le.i-o, l.lue or white, salver- 
snupt'd. 

C'(//_v.v. Tul)ular, five toothed. 

i'orollu. I'ale-hhie or white, .salver-shaped, l.o lUv lul.ed „,l,es 

almost wed^e shaiK'd, nmvolute in hud; throat a „.ed ami thi.ktiud. 

Staniriis. I'ive, inserted on the iipi)er part or midille o| the lube' 
filaments short; anthers hearded at the lip. 

(k'iiry. 'l"wo carpels; style loni,', slender, supports a dip in whidi is 
the stij,'ma. 

J'l'llirli-s. Slender, iiiany-seedi'il. 

This is the first out-nf-door tlower in many (OLintrv tianleii- 
whtTv lnill)s have no place; and it- lovely l.jue |]..wcrs /unoni; Mie 
ck'un Klossy k-avfs is a welcome sij-ht of the early s|)rin,ir. ( 'ounlr\ 
I)e.>|)le know the plant chielly as Myrtle and Periwinkle; in 
city parks and jjardens it covers the ground a- N'iiu a; I'linv knew 
it in Roman times as IVrvinca. Why the Irem li (all it I'h.wer- 
of-Mystery is hy no means clear; hi" the reason of the Iji.tjlisii 
name, Joy-u{ the (iruuud, i.s ajiparci.t i.. am one. 

347 



DOGBANE FAMILY 

The value cf the plant lies chieny in it. hanlv nature and trail- 
mf,' Knmtl,; s„ cl..sely ,1., the sterile, .reepin^ >ten,> ciinj,' f. the 
ground tliat the anc ients named them serpents. 




I^arKiT ririwinklf. I'jh,,, „;,}/,„ 

Half-shaded locations suit it l,est; poor, stonv soil makes a wel 
come h..me and thouf,'h seeding rarelv, the plant loses little if 
anythmg, thereby, as the trailing stems root freeiv at everv joint 

Larger Periwinkle, Vino, w^ijor, i> lai-..^ i„ ail its par'ts than 
minor, and not .juite so hardy. It roots onlv at the tips of its 
sterile stems. A variegate.l form of it is seen trailing from nearly 
every veranda I,„x in the country, as it has the merit of withstand- 
ing considerable neglect. 



MADAGASCAR PERIWINKLE. ROSE VINCA 



\ ten.icT. cn.rt, ever-l,lo,.minK [.lanl, .somewhat shruhl.v and usfd 
for summer Inddiii.;. West Imlirs and Florida. 

Slew.- Krect, twelve to eighteen inches high. 
/.r.Kv.v.-- Opposite, ohlonjr, narrowed at base, thick shinin.' 
t-lowers^ Rose, white, with or widmut a pink eve. salv.T-shape<1 
burne at the summit i.i llie stem. ' ' '"i <^ -, 

34« 



ROSE vmcA 



v4vi: 




Ros> Vinca. Vinca Rosea 



■aWn 



DOGBANE FAMILY 

Calyx. Five-lobeci. 

CW/.-/»/,r.-.Slcn(ler, orifice small ; border nve-I,,hefi ; lolK-s obovate 
not overlajjpin;^. ' 

Stamens- Five inserted on corolla-tube. 
Ovary.— Uso capsules; style one; stigma one 
Pods.— Short. 

The Rose Vinca is a plant of erect growth ^^hich is used , hioHv 
for summer bedding', as the plants bloom cntinuouslv from the 
time they are set out until frost. They are used largel'v in parks 
and public grounds in the same way as geraniums. 



Other spcctes of Apocymcca- are: 

Oleander, Xhinm okandcr, of familiar house culture The 
flowers are showy, borne in terminal cymes, either deep-rose or 
white, single or double. The plant came from the Levant 

Amsonia taherucBmontana, a southern perennial, is grown in 
the hardy border mostly ^^■\ih shrubi.erv. The leaves are wil 
low-like, the flowers small bluish bells in'terminal i.anicles The 
foliage holds late. 

The two Dogbanes, Apdcynum androsccmfdlium, Common 
Dogbane, an inmate of thickets, with its prettv, tinv, bell-corolla 
with revolute lobes, cream-white marked with pink lines within- 
and Common Indian Hemp, which loves wet banks of streams' 
and bears flowers more crowded and erect, are well worthy of a 
place in the wild garden. 



ASCLEPIDACE.t MILKWEED FAMILY 

BUTTERFLY WEED. ORANGE MILKWEED 

Asc/rpiiis tiilierosa. 

The most brilliiuit of our native Milkweeds; with tuberous r(K)ts; 
found in dry fields. 

Stem.-Onii to two feet hi^h, hairv, lealv; milkv juice scanty <.r 
wantini;. 

/.r,7rr.v. -Ahernate, sessile, lancc-ohlonj;, thick, marf,'ins slii-lulv 
reflexed. ^ 

F/rarrv. -HriKht-oran<,'e, in many-llowered terminal clusters. 

C'(;/,v.v.- Five-parted, .sediments acute, turned backward. 

fr)W/<;. -Deeply five-cieft, the .segments turned backward. Above 
them an erect five-parted crown, each part called a hood, with a tooth on 
either side and an incurved horn projecting from within. 

Stamcm-Vixc, inserted on the corolla, short, .stout, united bv their 
filaments into a tube; anthers broad, united and covering the' tleshv 
mass of the two united stigmas, terminating in a large stickv five-angled 
disk. 1 he anthers are tipped with a winged membrane and the pollen 
coheres as a waxy jK'ar-shaped mass. 

Ovaries.— Two, forming follicles in fruit. 

.S'm/5. -Many. 

The n.mers of the Milkweed are ditTicuit for an amateur to 
understand because of the abnormal development of a horned 
and hooded crown which becomes the most prominent part of the 
blossom and (juite overshari.ms the corolla. This crown i> com- 
posed of live little (-ui)s like minute cornuc()i)ias surrounding a 
central column. These are the nectaries cntaining the sweetrso 
attractive to insects; as one will readily understanrl who watches 
a bumble-bee as he follows the circle thrusting his long black tongue 
deep into each little h<)rn. It i. evident that tiie tlowcr cunts 
upon one or more of the bee's legs getting caught in an anther 

351 



MILKWEED FAMILY 



crevice and in e.\tnValin>,' ilsilf to carry along a jxillen mass to he 

deposited on anotiier i)los<om. 

The .Mill<\\ee(i lias heiome so hij,'lily specialized for i ross-fer- 

tili/.ation that althou^^h each tlower-ciuster mav numiier fiftv 
l)lossoms, more or less, it is rare that more than 
three to live are fertilized so as to pnKJiice fruit. 
The plant makes up for the small number of j.ods 
liy the enormous number of seeds in each pod. 
Moreover, each seed possesses an admirable 
l)arachute attachment which wafts it awav on 
the win{,'s of the wind, "ea>t of the sun and west 
of the moon," to the hajjpy land where it finds 
a home. 

The j:^enus Asdcpi.i.s is credited in the hooks 
with eif^hty-five s])ecies, mostly natives ;)f .\mer- 
ica; of these hut two have so far recommended 
themselves for domestication, and they are rather 

wildlings hrouglit in upon occasion than to the manner horn. 

The first is the Ikitterlly Weed, in color a vivid orange— a tlame 

amid the green— and the other Asclcpiiis iiuarualn, which adorns 

swampy places and may well have a place in the tangle that it 

glorifies. 




I'|..H<T uf lUrtlcrlly 
Wild; lOnhirgi'd 



The Silk \'ine, Pcriploni t^rarni, is a twining shruh from the 
Mediterranean region which, upon occasion, can climh as high 
as forty feet. The leaves are ohiong-lanceolate, dark-green and 
shining, from two to four inches long. The hrownish-])ur|)le 
(lowers are of the milkweed type and home in loose cvmes. The 
fruit consists of follicles filled with many small, winged seeds. 



35^ 



GONVOLVLLAGE^-CONVOLVULUS 
FAMILY 

Chii-ny twiniiiK ,.r trailing herl.s, ..fti-n with miil<v ji.icr; altcr- 
n;.te leaves, and regular llowers witii their parts in fives. The 
calyx has five sepals imhritated in tiie hud; the e.pn.lla is llve- 
l<)l)cd, the lohes (..nvnhite ..r twisted in the hud. Stamens live 
in>erted l<m d.mn ..n the lul.e ..f the (..n.iia, alternate with its 
l"l'i-s. Fruit i> a (ap>ule, two tn f.,ur-,elled. In . ultivali-m are 
.Mnmui-gl.,ry, (ypre>s N^ine, Monn-llower, (Jreat Jiindweed, 
and Sweet-potato. 



MORNING-GLORY 

I piimii'ii li vhridd. 

The garden race of \r(.rning-gl.,ries are hvhrids developed chiefly 
fn.m It>om,v,i purpurea and I pouuva lirdrnuci, i.oth South .American 
species. .\ heart-shaped leaf indicates the purpurea strain predominant; 
a three-lohed leal indicates hederacea. 

.SVrw. -Twining from left to right, hairy, six to twelve feet high. 
Leaves. —WwnvMi.; heart-shaped and entire, or three-lohed. 
/•■Awm-.-Funnel-shai)ed, cohr range extending from violet and red- 
lo''nve-nowerc'r '''''' ''"■'""''>■ '"■''''■'' ''"'' ^^I"'^'"'' ''t'duncles three 
Calyx. - Five-parted, densely hairy below. 

(V>n</A/.-Funnel-shaped, one and a half to two inches across. 
S/aiueiLs. — Five. 

07V/M'.— Three-celled; style and stigma one. 
Cap.uile. -Three-celled; cells .ine-.seeded. 

The Morning-gl.iry is undouliedly >omewhat of a rascal when 
given too free a hand in tlie garden. I>u,>essed of tremendous 
Vitality It ulii Murry up a string or a pole at an astonishing rate 

353 



CONVOLVULUS FAMILY 



of speed, and when a temporary Ieaf\ screen is desired few vines 
will do the work as efTectually and in so >hort a time. The leaves 
are large, the interniKles short, and the cover excellent. After the 
stem reaches the top of its siii)i)ort it usually looks about for some- 
thing else to con<iuer and often doubles upon itself or embraces 
its neighbors. The stem must be provided with something to 
twine about or it wil' provide this for itself, and when the Morn- 
ing-glory does its own providing it stoi)s at nothing. It will 
overwhelm the rarest rose-bush, climb up the stalk of the finest 
|)erennial, or ruthlessly choke out the life of the most valuable 
|)lant in the garden. Hence, it must be kept within bounds or 
kci)t not at all. 

Yet there is something so attractive in the poise of those airv 
bells that come out of the deej) of the night, wet with the dews of 
the morning; so ex(iuisite arje the translucent de|)ths of those i)er- 
fcct cui)s that, personally, I never see one without a thrill of 
l)leasure, and under the spell of their delicate and ethereal beauty, 
I pardon something to the s])irit of libertv. 

The blossom of the Morning-glory does not bear direct sun- 
shine, but, if it were desired, this characteristic could be greatlv 
modified. There arc always some vines whose llowers outlive 
their neighbors, and careful selection would in time f)revail. 

The Ja])anese grow the Morning-glory with devotion and have 
develoi)ed their native Morning-glory (or is it Chinese ?) to a point 
of marvellous variety and perfection. V\'onderful tales are told 
by travellers of "a whole city full" of people going out with 
the dawn into suburban gardens to see the Morning-glories in 
bloom. 

A flower that c.n be seen at its best only ab. ..t sunrise, it is safe 
to say, will never be a favorite with the American peo])le, and the 
Morning-glory vine, desjMte all its virtues, will ])robably remain 
as it now is, a utility ])lant loved by the few, outlawed by others, 
tolerated bv the manv. 



354 



MORNING-GLORY 




Morning-gl,jry. Ipomda Itvbrida 



CONVOLVULUS FAMILY 



MOON-FLOWER 

I/)'>IIIU(l IlillKl-IKI.X. 

The familiar, ni>,'Iit-l>l(>ominK, whiK-llowcTi'd numhcn.f the Morning- 
nil iry t,""i>u|). Variahlc. South Anurim. 

Sirni. Twilling, oftin making twenty feet in a summer, smooth 
often beset with sott projections. ' 

Leaves. Alternate, larj^e, heart-sha| I or angled. 

Flowers. White, with f,'reenish lines, four inches across; ojH'ninj,' late 
in the afternoon and remaining o\Kn until the direct ravs of sunlii-ht 
strike them; fragrant. 

Peduncles. One to four-flowered. 
Ctilyx. Fmvc .se])als. 

Corolla. Salver-.shaped; tuhe three to four inches long; horder three 
to >' ,ur inches across, white, with five greenish lines radiating from the 
throat to the circumference; convolute in hud. 

Stamens. Five, just ai)i)earing at the throat. 

Ot'crv.— Two-celled; style long, exserled; stigma tvvo-luhed. 

Cd/»i«/c.— Two-celled; cells one-seeded. 




MiK)n-ll(>\vir. Ifiiiiiiid liina-nax 



The >r()on- flower is an admirahle screen, pore h, or wall vine, for 
the loaves a-e largo and ahun.lant. The nower> I.egin to open 
ahout sundown, and do not close until the next morning is wei! on 
toward no«)n. Being an fpoimv,i it, of course, shares the family 
characteristics, twines from left to right, and crowds it.-, neIgllbor^, 



am^' 



MAN-OF-THE-EARTH 

-•.N^hnuM ,...u,,,N.i ,...,,,,,,,,,, ,;„,^,,,^,, j,,,.^^._^^^^^^^, 
!>■ M) Mriiiij; that, ... vim^ 

nail-. 



''"'•'>-'»' ""■-lH'li.,fulK ...u-lulfuilln.., j,^.r 



mi- 



MAN-OF-THE-EARTH. WILD POTATO VINE 

/p'>>ii,r,i /,„ii,li(-::l,i. 

'-" (■-HH.ticu. ,.. Illinois an.1 .JZul " ""' '"'"' 

A%./. IIuK.., „f,,n wriKhs In, to tvvcntv p,,u,„ls 
.S/''w. r-un;, ..,,,1 siuMt, trailing, s.-nu'tinus twinin.^ 
'.onrs. IK.art-,sl,a,K.,i. ,K,int..|, sonu.tinus ll.l.lU..'l,a,H.,| 
I'/ourrs. Larue luntul-form, white \vi.|i luiri.l.. -.i il,.. I ., ■ i 

•SVMv. rive, sm...,th, ..van-..!,!,,,,,', verv ..l.tusc 
p.;re;,. ^''"^•"' f--H.I-f,.n., three inehes ]..„,, .,,,, ,„, ,,,,„ 

Sl,„„f„s. Five, inseiled ..., C(,i„||a tube. 
(hvry. 'r\vn-ielle.l; style a.ul stigma one 
^ "^"''' Tw" celled; cells t\v.,-seeded. 

<lcmands re>pcr,ful treafnont, f„r if it once i>ecom..s e;tablishc,l 

;:,;j^u-f'"''r''' '"''':!' ■"""'"• ^>"-'-'''''<-ai„ivthink 

-Kc l,-f..re patntn, Man-of-the-carth. The hlossom'is the 
l.oau .. cup ..f the Mornin.-,l..ry, witite with a purple eve, ope^ 
1^^ I..n,dnnk,„,u,the.,n.hme. On a sandy hank ul ere 
htlleel>eudlgruu ,tisanac(jui..iti«.n. 



357 



CONVOLVULUS FAMrLY 



CYPRESS VINE 

Ifllltlinrl l/ll,lllli>(lil. 

An annual twinini; vine wiili iCatlury I'oliap' an.l small, liri^jlitml 
llowcrs. Native uf Inipital Aiiicriia. Siirnimr. 

Sliiii. 'r.viniiij.', readiis lii'iicii lo Iwmlv feel. 

/.caves. I'innalily j.arlrd iiitn .slciicl, r alin.i^l (lirtad like (li\i>i(>ns. 

iloxirrs. Hrinht-rid, diurnal, 
.small lor ihc ^;finis; ixduiulcs 
(MIC 111 six lIllWlTttl. 

Calyx I'ivi'-lnlK'd. 

i irollii. An inch to an indi 
and a hall Ion;;, scarlrt; the tulir 
narrowly funnel form, inllaleil 
ahnve; the horder iiearh llat, 
live liilu'd, 

Sliiiiii IIS. I'ive, exserted; stig- 
ma eajiitati'. 

Capsiilf. Ovoid, four celled; 
eiils one-sei'ded. 

'Pile (liliiatc ftallierv foji- 
au'e (if li.e ('y|)res- \'iiie niake> 
a JH-autiful liac kj^Tound for 
the little scarli't llo\ver> thai 
stand out s,, ( learly a,(;aiii>l 
it. TIh' \ ine is a j^ood strong 

^Tower and will do well in partial shule. There i- a while 

variety. 

SWEET-POTATO 

I l>(inia;i Ihit.iltts. 

The Sweet-potato of the market is a trailincf vine of the Morn- 
inji-f^lory f^'rouj) that ])rodu(es an ediMe root. The ()ri<,'in of tlie 
present ( ultivated l"orni i> unknown, hut helie^ed to he a produet 
of trojjieal America. We know nrlainly that it was cuhivated hy 
the ahorijiines when .America was di-covered, hut its wild form 
has never yet been found. 

35« 




('ypri>^ \ im-. I pmnmi ijutiini'tlit 



COlfVOLVULUS 

The l.ram lu'. hm.i at tin- juini> and llu- o.liM,- iul.cr^ ^;n.^^ . Imm' 
Inmilur undtT till' .n.wn and. unlikf llu- < nmnini, |,.,i.,in. ih, y <|.> 
n<.t Uar dt liniti- i-yt's. Tlu- , unimrr. iai vanClir. iliai ..r.' . ar.fully 
(UllivaU'd rarely l.l..nm; ilu' >ircnKlh '<( i\h- plant K"«- I<- iIh' 
r.K.I. The l.lns>um, when it (U> a|.|K'ar, i\ a |.iir,,lr Itiniicl 
>lia|K'd l.fll n|K'ninK' ' "lay an<l rarrly |.r.Mliuin^ .^.,.,|. -I'lu. 
Ica\r> vary ^,'rfatly in li.rin an<l in -i/r. 



CONVOLVULUS. HEDGE BINDWEED 

( iiiivi'il'tliliis M /'iiini. 

Fr.mi tin- I.alin ,,>in;<lx:,, n.ll ar,,iiml or i«in,- nfcrrinK I" llic 
hahit of the plaiii. 

A wild, clini^inK |.lant, n.mnn.n in low grounds oiim |i!aiilrd to 
adorn walls and fcnus. Spnads \,\ ruinn'tiK nMiistocks; varial.l.-; 
flouhit -llowiTnl ill f,'ar(lrns. 



Sinn, 'rwiniiij; frrciv, sonu-f'mcs also 
trailinj;. 

Leavfs. Trian>;ular, and liall)frdsha|H(l, 
or arrow-shaiH'd, witli ilu> IoIk-s at hasr 
()l)li(|Ui-ly truncate; ofim somewhat loutJKd 
or sinuate lolu'd. 

Flnurrs. White or ])ale-rose, one and a 
half to two inches lonj;. Peduncles four- 
angled. 

Calyx.- Knclosed in two large, leafy 
bracts; sepals five. 

Corollit. Ikll funnel-form; white with 
pink lines or pale-rose; horder oh.-,.urelv 
five-lohi'd. 

Sltimni.w I'ive, inserted on the tube of 
the corolla. 

Oviirv. Two-celled; style one; stigma 
two-l()l)e(l. 

C'(;;>s«/r. - Two-celled; cells two-.seided. 







The Convolvulus is also known as the liindweed. and there is 
somethin-i decidedly sini>ter in the name ..f Mlndweed. f<,r it 
characterizes the evil i)ower of the jilant. The >tr(.ng twinin- 



COWVOLVULUS FAMILY 



>t.m Krip, liKhl. an.l wh.n it mIm: M,nu-ihin>r ....ikcr iliat, iiM-lf 
\hv urak.r >ullVr>. T\w vin.^ . ov.t^ a f.,u . ..r (r.iiK ..w r a uall 
lK-aui,lully, when . ..nin.lk.l j, an a.ln.iral.lc M-rvanl, Inii ..nc 
>liuiil.| ncvtr furmi thai it i> a raml.UT at tin- riK.(. 

Califnrnia k..,*-. Convohuliis h[>,Uii..i, a|.|H'ar. in our Kar.lcn^ 
i.rin.i|.ally in ii. ,|muI.Ic form. It i, |Krcniiial. Iuir.lv, viK..r..u, 
..ftt-n inakiiiK' \^^n^\^ liri in a s„mnuT. II,,. |,au-. an- varial.lc.' 
luiMati- or ovatf. with an^iilar or rnun.h.l lul,,-, at the l.as,-. Tin- 
nowt-rs UP- l.riKlit-pink, an.l ih,. nain.u «avv |KiaU irrf«ularlv 
arranKi-.! maki- a very pntly r..>,--i,k.. .fCvt. ' I.ikt- iouvohnlus 
scphm it will JH-ar wal. Ii,.ik', a. it will wan.l.r far an.l i> in.liiu.l 
t.) smiitluT otliiT plants whin it has a ihamc 



THREE-COLORED CONVOLVULOS 



< '«//; 1-7; •/(/(/ s trimliir. 



on- 



An annual from souilurn Kun.pc, ,,n<- of thi- lu-st of the hardv C..„- 
volvuli; l.looms .onlimially throuKhout the sumnuT an.l ntn'ains up^.n 
during; entire day. 




Thrir-i.,|uriil CiinvoUiilu^^. Cm: ' :,lus tri,„t„r 



THREF COLORED COWVQLVUfUS 

«nSr. £;'!'K:ili;;r "'■ "-' ' """ "• ■ '«'"■ ™ ■ ■ 

huiry l.in.ar ul.l.mjr. ..r ..iM.val.', rath.r .,ar^ ■ 
C'llvx. ILiiry. Iivf IuIh-.I; |.,|.,, |M,ii.t,.| 

...l::S;.,!in:iJ'i;;';;:;;:-;;,':''-''^^ ..r 

.Sl.n„n,s I ivr, ..I varyinv: h,.i.|„>. in,..r...| .,„ .„r.,||,. ,„|,, 
<>V„ry. |..ur.v||.,|; stvl.- ,l,r.;,.| likr; >,!,,„,., ,„„ ,,,|. 

^^^mc■m,d.lU^,uK•.ydI.w:n,lH.,|,rna,.|,,lH.r..,-^^ 
"•y Miu. .•xu.n.l,n« in lints thmuul, tl.r wl.if. aln,,,,, ,„,,,„„ „,.• 
ycll.m-. Any plant that wiji M,.n,n . ..ntinuallv ihn.ud. \,..u.l 
IS a prize, ■ o • s » 



36 r 



POLEMONIAGE/E-PHLOX FAMILY 

PERENNIAL PHLOX 

Plilo.x paiiiru/iil.i. 

Phhx, C.nvk, llaMu.; a,u iVnily applio.l t„ Ly,k„is UM.l tran.ferrc..i 
to tlii'Sf plants. 

A ,>orcnnial. Ixarin.; very showy llowcrs, p„win^ in dumps and 
f""n<l .n u-.K„ls and ,h,ckots from Pennsylvania, south and ues, Com- 
mon in gardens. Summer. 

Stem. Stout, .simple, two to four feet hi^di 

«',':« ;:; Jlt'" ""'*■'"• "•""■""»• "•'™""'i"'. i™i-i»"i*-. 

(Wy.v. Tubular, an^'ular, five-lohed 
^^^ «;.-Saiver-shaped with a Ion, tube and a sprea<lin, five-lobed 

.SV,/mr;„. riv,, included, and unequally insert^.l in the corolla-lube 
Ovary I hree-celled; style .slender; .s.i,.ma three-cleft 
i apsu/r. Three-cellcl, several-seeded. 

The race of flarden Pidoxos Itas been developed from the wild 
spc'ces ol our own fields and c,m>,itutes one of ,he „..st bril- 
liant llower Krou|)s in ruitivaii.m. 

/V//..V paniruM,, has undoubtedly been the basic form modi- 
fied more or less by /V,/.v n,„n,la/.,, and /V,/..v nnn>.„o,ulii 
-nt natu-e ,o the United States. In some form, the terminal 
p. ntcles have become a foot !on,, an,l .leusely lllk.! with llower. 
The colors ra.^re Ute chord of red, from carmine to c rimson from 
purple to pmk, fn.m coral to salmon; li,,d,t-eved, ,lark-eved or no- 
eyed ul all; and a plantation in full bloom is a dazy.Vnvr ..-^^ht 



PERENNIAL PHLOX 




Perennial I'hloA Fiiiox panicuiala. 



PHLOX FAMILY 

The plant naturally gnnvs in tufts and shoul.l l.c- allowed room 

'•• ''-■;i>; '• al.. . uvll ,. divide tlH. .1,1 Hum,., takin. ..pen^^ 
<are..f the y..un« shoots on the, Hit.ide 

iVrenniail'hloxes usually l.|oo„, ;„ earlv summer, hut if the 

M.S of tiu. s ..,,. are ,.inel,e.l ..ut ,.nce ..r twi,.e the l.lo..m mav 
I- «rea, y .lelaye.l and line hloom ohtaine.i even in ( Vtoher 

Ilu. Annual l'hl„xes are derivative., of PI,lo, nnn,n„o,uiu of 

Iexa>, a natne speeies which has l,een >o modi.le,! |.v dome^tia- 

•" that the .arden varieties are numbered l.v .-oris. ,n e.ll 

tliey are the same as the perennial forms. The . ..||e. tor, Drum- 

mon.l. sent the seeds of this I>hlox from Texas to Kn,dand in 

Sr" p| I '1 "': """"' '" ''" '"""^- •' '--'-'Itural form . alle,l 
St. h^x a.. en, level,..,..!, more curious than beautiful. 

H \\,ld hlox of our northern .spring is Pl.lox ,//.,„/,,)„, 

-I-Hh hear, a loose, corymho.e panicle of attractive (lowers whi.h 

vary m color from pale-lilac to nearly white. Like all the I'hloxes 

ho corolla ,s sa yer-.haped; this word referring to the ancient saU 

cr whose handle was a tuhe extending helow the trav, rather 

than to our mo,lern form. It is very prettv in masses', hut its 

color ,s not denied enough to he effective alone and i,> I. .se clus- 

ters look a little ra<r.'ed 



GROUND PINK. MOSS PINK 

Phlox siilndala. 
A perennial ,.f tufte.l or ma.tcl stems, extremelv variahl,., prize.) for 
s abundant Howers in early spring. Native ... P.nnsvlvnia a. 
ranges .souUi and we.st. Mav. 



ly, more ,)r 



ci£r"- ^'■""''"'' '"■■""' ''"^^"•' ^•^■'•>- ^'-n. an.l usually sti.T, 



/•V™. Profuse, in small clusters, about an inch acros. pink 
-k-blue, whue, someun^es eye.l; standing two to six inches ab^v!^ £ 



(V/y.v.- Tubular, fnT-Iobed. 

C-,W/./.-Salver-shape.l, tive-lob.Hl; !,.hes n„!rh,-d „r entire. 

3"4 



E«f r^ri-ifiari: 



COB(EA 



Stdiiiciis. Fivi-, iiiMTlid (.11 till' (umlla tiihc. 

Or^ry. •riiriT-alk-.l; stylf slctxlcr; >iij,'ma llirir rltit. 

C<ipsiili\ Tlircr-allf.l, >tvcr;il-si(<lr(l, 

Thf M,»s Pink sol> tlic -ardcii al,lazi- uith l.rilliaiit l.|,M,m. and 

Ii«lit> up llu' (k-s.,lali.m (,| i^rly May. The ,l.|,r.--,d >iini^ 

with tlu'ir littk- sliarp- 

I'ointc'd It'iiw^ nial<f (k-u-v 

mats of mi)>s-liki' fuliafri-, 

and when in iIdwct thf-r 

mats arc ti-an>fnrnii'd into 

a ma>- of n)><.'-|)ur|>lc,|)ink, 

or white, so ptTlVdly docs 

the hioom iiido the foliage. 

Ko( ky liill-ides and river 

l)ank.-are its natural iionie, 
hut any h'^dit >oil will -erve. 
Pretty as it i:>, its hlood 
brother, the ('ree|)in,<f 
Phlox, J'hlox rcptuis, of 
more southern ranj;e, sur- 
passes it in >ize and hril- 
h'aney of tlowers. The two 
are very sinu'lar in general 
appearance, hut the >tcm-; of this one :,,w a liitle taller an,I the 
tlower. are a little larger. The hloomin-r period, hnwever i. 
somewhat later, which i^ ■, handicap, for the i harm of the .M„~. 
Pink is its -miling entry i..a. earlv >|)rin". 



COBCEA 

( I'hi'ra siii)idnis. 

Xanu-,1 f.„- FailuT C,,!,,,. a S|,ani>l, j.^uit .,f tin- srvrnlmuh ,■.■■,- 
tury; ruiluraliM, and n-i,|,-ni ,,f M.-xi, ,, |-,,r ni.ciy year-. 

A .smooth, tall, much-hranchin- climh.-r, vahial.K a, a .|ui. k l'h.u in- 
vine. .\t home a perennial, but here irealed a.s an annual. M.-virn"" 
August, S^plemher. 







w '^mm^ 






PHLOX FAMILY 



Stem. Making iwfiily lirt in a sinj,'Ic suninur; climhiii" hv coni- 
ixiiind li'iidrils at the a|n\ .n' tlii' piniiatt' Kavcs " ' 

/.<i/-o. Altcrnalf, piimalcly (nniixiuiid; kallils two to ihn-v i.airs 
nval, nina> or less ,ari(l; tirniinal kallcl oitiii r prfsciUfd In- a tendril.' 

il-'urrs. Hell-sliai)C'd, an inrh and a luill across, j^rirn at first 
finally pale violet or ,!,'reenish-i.uri)le with i.Mtriidin;,' style and stamens! 

(.'itlyx. I,ar;;e, persistent, leafy, the loKed. 

Corolla. Larjie, Ik ll-sliaped, with spreading,' live lohed l.order. 

SUimnts. Five, protrudin-, inserted on the eorolla tube and all in- 
(liniiiL; to one side. 

Ovary. Ohovoid; >iyle lon^', sli'iider, deelina'e; sti^ima ihree-elel't. 



Coba;t is one of llic moM valualiie of (|iii( k-jinwinn \ iiu>. It 
(loos not (lliiil) a> the Iruiiij.et vine or the X'iruinia i reeper, l.y 

means of :u,-ial rootlets, hut at 
the a|ie\ of it> ])innate leaves arc 
ti'ndril- that caK h (piii k and 
hold fast. 'J'he foliai^e f^rowth 
i> loo>e, irregular, and uncertain 
in (I irection, hut easily eon- 
trolled. 'I"he |ilam like> .-uiinv 
locaticiiN. yet will j,'ro\v in |)ariial 
shade. The tlower> are lar<,'e, 
slitrhtly ire.uular hell>, tjvo inc hes 
or more lonj,' and an ineh and a 
half aiTo-s. 

The tendril> of Colnra .sniii- 
dfiis are forked and end in del- 
icate hrani nlet>, each hearing; a 
minute douhle hook ;!t its \\\). 
The tenilril> are llexlhle, a 
hreath of wind sway> them ahout, and the little h.iok-wiil eateh 
hold of any >li<,dit irre,i,'ularity. and, afterward, the tendril ( uris 
around and makes the altac hmeiil jjernianent. 

A very interestini; m.ivenient of spiral contraction occurs in ten- 
drils after ti.ey have (au,L,dit an ohje. t. .\t lir-t they are strai<,d,t, 
with the excef.iion ,.f the c.vtreme tip which i- firmly curled urouml 




('iiliii.i. i\'ha-:l s,,ind,ns 



GILIA 




(jilia. Lidia Irhonir 



PHLOX FAMILY 

tlio (iliject. Snim, however, the tendril Ixidy he^jiiis to inntract and 
ultimately a-:-unu-, the enrloerew-like form x) eomnionly >een; 
thi- ( oMlrai lion drag- the stem nearer to the point of attachment. 
A -eKind u-e, and |)erha|)> the most important, of thi> eontracted 
tendril i> that it a(t> as a si)iral sj.ring and becomes a \ieldinj» 
in-tead of an unyielding hody; and tini- enaliles a |)lant to weather 
a gale whidi might otherwise tear it from its sU|)i)ort. After the 
tendril i ,,- taken hold of a su|>|)ort, s|)iral coils can he made in it 
only l>y tiie middle \Kin turning, and this will cause the coils to he 
turned one-half in one direction and one-half in the other. 



TRICOLORED GILIA 

(iiliii, ill linnnr of l'hili|i (lil, ;i S[)aMi>h Imlanist. 

A native (if western California, found in gardens and sparingly es- 
caped. Annual. .Midsuninur. 

Slcir Slender, branching, about a fool high. 

/.Ill V. .Mil-mate, .scattered, two or three limes ])innatelv dis.sected 
into short linear divisions. 

l-'lo'urr.s. I,ilac-])uri)le, |)anicled at the end of the branches. 
t'i;/y,v. Tubular, five-lobed; lobes imbricated in the bud. 
( 'i>nil/,i. .Sjidit, funnel-t'orm, with yellow tube, lilac-purple or whitish 
lobes, deep vioki-purple throat; lobes convolute in bud. 
Slamciis. I'ive, inserte<l on tube of corolla. 
Ovary. Three-celled; .style .slender; .stigma three-clet't. 

The ( "iilia> are Western llowers; seventy-live s])ecies are recorded 
and ihe-e are especially abundant in the Rockv Mountain region; 
indeed they are with you a< every turn as you climb the mountain 
jiaths. 'J'he llowers are often sho\\_\ and beautiful, and .some of 
them resemble i)hlo.\es. 

Ciilii trim/or is esi)ecially abundant in western California. 
'I'iie corollas are a delicate lilac, blending into while toward the 
centre. .Mrs. I'arsons rejxirts that the children are so won bv the 
fresh and winsome blossoms that they call them hirdV-eycs. 



FT^^rtSS^W^^TOFn 



«i 



POLEMONIUM 



POLEMONIUM. GREEK VALERIAN 

Pi'/cnii'iniinii rrpl.nis. 

A smooth iH-rennial with w.ak st.m.s un-l aUcTnat. pinnate leave. 
..un.I in moist lan.ls Iron. New ^•„rk to .Minn.snta an,! southwar.l' 
May. 

SIX to twelve inches hi;,'h. ss'^-'-. 

/A/jrv. Alternate, i.innateiy compound; katlels five to lllleen 
ovate-lanceolate, entire. ■huim, 

nmrrs. Pale l.lue-violet, rarely white- in loose lew-tlowered clusters 
Culp-. I{ell-sha|)e(l, live-lohed. 

Corall,!. Open bell-shaped, nve-lohcd, Inlu's rounded. 
.S7,/;«r;/.v. Five, inserle.l e.|Ually ,.„ the corolla-tuhc, dedin.d, hairv 
at hase, not jjrotrudinL,' heyond the corolla. 

Ovary. Three-celled; style slender; sti;;ma three-deft. 
Capsule. Three-celled. 

This wild Polemoniuni is a very . luirniinK plant and thr.)u«ii(.ut 
the .Middle West is fre(|uently found in gardens. The (..mnionlv 
cultivated Polemoniuni, however, is 
another species, carulcitDi, of more 
rohust hal)it and more ahuntlant 
l)loom. Hoth llower in .May and 
adorn ecjualiy the horder or the 
rock-garden. 

Polemouium caridcum, the Hhie 
Polemoniuni, i> a i)lant of northern 
range and credited in t!ie hooks to 
three continents, Kurope, .\sia, and iiiuc'i>.,iu„unium. /•„/,, 
Ameriia. Certainly, it has long been cccruta.m 

cultivated in Kngiish gardens am! came to us over ..ea instead ..f 
from our own fields. 

Polemomum hiimilc, or Polnuouium Ruluirdsomi as it appears 
in trade catalogues, is an .Mpine spe.ies, a low plant. I.earinr in 
July a prolusion of [Kiie-hlue i,ell-.haped (lowers with golden 
anthers. It is highly recommended for the rock-garden. 

3 ^'9 




i! 



PHLOX FAMILY 

Tin's tntirc (loral group seems to have ac(|iiircd a clioue collec- 
tion of misfittiriK' and foolish names. 'I'o hegin with, Polemonium 
i> refirred in the l)0(.ks to the (Ireek pokwos, war, a name utterly 
without >iKnilicanie. Our pretty wilcHinK is called rcpums, creep- 
ing; a thing it never (1(hs. The Ijiue Polemonium rejoices in the 
two names of Jacoh's-Iadder and Charity; and the genus itself is 
known in the l.otanies as the (Ireek N'alerian. Few groups have 
suffered so severely at the hands of their friends. 



370 



aaaWMMi 



iP 



iiM)Kopin ijAcp:/e-wathr.ij:af 

1 AMIIA 



NEMOPHILA 

Xi-iiii'ifiliilit iii\i'^iu's. 

Xrniiiplii/,,, Crci-k, l.i\ ir ,,f ilu-gr.i\r; r.fiTriiiK t.i the h.iMtat 
iif .-.iirni' -|ir( ic>. 

.ilnii. I.iiw, (lilTiiM', |irii(uni- 
lutit. 

l.i'i^rs. I'innalily jiartti! in- 
to, seven ti) niii'' .^ei^nieiits, whiii! 
are sunutimes luhtd. 

l-lnurr.s. Hliie, wliilc, or li- 
lac, al>()Ut an incli aero.ss; sd- 
iiary anil loni,'-|)eliiile(l. 

Cdlyx. I'ive-parted, with a 
relieved ai)])en(lai,'e in e a ( li 
sinus. 

C'limlld.- (')\,vn Sell shaped, 
tive-li)he(l with scaly apiienda- 
Kcs on the inside of tin- throat. 

Sl.imnis. I'iie. 

(harv. One-celkd; stvle 
t\Vo-i left; .seeds leu. ' N. ...n,,!,,!.,. .\, m.^flul., i„u,,ms 




•Vrmophila i^ a pretty, (■.)nii)a(t little lierl., cNcellent for l.onlers 
and pi.»e»e(l of a charniinii name, l.ovcT-()f-tlu'-j.,'r(i\v. /;/- 
si,i^iiis and Xcinnphihi McuziiM'i, l.otli California plant-, are the 
two in idmni(,n cultivation and hoth li;.vo varied into several garden 

forms. 



■II ' 



VERBHNACH/K-VIiRVAIN FAMFLV 

VERBENA 

\'rrl>iii,l hylh-i,/,,, 
Verl^xa, anrUm Laiin ,■,„„.■ „f,|,. Kun,,,,,,,, v.rv.-.in. 
Stems. Ilnx-t or (l.cuniluni, varial.lc 
Leaves. ()i.|M,,siti., variahlc 

/*«-. InnK.,yc..|orsJ,..nu.i„coryn,l.os....,„sU.rs. 
taly.\. lubular, (ivc-t,K)ilud 

Ofoty. -Four-celled; fruit l..ur. rihiK.I „utl,ts. 

The hyl.rul Wrhena.. are a ^anlen ra. e c ...uainin. the s.rnn f 
s<. many primitives that i, i. im,,..sil.ie I., , in^if ' h. '! r 

•" their l.otani.al .ierivati.m. Thev ar ^ """'''"« 

T nc Hraxhan \erhenas. whi. i, have I.een . n,>.e.! and h/ 
-K -d to the utter destruction of all s,.e. i,. li,... T . 

The growers class their Wrhenas as selfs eved .n,! , • . 
;n^;espeet to color, and standard, or da'l":l,:Tt: 

_ The primitive forms of \'erhena were introduced into Fn.i-md 
■n the mtddlc thirties <.f the nineteenth .entury. .C ' Cm 

fur a t.mc were very popular plant. The smile of Ikkle fortune 

37' 



VERBENA 




X'tTbona. Vcrbina li\l>ridd 



i' '*:.je9B^':^'3Mmtm 



^^^^5«rTr^ 



\v 



VERVAIN FAMILY 

fa.k.l. hnw. v.T. ami sin... ,870 Ku- WrU-na Ikw Ikth ju.Ik'.-.I u|«.n 
11^ m,r„. alnn... Th.-^- arr l.y ,m nuan, wan.inK. l-ut IkIHt 
lH<l.lm« plants tlui. W-tU-uas arr now 1., In- l.a.l. Tk' colors 
ran^i- alon^ llu- line, of wluw, re.l, an.l piirplo. 

'I'lif l.lo>,nm ha> a lwo.|i|,,K.,| ...rolla, although thai fa. t \> not 
v.Tv a|.par.-nt. The- Kr.rni^h.uhi,, ,„|,. su.iU o„i an.l I,... . urns 
a i.ltk- oI,|m,uo at the thn.at an.l l|,row> ll.r.r |oIk> to^rtiur al.nvr 
ami two Ulow. Th. throat i. honlcrol with >olt hairs whi. I, 
. iox- nur an.l prot... 1 th. .uum-n. an.! pistil. It is inim-stinK •<. 
not.. Ml a . lusi.r of Wrln^na Hovvors the at.it.i.l,. of tlus.- sHf.^anu- 
hairs. As fertilization is a.,omplish.M| l.v small Ins.. ts, Hi... ,.„• 
when the stamens or pistil are rea.ly, the hairs are ere, t an.'l the' 
way to the n.rtar at the l.ase lies ,.,«„; I,„t if not rea.lv, or if the 
pislil has heen fertilimi, the hairs hen.l over an.l M.^k the way. 

BLUE SPIRiEA 

Ciiryo[}lir!s imist,ii,iiilli us. 

Caryn[>,erh, C.rv.\, f„r ,u,. a,„l wi„„; uUrnu^ ,., „„. f..p,„ .,f „,e 
si-f<i vcssils. 

JU,m. W.Huly, n,u- to f„„r f.-..t hi^h, sprinKin,r u,. fn.m ,HT-nniaI 

.omi:;;;:;;. i>Ss:'"' """^ "^ "''''""^' ^"''^^^■'>- ^^•^^^"'•> >-'--"' ^''<-. 

flimrrs. Blue, violet, or while in axillarv evnies. 
C(;/y.v, f'ivetiMUlied. ' ' 

Corolhi. F ivi-l, ,l„.,i^ one segment larKcr aixi fringed 
Stamens. lM)iir, exserted. 

.S7y/.an.b/;^',«,,.,ne;fr.n-l.separatinKintof,.ursoniewhatwinK'ednmiet.s. 
Cryop/rns is a rei-ent arrival in our Rar.lens an.l is valuaMe 
iKH-ause ..f ,ts late hloomin^ season. It pro.lu.es eompaet hushes 
al'oiit two fe..t hi.irj,, hearin- alon- the stems ..pp.,site cluster. ..f 
feathery llowers. M„ih foliaj^e an.l llowers are fra«rant. The 
y.Hin- shoots sprin^in- up from the roots will (l..wer profusely 
llK' same season, as will plants pro,kui.,| from sprin--sown se.,! 
'•' <I" well they re,|uir.. well-.lraine.I, >an,lv soil and sunnv 
location. Xative ol I'hina and Jaj.an. 

.)74 



'34\"-'Tii. ■•^^•\n: 



LABIATyli-MINT FAMII.Y 

Tlu' Minis an* cliirtly hcrlis with s(|iiar(' .Icm-, nppositc aro- 
matic loaves, and a more or less tw(>-li|i|inl lurulla. I'alw |>rr- 
sistent, five-defl; corolla two-lipiK-d; stanun> four in two i>air>; 
ovary deeply foiir-lohed, forming; in fruil tour litile >et(| like 
nutlets or akenes wliiili >urroun(l the l)a>e of the sinj,'le stvie, in I hi 
bottom of the |)ersistenl calyx; sti^^nias t\vo-I(t|)ed. The in- 
(loreseenic is axillary, usually in eymose (lu>ter> running into 
terminal racemes or spikes. F(»lia>;e mo>tlv dotted with small 
Hland> containing a volatile oil, upon \vhi( h depend^ the warmth 
and aroma of the i)lant> of the well-known family. 

SALVIA. SCARLET SAGE 

StUviit spli'iidcns. 

Siihid, to keep safe or healthy; referring to the medic inal iiroper- 
tie< of the Common Sage. 

Cultivated for ornament; introduced from Ura/il, tlure a iK-rcnnial, 
hut here an annual. July until frost. 

Stems.—llrcct and hranchinj,', two to three feet high. 

/,f(it'f5.--()pix)site, acute and acuminate. 

/•'Aitccr.?.- Scarlet, tubular, borne in a loose terminal s|)ike, four to 
six inches long; making a whorl of blossoms, from two to .six flowers 
in a whorl. 

Cd/.v.v.— Scarlet, swollen, two-lipiK-d, with soft, short, scarlet hairs. 

roro/Zd.— Scarlet, long, lax, somewhat swollen lube, almost fugacious; 
lw()-lipi)ed, the long undivided upjKT lip covering and j)rotecting tin- 
stamens and the style; lower lip three-lolu'd. 

Slameits.- Two, in.serted on the corolla-tube, each bearing a half- 
anther at the end of a long, slender connective; the other half of the 
connective sterile. 

Chary. Four-purled; stigma tlivided. Ovarv rijK-ns into four nut- 
lets. 

37S 



MINT FAMILY 



''•-orolla, all ..„.,! J' '^j'^-^-'-'V 
va,linJ,^ " ' '" "'^ ^■"'■' "-'^"•"'. liii^'h-k..,.,!, ,„.r. 

'Hie structure of the ln(l[v;,ln ,1 ,i • • 

•''-^-Kc.h.ruitlMhe,r;\"'"''r' '■"'-'-■-'->- 

seems to servo no ,, urn. K,. TM , "" 'i-l-likr l.o.jy u|„\h 
™'i I''n^^isalc^.thI • "■''"'■ "'"-' "-"•.!,> of an 

an.l barely separate, the rL,:::;;"7^;''" '^;''^■'^'--- 
""■ ^"tfi^T cells are forml i v " '" "" "'^' "^^''^ '^^ 

'".;;i^..s...n..e,,.;:::.i;:;:-::r;-:''-'"'-''™- 

ihe ({lue Salvia S ,/-; , /,■/ , "" 

OSWEGO TEA. F«AGRA»T BALM. BEE BALM 



Mi'ir.irdt! didvii,,,. 



•'/"'/'//■f/,;, nfitT X 



■ ""ii'iniii, nitT Nil l„,l-, ■ M , 



""""■'-.«.,„,,„:;:"-;;:;::«• ""-'* 



•|>-rc(i 
IW the uiM i„,nli.r 



fra, 
J 
I 



^;:;-. - ()l>lon«, or lance-ovate with rounWish Lse, I-n-. 
/•V«Krrv.- T\vo-linnf<l deco n.I I • 



''■rralv. J >ef, •,,!(. 



vgsag' J'i- 



SALVIA 




Sahia. ^dliL! s'^li'iulni': 



MINT FAMILY 



npvns into Anlr akc'nc'r'"'"'''' "'''' '"""' "'^'"^'^ t«..-i..lH-.I. Ovarv 




Fr.u'rnni lial,,,. .l/„„„„/„ ,/.;_^,,„^ 

n..:M;::tt:::.r*::; v","-'"-"' "- ■— - 

•■ 11... .,,.1 ., !„: ;:;:'::" ■ """ '"'- """- "' .-i.".« 

p'-n, in, uu. J ^:i:':::z:'y"y •:-■''•'-'■■ ■'■'- 

^vii.ii^.r.,,;.^.,/:::;^ ::;";■';:;;-.«;' -N,,™.. 



37'^ 



:-i\^i.l«t5*- 



PHYSOSTEGIA 



PHYSOSTEGIA. FALSE DRAGON'S HEAD 

Piiysostif;/,! I'irqini.'iiiii. 

Physoslfi;!,,, (In-ck lur l-laddiTy (ovi-iiiiK; rcfcTrin^ (,> the inllalf.l 
fniiiiiif; 1 alv\. 

A iKTcnnial i)lanl of cxtinsivf hal.ital, raii.t,'inL,' from (juihfc south 
and south-wrsl, ilii„iij,'h ihc Mississippi \'alkv. Sonuwhal tV(vnlly 
inlroducol into i^'ardcns; ^rows in clunii)s; flowers ail siimnuT. 

Sinn. S(|uarc, kafv, one to four 
fret liif^h, 

/.(•(irrs. Opi)ositc, ohlonj:, serratf. 

/■loiirrs. I'alerosi-|)urpl;',cr()\v.lf(l 
U]M)n a siniplf ,>r a i)anick(l .Npii<f. 

('<;/.v.v, lUJl-shapcd, llvc-IolKd, 
slij^htly inllatfd in fruit. 

Corolla. I'alf rosc-purpii-, s|)<)ttfd 
with darker dots, three-fourths of an 
inch to an inch lonj,', funnel-shai)ed, 
slightly swolkn, open-lhroated, two- 
h'liiK'd; uj)jx'r hp inllated, nearly 
entire; lower li|) tliree-loind; middle 
lobe the larjiest. 

>' '^■. Four, in two pairs under 
til"-' >; outside ]iair the Ioniser. 

('■ "our-lobed; style one; stig- 

ma l\ ..-lohed. 

Fruil. Four nutlets at the base of 
the innale<l calyx. 

Physo.slci^id rii-i;!HMiid is prov- 
ing itself a giHxl summer-lilooniing 
l)Iant. The llowers, of the gaping 
labiate type, are borne in long ( mwded >i)ike^, and range in 
color tlirough rosy-pink and lilac to white. .V >|)icate intlores- 
cencc may be reganle<l either as an advantage or an objedion to 
a plant. It certainly lengthens the blooming period, which mav 
]>c charged to its credit; on the other hand, the bnd-. the bloom, 
and the seed vessels are alway- together— tlie representative^ of 
the past, present, and future, all the time in evidence. 

379 




Pliysdstc'Kia. Pliy<rsi,\:i,i -. ir^hii.'iihi 



w^m^^m^ 



MINT FAMILY 



ti^m 







GARDEN COLEUS 

( < ,Vv(v /iv/.ri,/,,, 

, ""■"■■''"■'■"■■ "■ .■ „„, , 

fr,i^' '■'■•""■"« •»"'""-'™ »■.-... ,.,„„:,„,„, 

-'■-;'';^in;:;:ir;s,;r;:;;, ;:;;;;:;;>■ "....i:.H. „„.„,,„„,, 

""'""■ ■''"""" ■ """"• •■™'™' -.■■■^Hi.. „,„„„. 

^ - ni.n.l,..<lwhl, nv,.,,.,,,,., a,'.H,r.ar 

'''" ''"-m, arc- .leriud. Tlu- v.nV.v i 

"'"'• "■""•'-'"'• -^'1 'IK' plan,, havo eni u 
«rc'at vn^ue f.,r l,c.,|> an.l |,„nkT. ' 

,, "'^■"'':'— ■"■'^•"•fH-mlk.in,)K.ract tint 
- -lu.rc a Ion, .ea..n, ..nu.,inu.s ,h 

"'•<'>:un,nuTs,hau.aun-lvl,aim,a„d „. 
'^;'v.Mall with ,he f.rs, ,>,,.,■ .., Ivu ,1 

., .1 , It. 'i'na>> >iaik> around 

'l-v..r-lH-d ,n ulnVh su. h plants as ..e 

--umandv,n,.aares.i„.,n,„,andvi,on:s 
f"l™.. cv./,«w,;v;,/„ "H-y arc tolerant of ,iu- .hears whu-l, 1^ 

'-■•allic-i.ronzc. ah.os ?;"""" ^"'"^ ^-'-"^' - 'lark 
ribbon effcrts. ' ''"*' " "••^^- ^'^^■'' -'"si-lcrably for 




'Mhcr A,//./,/A, in .uhivation are; 



il^STS'^^Si^^-'^Mjg.:*" ^^ms 



SWEET LAVENDER 



lluWiT^ >l 



mnm.n.us hnrar, with rcvulu,. margin-., .luu.r. M„al,. ,„„.. 

tu"-li|.l.0(i. axillary in ^hnrt ra.vnn . I, i, ,|i,„, ,.|, ,., , |,- , „,^, 

otcem in whul, \<u.vnvAry ua- lu'l,! .lurinLrilu. Mi,|,li,. \,r.,. i,„lr.> 

.1 ^va^ an mluTiianr. Imn, ,1,. R„man tim... ),„- i, i, k„„;„ ,„a, 

tlK' Roman, .mplnyci Kn,.mary in .n.ir r,.ii,i„u~ ,rr.m„nu., n,,] 

l.urnc.,1 ,t a, ui.rn^o in .heir tuiiplr^. .ir Thonia. M„rr uri..- 

"A- l(ir Ri)>fniaruu', I kit ii runnc all over 

my j^ardcn uaJK, not oniii' Ik'(;u:-c niv i.cvs 

i'lve it, l.ul iRrau^f it f, the lurl, ^a.nd t,, 

ri'mcnihraiKT, and tluTrforc to l>i,.n.i-,|ii|,; 

wlu-nci- a >],r\<^ ni it hath a duml. jan- 

fiuaj^'o that niakclh it ihc chosen rniMrni 

of our funcTal wakes an.! in our l.uriall 

Kroun(l>." Ophelia siy>: ' lhn\ ro-c- 

mary for you, tiiaf- for rfmcnihran(v." 

Sucft Lavender, l.airndul., :■;,:,. ]-. a 
little shrul) with narrow. oMoni.'. entire 
leaves, rev.,iute at the margin; the youn,L,'er 
ones (.ften eluMered in the a\il> ,,f the 
older. The folia-e i- ,i,Tayi-.h .u'reen, almn- 
flanl, and in midsummer --urmounted In 
llowery .tems i.earin- many whori, of .mall, Mue llow.x.- the 
whole formin.i: a slender inierruptc.l spike four to .i, ;,"„ lu's 
l"'ik'- 11k- plea>ant aromatic odor .,l the jrave, 1,,, Ion- 
made ,t a Karden favorite. The pla.U i. one of ,he ,weel 
l.erl.> native to the Medherratiean re.,ion; i^ ex,en>iv..lv ,ul.i- 
vated m southern Kurope for its e^^-ntial ..il, whi, i- ' 
m the manufarture of perfumerx, aromatic vine-ar 
er water. 

The jrenerie name. Lnrm/Hl.,. from /„:„, ,„ wad,, refer, ,o the 
aneient u.e of it> tlower, and leave, in hath perfumer^ 
_ Catnip. Xrpct.i oUinli, i, a familiar weed l.v the nuuNid.. an.] 
m tenee corner,. .\ perennial, with leafv and l.ran. hin.' ,,c.ms 
l^vo ,o three feet hi^h, I.earinj, heart-,haped, . tenat.-, ,rav -reen 
leaves. I he tlowers are small, purpli,),, twodipped, , n.wded in 
a den,e terminal. The entire plant |, plea>antlv aromalie, and eats 

3S1 




^»ui I„n,ii.|,r. /..,:.«./,,/,, 



|, 

and 



u,e<l 
lav- 






MINT FAMILY 

are fnn.l ,.f i, c.ni,, ..a on, . had a ,.laa- an,.,,,, domestic rernc- 
<lii'> lor tliildrcn. 

(in.und Ivy. ( iill-nvcT-llu. Knunid. .\V/,r/„ ^Inl,,',,,,,, i,a. cs- 
'■a|K.d from cultivation and ,„ay I,. f„„nd on road>„k-, an<l 
'awn>. 't rlin^'s lo the -roiin.I and n,al<r. a dcn-c n,al, K-ndinj, 

out its l..i,^', crivpin.i,' Mtm> t(, po»oss 
•!"■ land. -I-lu- leaves arc roun.hMi 
an<l dentate. 'J'|,e |],nvers small, i.lue, 
Iwo-lij.ped, in few- Dowered axillary 
whorl.. Anex.cljent eover plant. I,ut 
friMjuently out ol" bound-. 

Dcail-nettle, /,)iniinii niaailahmi, a 
I'lrennial lahiale, often u>ed a>'a 
'"'rder plant, has sparin-lv escaped to 
iIh- fields. The leave> are roinidi^h, 
dentate, frecjuently niarke.i with a' 
wliile sp,.t; the llower> Iwodipped. 
i>urplish, and borne in the axils of the' 
leaves. Three (,ther -.ecie> are found 

,, , ■; ^" -'■"""'I--- /.•iiinum dihinn, with white 

lowers and Luuhnu p„yp,),r,un and I.auiium ,n„p/rvi,dulr 

I'otli w,th small purple llower<. / "-^"aui,, 

Hedge-nettle, S^arl,y. I,,,,,,,,, ,, ,,,, ,,,f,,,, j,,^^,^,^ ^,^,^^ ^^^^ 

-ues covered wuh thick and silvery-white wool, i. fa-quentiv 

used as an edging plant. It conies to us from luirope. 




'•-n.un.l Ivy. X,p,:,, c;i„ii„,„j 
as weeds in eulu'vatec 




383 



■ir^i^^i^mtm^ 






^^^^^ 



SOLANACK/E-NIGMTSIIADK FAMII.Y 

TIk' .\i,i,'ht>l)a(lc family i-, in the iiiain. a familv of narcotic- 
|).>i>()ii(.ii- plants, laruriy lro|.i, al; it iia- l,ut feu genera indi.m'rK.us 
lo our raiiL^-; ytt it c (.iitriluiti-, to our ( ultivalioii the Potato, 
Tomato, Iv.'u'-plant, Cap.-ic uni, and Toharco, a record of UM'ful- 
russ excelled only hy UiuiniiiKcc. ihv (i'-a-s i'amilv. 

The plant- are lierlis with colorle>> juice and alternate leave>; 
tlowers on the plan of U\v; live lol.e- to calyx and corolla; live 
stamens; ovary two to live-<i'lle(l and style and sti,i,'ma one. 

Anion,!,' ornamental plant- are Petunia, Salpi.<,'lo>-.i>, Xiiotiana, 
Urowallia, Datura, and the trailing -hrul), Malrinionv \ine. 



PETUNIA 

Pel 11 11 ill liyhrida. 

I'liiinia, !o>m Pcttin, an alK.riKinul name of t<)I);uT(); Riven to ihc 
genus hy Jii>,>iou. 

A ^'anlen race of liyhrid annuals, derived principally from two South 
American species, I'tiuiiia nyit.ii^iiii.loni and I'dnitia liolamc. Karlv 
summer until late autumn. 

Piimiia ii\rt,ii:iiii;h'ra was discoveri'd on the hanks of the Rio de la 
Plata in iSs ;; hy Commerson; >iili found in cultivation. 
.SVfw.—Tall, relatively stout, usuall) erect, vi.scid-i)uhe.scent, 

Lciivrs. Ratiier thick, oolong-ov;J, sessile or petioled, clammy with 
hair.s. 

/•7(iarrs-.— Dull-white, salver-formed, fragrant at evening. 
Of/v.V.---\'isC!d-pu!;esceil!, f .e-ltihed- johes i\c'.',',c 

Tw///,;. Salver-formed, slightly irregular; horder tivelohed; lohes 
n'.arked with greenish lines running from margin down the tuhe. 



i 6( •■^%:y. ■ 



^S^^^-^"^ 



NIGHTSHADE FAMIfV 

ih''::z.Jz ;;;;:;;;;:' "" ^"^"""""-^ ■''— sun-K., ,,...„,, 

Oviiry. -Maiiy-.)vul,<|. 

..'r::::;;:';:::r;:'i:.:;z'::;™^;:':,-!:"',7 ""-'-'■ 

its hvl.ii.is. *'illn..ti,,n an.l appiars only i„ 

'Sinn. SlerKlcT .IccumlH.,,,, vis.i,l-p„l,,.sa.„t. 
/-'WTv.v. ()valnruvaU,.sr.s.sil..or,Kii..Kd 

-S;:;;: ,,^:h ™™:i,;i;;;;ti;;;£ *■" ' ■ «"n.i,...,; 

a.,;,;;:,rtn';:"i;:,r^ - ,7-;; r^'-i" '■'*^>- "'•'"■ <» 
■ .ii.o,v,.„,:,v 7;,:' "'■"'""■ "«"■ '"•'■''"" '■'""'- 

^Th^ Ph.n, appear.,,, have hen introduced into cultivation in 
'«-^.- It .> a plan, ol upright hal.i,, thick. >,ickv leave. Jill 
^'tc-ms, and very Ion,^,ul,ed ul.i.e .lowers which e ni; 
pcrlume at ni<ditfdl Tl,; , i . ' " "'"i ' ^lale a >tron,ir 

384 



.-^^s^^^^^ifiM^^sgni^^^ 



IIP' 



^^ -^l^nvi^nf^^^' ^i5*sr^fe.- 



PETUNIA 




IVtuiiia in variety. Petunia hybrida 



r.>'--wv...u; 



'•i\"^' -A; ft-' 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY 

•''•'" >'"• "•I" r, with a ,lr. ,iml,. nl Imm. narnmrr Icav... an.l M.nll 
r..l|mr,,|.. ,1.,u.t. whi. h h;nv a vm l-nud .,r v. n,ri. .„.. ,ulK■ 
>Km dy luuv |.,„,,..r ,h,.n ll,.. ,|. n,l.r . alv v I,.!... Thi.llnl.. plant 
ha. iKvn kn.mn uihI.t a variriy n| „a,n.-,. |.in,||..v ».,. i,„ lir>t 
to rrfrr ,t m ,|„. ^,,„u. I'rtuni., a,„l .allr,| i, /',/,,„/:, ,/„.■„,„ ,|,., 
name uhi, h it >till l.far-^. 

''I'clunh, :7W,;aw early lul,ri.|i/n| with li.c ..M,,- Whii.. IVtimia 
Pclmil, nyrl.,iniM„, an.! a. .a,ly a. ,8-; a .nnnlKr uf .lu.^J 
liyl.r,.l>--,n.l,MiM^;ui>l,ai.K. fn.m .Ik- .un,mnn K^nin, fnrrn. ni ,h. 
ITr>c-nt .l;.y urrr ill.iMratuI i„ . nlor> i„ ,hc /^/„„/,„/ M,i^,rinc 
Sir W. J. llnok.T, who .k.s.rilK'.l ilu^r lul.ri.l-. .!., jarnl Uni ii 
muM Ik- .unu.,,.,! .hat hm-. a> in nianv ...lur v.-urtaKK- pm- 
'l^""-'">. tlH- ar. an.l .kill ,.f ,1h- hur.i. ul.uriM ha,| inM-nn..] 
na.i.ri-. \Urv ihi-n nur (un,m.,n I'.-.iinia> ..ar.c.l a- lul,ri,K iuii 
"h- n,.,st >,„Kular par. of .Ik- hi>,nry is .ha. .Ik- .nu- „|,| /-,.;„;,/„ 
vwhuoi IS n..u 'uM lu .ul.iva.ion." It i,.ul,|. .,| ...ur^c In- n- 
ioym-(l from its native lan.l um- i. wor.h uhil.-. 

The 1',-iunia of pro.-ni (u,.ivali..n sct-m> .o have ,livi.Ie<l in.o 
tw.. fa ^ .liMinr. elasse. one a elas> of .^neral n.i,..v plan.. 
repre>en.e(l l.y tht- nnjrk. mixed I'e.unia. of .he ^-anlen- .he 
plan, rather low an.l .lender and .he ,.,|or. .ponm- in everv 
romhnia.ion of the red-purple an.l white of the oriui,,;,! ,,,^^,1,. 
Ihe..e make- Led. in >unny >andy pla, e., an.l .n.w where other 
plants will not. 

The ...her c la.s may lu- . ..nsidere.I plant. .,f hi^,h dej^ree Thev 
are .he resul. of careful rul.ure an.l hvl.ri.li/.ation, al.aine.l with 
dirtuul.y and cm.inue.l ..nly l,v unrea>in- ea.-e. Thev are hi ir 
vellously variable in size. form, an.l ,o|or. In some of 'the .trains 
the .lower is very l.roa.l and ..pen, measiirinf,' f-ur or hxe in. he. 
across. There are types with star-like markings ra.liatinfr fr„m 
the lhr.)at an.l extending' to the marp'n ..f the l.or.ler- there ire 
tl.nvers deeply fringed and ruffle.l: there are ..thers fullv .louhle 

The most noted of the latter forms are the California (iiant 
letun.as whKh were .levelope.l l.v Mrs. Thomas (loul.l of Wn- 
tura. ralif.,rnia. in 1888. They emb.Kly the applirati.m .,f in.elli- 
g«>nce, --kill, am! patience to a wonderful .le-,'ree. .\,. two Peti 



etun.a 



386 



iBHMBHMM 



mBnmmm^m 



SALPIGLOSSIS 



plant- of tlii> Mrain five l)l(.--<)m~ of the -aim kiiul and n<. one 
can kiiiiw what lif lia- iiiilil the |ilaiii l.ldnniv ( »iil\ a -mall |.ru- 
[xirtion 111" I he Mcdiinus 
of any (|iiui:If >irain 
will licar (luiiMc ilu\v- 
ir-, hut the -infill' llnu- 
iT> art' nftin nf -ii|HTii>r 
>izf ami (n|i>r. Tlu- 
rca-iin fur tin- lie- in 
tlir fart that the -ccd 
nui-t I If -I'lirti'd frnni 
single llowcr-. a- tlir full 
rliiuhic- d'l imt |ir(Hluit' 
scH'd. Single llnucr- 
larifully |inllinatfd with 
|>n|Ifii from dou!)lf llow- 
cr- will ^\\v -ci'd that 

will produii- an avrrai^f of twcnt\ five |icr(cnl. diuilili-. I'aiK y 
varictir- may Ih' propatjatt'd hy (Uttin^'-, \fl -<> im-taMi- i- the 
^train (hat the cuttin),'- of doiiliU' fortn- do not alwi\- ( omv truf. 
IVtunia- dr-iTvo a phu i- to ihcni-rlw-; lluy arc -uri' lilc -.rs, 
will tolerate almo-t any lo< ation. e\ie|)t deii-e -hade or a >\\ . ii|); 

if ^"'1 i^ K I. lar^e llowers may lie expicted; if poor, hlooms 

will he smaller, hut they will api)ear, notwith-tandiiii,'. 




•.il|iit;l"~-i^. .Vi/.-'/v/.i. I, iiiKii'i 



SALPIGLOSSIS 

Sdlpiqldssi.s siiiiiiita. 
Cirrck fur lniin|i('l-t(iiimii'il; in rcffum c to the --hapc i.f llir -tiijiiKi. 

A strikiiii; annual; in ap|>earan(e reM-nihlinj,' a petunia, hut of laiicr 
growth and luiviiii,' an unu-ual rantje of color. Chili. Summer and 
late autumn. 



Slrm '!\v„ f,.,-! hi-b; hranrhin-. riid.y, v.\^^^ -landular hairs. 
/,r>,7-r.?. - .Alternate, variou.s, not ahundanl on the stems. 

v^7 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY 



< "/v.v. I'ul)ular, livciklt, luiirv. 
j>- Mu.lN ..«Ul.nK, ...iH's inv. p|,caU. .•.narKinal.-, full ..f n.r.ar a, .hc- 

...ii;::':n.a:i:■^sK;;-:-s:•;;:;::^ 

<>:w.v. OI.Iumk; Myic .sKm.I.t; Mi:,',na .lilalc-.l. 

Sal,,iKl.,>Ms a.,ra.ls at..n,in„ anyulxTc- luvauH- ..f ,1,.. rin, ..f 
-I<T prcxnu.! I,y tlu- N....,,,. Pur,,!., ,,,.,., r..!. vdlnu. ..ran... 
^'"•1 --.n, ,n lK.uil.|..n„,- . oml.i„a,i,.n., a„,l .hn, .a. I, ,1,,;.; 

a.-, uhn, >Ik. plant ua> tirM inlnHhue,!. ^ikvu. w.r.. >.■, a,.arl 

'MM., u. .„.,„,.,, ,,„„^.. l,m,lu.....,f.,,„.,,|.,,,,H.n,,i^n,u, 

Na |„«|n»,. „ ea^y ..f c ul.iva.in„, h|.,um. in nuMMinun.r an-i ,.„ 

-"•" late auumn. TIr. ,,lanl> >huul.l !,. ^nmn in ma».., a. the 

''arc stuns make a single individual l..uk wcclv. 



NICOTIANA 

A'iinliaiid iit,)l,i, 

i"'iKt' ot li)l)an(). 

One of , Ik- iK.t Kurclcn si,crics of Karda, Xico/ia,,,,, cail.d l.n.h „/„/,, 

•^•, uhnlar. ra.ram tlowers which o,.„ ,...,„, .,,,,,, „:, ,.„ ; 
■""^' i-.UKh the n.Kh., closing after sunrise. Kn.ire plant n,ore or 
less puhesa^nt. JJKn.ms until winter. 

■SVr;;,. .S|..nder, strong', vi.scid pubescent, three feet hi«h 

J-lourrs Remote, in a wand like rur.w whin- . .k- r ' r.-> -.u 
slender tube three inches long. -n-, \.nu., .alv.r-:unn, -.vuh 

388 



IflCOTIANA 

(':ilyy. Diiwiiy, (uluilar, sl^itly swollni, fivi'-ant'!' '1, in,' |,.<,iliril; 
tftlli >ltiii|tr ami |Hiiiuii|. 

i'ornlltt. Salvtr ■>lia|H'(|; Ihirilcr nI)li(|Uf, I'm |.>Im(|, ululi , tu.i imlu , 
or nmrc airii->s. 'lulu- ilint- iiulu?i Imi^;, .^Icmlir, wliiti or ltxim^Ii 
mit-.i(li', |iiiln>tiiil. 

St.tmins. I JM' inxricd on tin- tiihc; aiilluTs ap|H ariiii; M ihc ihro:i! 
Oviiry. ( ildoii^; >iyli' sKiidi r; >lij,'nia lapilatf. 
.SVn/v. Miiuilf. 



Xhnlliihi iilila i> a iIiMTVfdly i)ii|uilar plant of f,i-\ ( uluiir 
ami iKMiitilul hlooiii. Ii luar^ [iiiri-uliiii', --lar -li.i|>((l, Inhiilai" 
tlowcr* ulioM' l)i-aiil\ i^ nut apiiannt hy day, a- iIk \ arc iioi ,il tlin'r 
Ik-I until till' >un i^ on ilii- \vani\ |{\ da\ a lilouniin^ plani i.> a 
<li>iHartiiud, d i>hL'\ I'lii-d, 
iiidia|)|>y-|iiukini,' t ri'alurr; 
tlu- ( oniiiii; h|o--onw at mid- 
day an- urcfM i^li yellow, 
llac 1 id, droopinii, and ini- 
niatiirt', Kut a-^ iiijihtlall a|>- 
pioat In-, t liii r an it iide 
( lian!4i'>; tlu'\ 1k'( uiiie whilt', 
>tiri', aKrt, (.xih-c tant, and 
|)ouf forth a wealtli of fra- 
<^rann' upon the fVininj,' air, 

from 1)11.1- tluil kii|p 
'I'hcii iidiir 1.1 (luin-i-hi-^ all d.iv, 
iiul \vhcn ihr .uiili^;lil dii-away 
I.rl lllr iKlii ii.u^ M'( n! .Hit 
Til r\i-rv lircivc lli.u mams alxiut. 

. _ \'iiiiti;ina. ,\ i. oli.in.i <ihi:,i 

riic imlividual lilo--i)m has 
till' |iur( -whiti' and -omothin.^ of the ])oi-i- of .WirdsMis purliiiis. 

Xicoiiana pu~-i>M> two uni'\|K( tiii <|ualitirs. The liloomin.t,' 
stalks arc adniiralik' a> cut llowtr-; tlioy >h.>ui(l in- j,'ailiirnl l)v 
day and kipl in an aluindancc of frc-li water; evcr\ liud will oj.en 
in tinu', and, ( uriou-ly enou^'h, will remain open all da\ if retnoveil 
from direei >un>hine. 

'J'lie ^ciond une\peete<i virtue i> it- value as a winter liou>e- 

3^9 




NIGHTSHADE FAMILY 



I'lant. It mu>t have r....m an<l mu>t l.c fcl. |,„t, pya, Husp con- 
•litions, It l.|,,„ms all winlcr and is sujiiTi) at iiif^ln. 

( )f oiluT .\,\ ntianas the .S,„„imr l,yl,ri,l> arc- an c-xcdlnit tviR- „f 
•lay l,I..omin« Howers in -roal variHy ..f .•,,!nr>; and Xiroti,,,,,, 
syhrslns k-vcs a «u.kI aco.unt ..f ir^df. A uril ^^nun >|h. in.en uf 
A irolMwi toluinwi, the onim-.n Ik'ld l.-hacm, i> ,n„>i >ali>facl..ry 
wlierc a stntini'i or pillar-planl i> di'sirrd. 



DATURA. TRUMPET-FLOWER. HORN OF PLENTY 

/>iitiir,i J.!slii,;s„ |i,,ri. (iirnimifii,,. 
/hiliirii, Aiahir name of dlixurc rncMniiii'. 

'I'he Pulim, onnuopia has lurn kn,,\vn in Ani..n\an gardens sinn- 
i.S<,5, when It was found in South Amcriai hv an orchi.i n.jk.ctor of il,.. 
Inucd States Xursory C-ompany, and by ihnn uiddv distril,Mt.,! 
Annual. .Midsiimmcr. 

Slim. Two to five ftrt lii},'h. 

I.r.nrs. ( )val.-lann-olatc, unr<|ual at base, toothed or wavy 
l-hu'crs ■IVum,K.t-sha|H.d, six to sewn inches Ion-, often two or 
threi' well dclnied trumpets, <M,e within another. 
Calyx. I'ive lolud. 

mo^nSued" tSl:"^"^' ^'■■""«'^' "'^''^■•' '" •"^- '""'' -•' -"^ ^-- - 
Staiiioi.s. Five. 

Ovary. Ciobular; style .slender; .stigma two-lohed. 
I'oil. (Jlobular, prickly; seeds lari,'e and Hat. 

Hotaniealiy the Daturas of the garden are .onfused, hut horti- 
< ulturally there is very little doul.t al.out them. Th.-v are tropi 
' al plants that can l,e sn.ressfully treated as annual>. The si^e of 
.he llower tiiakc-s them interc-^linK and espe. iaih thc-ir aptitude in 
(InuhlmK. Sotm.tim.-s one long tube tits into another until there 
are three, the inner one being the longer; sonietimes the ot.ter 
trumj.et .s simply nUed with a .•onfu>e.l ma>s nf petalage The 
Datura naturalize.! with u> i> the rank weed known as the |im- 
son Weed, Dohini stramomiim. V\nm the return of the set'tlers 

,S90 



DATURA 




Dalura. Diiliirn iuslKosii var. ioruiubpia 



'?! 



1 1 




NIGHTSHADE FAMILY 

t(. the deserted foundations of Jamestown, in 1609, Captain John 
Smith reported the presence there of this weed, which doubtless 
came m ballast, or at least surreptitiously. The plant is un- 
questionably Asiatic and the books 
refer its wide distribution to the 
Kyi)sies, as it has been a favorite 
medicine of theirs for ages; at least, 
that indicates one path by which it 
might have reached its world-wide 
dissemination. 

BROWALLIA 

Brou'dllia dcmissa. BrowdUia elata. 

Naim-d in honor of Dr. John 
Browall, a friend of Linna-us. 

An annual South American plant, 
one to two feet high, blooming abun- 
dantly in midsummer. 

Stem- Evcct, branching, bushy 
Amr.9. -Alternate, usually ovat-.-; margin entire, often variable. 

Hiru'ers. In loose racemose clusters, terminal or a.xillary blue with 
white centre, somewhat irregular. iMnary, oiut with 

Crt/y.v.— Tubular, fivc-t(K)thcd. 

rw)//rt.-Salver-shai)ed; tube an inch long, slightly swollen at the 
throat; border of (^^■,, broad, notched lobes. ^ 

thffXr"""^'""''' '" ^''''■'' '""'"'^"'^ ''•""■" ''•" *'^™^*' ^"'l '"^'rted on 
Ch.,/ry.-Two-celled; style slender; stigma a small, flattened head. 

Urowallia is a plant of midsummer bloom; its abundant (lowers, 
held up on terminal and axillary stems above the mass of f.Iiage 
beneath, give a blue shimmer over the bed through all the long 
hot days of August. 

The individual blossom J. slightly irregular, looks as if it had 
started to be two-lipped, but had thought better of it; the best 
forms are of a brilliant violet-blue, with a dash of white at 
centre. 



Hrurtallia. nrim;Ulia demlssa 



HM 



MATRIMONY VINE 

The plant was named by Linnaeus in honor of Dr. John Hrowall. 
While the two were friends it was Brou'nUk ehila, l)Ut after they 
quarrelled, Linna-us changed it to Broivallia demisso, the name it 
still bears in the books. 



h 

6 



i 



MATRIMONY VINE 

Lyciitm vulgare. 
Lycium, from Lyoia, the home of the type. 

A somewhat spiny shrub, with lonR, slender, climbinR or trailing 
branches, often trained uix>n a wall or r.p<jn the si<le of the hou.sc-. 
Western Asia. Summer and autumn. 

5/cm.— Spiny; branches weak, long, slen- 
der, recurved or climbing. 

/,e<2T«.— Small, alternate, oblong or ol..- 
vate, entire, commonly with smaller ones clus- 
tered in their axils. 

F/rtU'm.— Pale-purple, solitary or clustered 
in the a.xils, fading to dull yellow. 

Ca/y.v.— Bell-shaped, three to five-lobed, 
persistent. 

Coro/Za.— Funnel-form, spreading, pale 
purple aging to yellow, four or five-lobed. 

Statnens— Five, exserted. 

Ch'dry.— Two-celled; style thread-like; stig- 
ma capitate. 

Fruit.— Oval berry, orange-red. 

The Matrimony Vine has neither ten- 
drils nor twining habit, but when trained 
to supports on a veranda or house wall, 
the effect is go(xl. The common name is suggested by the flowers 
in the axils of the leaves growing side by side. The fruit is very 
decorative in autumn. 

Lvciiim lUinense, a recent accjuisition of our gardens, is desira- 
ble because of its larger scarlet berries. 




.NLitrimiiny \ inc. I.yiium 
■iiilitiire 



393 



NIGHTSHADE FAMTTv 



BUTTERFLY FLOWERS 



■'^>liiz,i„il,„s piiniutns. 



^I''"t corolla. 



•■\n annual IrtI) uitli :. ,.1,. ,.,„ . 
horticultural vane,u.s. cl'li ui^jLi^'^'^- ^■"^''"'''•. -<'' many 

'''^•'■'"""«- l«Hc.-p„,nalc or partal ,ni„ „,,,,„,^, 

/•Wrrv. In type vi„lc., „r lilac 

The liutter/lv Flower, -.re -.11 ,1 • . . 

-'"-only found in ,anl / t'T V^ """''"'^ '^ "^ - 
"I'l- 'ip paler, i,. t^MCI ,,, '"";'^ '''' '^ ^-^'^'^ <- lila., tl,. 

;-' ^i>-.d .,., purple';;;- ^^:;!;; >-^'"-^- '''-■" - '-e, 

from pure-white to dark-nun.l.. .'l " ' ''"■''^'"■^•^ '"""K^' 

various markings T ' ' ' """""^'^ ^"''^■' and rose, with 

the plant. ■'"'' ^'"•"'•"- -"~''derecl in pladng 



TOMATO 



f-yr^'Prrsian,, esa,/n,„o„ ^■ar. r,/^.;,,^ 
I-ycnpersinu„, u„lf.pea, h; pn,ha!,lv ,n .11,, • 



The n 



' nc common garden Tomato of V.r,h » • 
''- ;; -hivation treated as a 7 ,^ " ".""T^'' J'^-'-'^b" Perennial, 
P^-cuhar and characteristic odor ''■•■ '" ^'■"■^'; "^^rked by a 

394 



-. ijM ■'JV-is^ttssr-) 



BUTTERFLY FLOWER 




Buttcrny Flower. ScliizdHtliiis piunatus 



X^¥^M.^- 



NIGHTSHADE FAMILY 



Stem.- Spreadiiii-, stra«Klin«, hairv, loafv. 

Kardni forms. I.ialk-ts of (lil7,.n.nt .i. '"'"'"' ^-lOini; m rlnTcTint 
or less notched or iXd. '" '"'' '''^''"^' """" '^■^'"'•'•^ '""re 

axS- "• '^""^^■' ''''■''''' '"•"- '" ^--"— i A-r^in. racnu., 
r,;/v.v. Of r,ve to six sepals, persistent in fruit 
Cjolla. Rotate, yellow, border five to six-iolH-.l, pliea.e-valvate 

^|rs.J^i;-''Sinr.:Sy 

/•/•«//. -A many-seede<l herry -the ganlen tomato, re.l or yell'u-. 

The primitive fortn of our ^anlen Tomato i. a pla.u native to ,lu- 

western side of South America. 
It has jjeen under < ullivation at 
It'ast three hundred years; two 
lumdred years ago ho'tl, red and 
yellow varieties were known. 
-\'<'twithstan(lin-ihi>lon-p,.n,H|, 
tl'c great development of the To-' 
mato o( rurred in the last half of 
the nineteenth cenliirv, giving 
ri>e to the present garden race" 
Inasmuch as all the elTorts of the 
^'ardeners have heen directed 
touani the development and the 
improvement of the fruit, what 

'-'-ofthep.an,,inthe,lower'IXfi:;:T"'"' '\ "" 
permitted rather than sought. ' "'" ''''''^ ^"^•' 

Consiclerahle variation I the leaves marks the dilTe^ent men. 
lers ol the garden race, hut the llowers have varie.l li , ■ f 
the Tir miiivr. TU- t II , \ariL(i litlie troni 

nil prmiitnt. This follows the solanum tvDe- th.. f,.-. 

conical t t , , : '"■-; -^"'-7--" together n.ake ,he 

•■MfK cenl.e, and out oi ,i,e aperture at the summit 




C^inlrn T,„nato. /,v,,.^^^/, »,., ;,,/,,i,. 



'. .1 .ii^'cr-J 



POTATO 

l.rntrudi- tlic tiny urcrn -lyli- with its .ur.rii -ti'^malic lirail, -ur- 
niiindol l.y llic >i.r-'a(linii tip- ..f tlic anlluT-. Tlu' trat,'ran.v nf 
liir k'avt> i- markol ami c iiarai liri-tii . 



I 



mifjlil 



POTATO 

Sul'lillini tiihiri'siiiii. 

Hdol. I'roiluccs suhttTraiuan Mcnis wliidi Inar tiihiTs. 

Slciit. Hrancliiiii,', sonu'wlial (Ifnimlniil. 

I.f.nrs. I'innatil'iil, uiui|iially and intcrriiplcdiy. 

l-'ldurrs. IJoriu- in loose panicles, while or jiink. 

Cilyx. iMve-ik-t't, hairy. 

Corollit. Rotate, tuhe short, l.ord.r with live siiallow lolies, more or 
less i;alhered or frilled. 

Shimcns. I'ive, set dosely at the throat of the (ornlla; anthers coniinj^ 
together, makin.i,' a cone. 

()v<irv. Twoielled; .style sliorl; slii^ina eai)ilale. 

hriiil. A berry. 

If ilu- potato were not sucli a cummon field plant wc 
sonu'limes j^'atlier it> llower-, for in early 
summer the I'otato field is dolled over 
with elu-ter> of beautiful yolden- 
eentred while stars. The story j^ot s 
thai the Potato was rejei le<l with 
srorn in I'rance, until Louis X\' nconi- 
mended it l>v wearini^ amidst iiis i ourl- 
ii'r-- a i)oU(jUi't of its llowers. 

'I'lie iionomie value of the |ilant lies 
in its peeuliar haliil of develojiinj^ slen- 
der whi'e underground Mei.is wiiich 
^raduallv >wr]l at liie free end and i)ro- 
duce the IuIk ■> with which we are >o 
familiar. Tiie stem nature of the^e lu- 
I)ers is made evident liy the develo]imenl of eyes or leaf 
I'Vw !)lanls pos-ess this remarkalile j)()wer, and the 
possesses it to the hij^hest degree of any plant known, 

397 




I'.it.ii 



.S: l.tmiin !iihit<)'Um 



I,U(|S. 

Potato 



WIGHTSHADE FAMILY 

The I'o,a.o wa. <I..u.ln,H-,| l.y ,he al.oriKhu.s of South Amc-nVa- 
iu' Span.anl. nM u„h i, ,)rM in .lu- m.i«hl.orho,.l of , ,ui,o ulu' J 

.. was a,l„va.. l.y ,he native. an<l an important artVk- :. 

amon, t .m. ,t wa. found dscwhcre, was sent .irst to S,L 
.nma..Uswayu.o,.:n,^^^^^^^ 

"H . a>lv fo.Kl of a larKc- portion of the human nur. Th. ,.■ tul.c-r. 

j'-.lu.on^<.,hl.lcpartofth.plant; the leaves, fruit, an V,:: 
inuls .huh .pru,« fron, the eyes of the tuber contain solaLcl 
poisonous >ul.stance. """n, a 



NIGHTSHADE. BLUE BINDWEED 



Sii/i'niiini (/n/(iii>!,'ini. 

luiiuiif,, iJi rLlirciuc lo the Ix.imiiious ( h; 
gi-nus. 



^-^ 



ira( tir of ihu 




N'iKlll-ll;i.l,-. 



S ■1,'inum ilutiiiiih'im 



A perennial vine ^n waste j.laees, moist hanks, and around dwellinus 
Naluraiued irom JAin.i,,.. Summ, r. "" "wui.nKS. 

Stem. CiimhinK an.l straKjrIinjr, woodv at base. 

l-ravcs. Ovate or ha-^iatc in tiiKlJi- 

threcd<,lx.l.,. three-parted -ithtlw ''i ' "'" "^ ^"""•"'^•, ^'nlire, 
parttu, \Mth the terminal segment much the laruest 



398 



NIGHTSHADE 



rioiirrs. Mlur, iiurjilc, or whilf, Ixinu' in fomixmnd <ymi\s. 

I'iilw. lull sliaiHil; inhis slicirl, nhtUM', |MrM>unt ul the base of 
llir hrrry. 

Cornlld. KdUiti', t'ivi-l<il)cil; IoIks trian;;iihir iaiuvniak'. 

Slamnis. liw, iiiMrtcii i>n tlii' throat of the idmlla; antluTsolilon^;, 
^rown tojjiilur into ii com- an.i disi liarjiin^ ]H)llLn \i\ a lirminal o|Knini;. 

(hi/rv. Two-tvlltd; slyli' >liii(kr, |irotrii(lin« from llic anlliir amc; 
stij^nia small. 

J-riiil. ( )val or glohosf hrrry, nd, shining. 

This is llu- crraiu vine >n often found ahoul dwelling's whose 
pretty hliie hiossoms and shinin>{ red berries are so attractive to 
children. The lierries are so jjretty that it seems as if they oiijiht 
1,1 hr >{ood to eat, and i liiidren are warned witli many ri'|ietitions 
that thev are poisonous. 



Oilier species of Sohiiiarac are: 

Three species of the Cup-tlower, Xirrcnilx'rf^li, all excellent 
for Use in han^inj? l)askets and veranda jtordies. Their name 
i> a tribute to the name and virtues of John 1'.. Nieremberj^ 
(1400-1563), a Spanish Jesuit, and first ])rofessor of natural lii:<- 
tory at .Madrid. They are i)erennials from .South .\merica. 
do.-elv allied to the petunia and characterized by the loiif,' and 
very slender tube of the corolla. Pos^-'blv Xicre))thcr,iii>i ^irdiilis, 
l)earint,' white flowers with ])urple ;.. 1^, ... the favorite. 'I'his 
has varied into several garden form-. The two other species are 
fnitescciis and rhuliiris. 

The Ciround Cherry, I'hysalis nlkek'ni^i, sometimes called the 
Strawberry Tomato, is an old <,'arden ;)lant f^rowp for its brij;lit- 
red inflated calyx, which surrounds the cherry-like fruit. It is 
jierennial, t)Ut thrown at tlie north as an annual. The variety 
Fniiiiluti called the Chinese Lantern Tlant, has a larger and 
more showv calyx. The species is native from south -eaMern 
Europe to Japan. The flowers are of the solanum type. 

Among plants of economic value is the Red Pepper, Ciipsicum 
dnmnim, native of Chili, cultivated for the large or small, oblong or 

3f»9 



WIGHTSHADE FA Mffv 

'"t" many Kank-n f..rms. Ha. \am.,| 

Solauiiiu nicloHi'aui var csni/rn/,,,,, ; ,i 

".".c , , us fr,™ l,„|,,. scu-n, v.ricnW ar,. i„ ■ , „„ " ''" 

Jerusalem tVrry, .S„«,„„„ A„.,i,,„., „,„■„„„ j^ 1„, , 

::i':;; :;"„:;? ^'»"-;'' ■"'"--' '- .'« :..:,:,•. 

::r:::;:-/rr'r;:::L:;;r-~ 

"I'l-nK an.' niiir., the small white, -arrv llnw.-r V 
small lateral dusters r. I, • • '"'"'"■> '"" '" 

Clusters. It has saried int., several garden furms. 



400 



SCKOPIin AKIACi: 1{ MCIWOKT FAMILY 

'I'lii- I'i^'wiirt- arc IutI.- with irrcmil.ir, miumIn- tun li|i|ii.(l 
tlowiT-; >t;mu-n- tun to I'inc, I. hi umi,iI1\ I'mir in t\\u pair-, and 
iiiMTtcd 1)11 tlic ( nrnlla tiilic. 'I'lu- ii\ar\ i> two < lilcil, iniiiy- 
.scfdnl, witli a ^iii^k- >[\\v and a lun l.ilicd -tiiima. Main dl" ilu' 
llowtT^ look llkr I.al)iali~, Im! may ai\\a\-> In- (ll-lini;ui'lud li\- 
tlio ovary wliiili, in tlu- i-mirc l.al^ialr l"aiiiil\, i- difplv fcur- 
Iol.c(l. 

SNAPDRAGON. ANTIRRHINUM 

. \iilirrhhiliiii ni,i ins. 
Aiilirrhiiniw, (Iriik, like a -.ii.iul; I'r.mi tin- -liapf ..f t'lr (unilla. 

I'lTtiiniai, liut usually hitiinial umlcr i iilli\aliiiii; nali\f in ilic n^ions 
al)i)Ut till' Mi'diiiTraiH'an. lias csiajnil fnmi j^ardiiis in tin- Atlantic 
States. June Id S(.,,i j.il)er. 

Slews. One to three feet liii^'h, l)rancluil. 

/.Ctnr.s. Alternate, cihloiii; or lanndlalr, entire, sunntinns varic ^^ated. 
J-'lourr.'i. I,ar>;e, in variety nj" colors, home in erect terminal racemes. 
Cdly.y. I'ive-|)arted. 

(.'orolla. Tuhular, saccate at hase, ( lo.sed at the thmai i.v •. iirojeclin}^ 
I)alate; t\vo-li])|)e(l with spreailin;,', irre;;ular lohe.s. 
Stttmrus. l''oiir. 
Ovary. Two-ielled; stvie one. 
Cap.'^ith'. Man\ seeded. 

Tiie cultivited Siiapdra.noii i> an intere>tini; |i!ant that has 
beeii improved ami petted and coaxed and hullied until it has 
become '. irluaily one .1,'real lloverin^ stalk thickly set with blos- 
soms, whose dropsical bodies and swollen throats have little charm 

401 



-L'.k^tc 



■:"r«:> "t: 



FIG WORT F\mILY 







N 



^ 



''■V . 



sfparatfly, !>' i ;4rnii|i> in ma-> i^ivc tiiu' hank- "i <i.Iiii; nil-, 
yt'lliiu-, and !tii 

The (Drulla i- < lipiKil, an<l llic < la-lit funi' with \\liic li ilic 

juwir iiji 1 In-c- .iixl III- iipiin ilii- 
I u|i|KT i- -iir|iri-iM|,'. 'I'lii Mf tar 

I all i- tn llir lirf. ami liu inr n 
^-pnnd-. She alij;lil- nii iii,' juwrr 
^':^' i rr} ''I'- '"''' ^^''iii'i' "I't'ii- ihi ni"iilii; 
''SP\ -i^SS^ ^'^ '. F hiililcn I'nr a ninmcni -In- cmrrirr- 

iii nrt lar ami > ■ 'Nffcd \v iili 
'.illcn, nnl) l<( jilunui' iiitu tin ni-\t 
■• fky\ 'm'vi r. 

'/'*^. Maurandia, .\iilirrli)i!iiiii niiii- 

s/^ rdiiiHo'idi^, i- a \iiu' wliiili i iiitih- 

l)\ mean- ul" li- (oiling |i«'liiil(- .iinl 

pidinii U'-; and licar- |ircti\. -nap 

„i,,„,,„.ii„i.i,, (Ira^nn, vimIcI tlnwcr- in the a\il- 

nf ihc haiiicrd -hajH'il, ihrti' Inlnd 

Ira\<'-. It-- -pr^iy^ nfirn >\\ay finni window lioxc- and lui-ktir. 

wlu'iT it lind- a -iininiiT hnmc. 



TOAD-FLAX. BUTTER-AND-EGGS. RAMSTEAD WEED 

l.iiii'iriii itilc'iris. 

I-Voni l.iiriii!. ll,i\. \\!iiih llu- lca\c-.iif >■ -nw -pci ic- rc~cmMi'. 

A [irri'ninal iurl), nnw rcnankd as a wt't<l, niic In ilirtc fitt lii^li, witii 
j,'ray jiri'cii Kavi's and yrlinw iIouits in a tirminal racenn.'. luirnjR', 

l-l<>u'crinL; slnii. < )ne to ihrco fi'i t liii^l). 

/.i-dvrs. Alicrnatt', iiumcroiis, linear, ^ray-Krci'ii. 

Flimrrs. ^ fllow and oran^i' in a icrtiiinal raienic. 

C'dlyx. I'ivi'partcd. 

Corolld. Tiihvilar, 'Spurred, tw(>-li|)pfd, palate nearly dosini^ tiiniat. 

Stdmrns. I lur, 

O'iiity. Twu-iiiliii; tapsuk upininf; inluw the .summii Ly tuo puitj,. 

Seeds. —yiany, winged. 

402 



tr\*m ^ 'J- 



■SSf^ffP 



m^'mmm'm^mm 



SNAPDRAGON 




Snajxlraj^oii. Antirrli)ni'»i miijus 



r^.s . ,'j ««r 



>->>.n-, ,■ iii: 



^?^* 






FIGWORT FAMILY 



A well-known and licaiitiful outcast from the f^ardrn. Doubt- 
less it would have < omo to u> al any rate, liut the story }^oe> that 
Mr. Ramstead, living in tlie sul)uri)s of I'hiladel])liia, introduced 
the plant into his garden. Xo one would have ohjei ted had it 
stayed there, iiut that it would not do; it crawled 
under the fence and visited his neighi)ors who 
were market gardeners, and the outcome of tlie 
vi>ils was that the jjlant received the name 
of Ramstead Weed. It is better known as 
Toad-llax and l{utter-and-I!ggs. 

A little plantation of Toad-lla.x is easily rec- 
ognized; one sees il as a ])atch of gray-green 
hy the roadside, which resolves itself into a 
hinly of eri'ct stems thickly beset with linear 
leaves. At the summit of each llowering stem 
is a spike of beautiful orange and yellow, 
s|)urred and two-li])])ed llowers. The tlower 
llame creeps up the stem slowly so that the 
blooming period is long extended. 

The blossoms appear in two forms: one, the 
common two-li])|)ed variety, and the other not 
so common, in which the corolla has live s])urs, 
is regularly five-lobed, and is then said to be 
in the ])el()ria state. Hy ])el()ria state i> meant 
the condition in which a ])lant, that normally 
produces irregular flowers, ]»nKluces regular ones. The earliest 
recorded observation of such a condition was made by Linna'us 
and upon our wandering Toad-llax. Sometime'^ there are a few 
such in a llowering s])ike; sometimes an entire stem bears only 
regular I'lve-spurrcd blossoms. 




Toad Mux. Ihuiriit 
lulgt'iris 



404 



BLUE-EYED MARY 



\i 



BLUE-EYED MARY 

( 'olliiisia vtriui. 
Naim-.I in honor of Zacdicus Collins, a rhi:a<!il|.hiii Inaanist; 

A slender biennial lierh with blue and while llowers, in umhel-Iike 
clusters, whorled in the axils of the ui)|)er leaves. Found in moist soil 
from Ontario, through New York and Ohio, to Iowa, and southward. 
April to June. 

.SVfw.- Slender, si.x to ten inches high. 

Leaves. Ovate; the upj)er ovate-lanreolate, clas{>ing hv the heart- 
sliaiH.- ba.se, toothed. 

Flirwers. Irregular, blue and wliite, borne on long ])eduncles about 
si.x in a whorl. ' 

Calyx. Deeply five-clcft. 

CVw/m.-- Declined; two-lipi)cd; upper lip Iwo-cleft, iis lobes partiv 
turned backward. The middle lobe of the lower lij) sae-like and enclos- 
ing the declined .stamens. 

Sl,imcns.- Vom; I' 1 stamen gland-like; style single. 
Capsule, -y Ian y-seeded . 

In northern Ohio the beautiful Collinsia is a flower of Mav. 
It is not abundant, indeed, may he considered rare; now and 
then it is transferred to the garden where, in a moist and sheltered 
location, it does well. The garden Collinsia is the si)ecies hieolor 
from California which greatly resembles vmia, and is in some re- 
spects a better plant because the flowers have shorter peduncles. 

FOXGLOVE. DIGITALIS 

l>i,!;!li)h's purpurea. 

nif;ila/is, Latin, di\q!tus, a finger; because the flower is something 
like a tliimble in slia|)e. 

A biennial, .sometimes jjcrennial; native to central Kurope; cultivated 
both for ornament and for medicinal u.se. June to September. 

I'hweri„,t^-slalk.— Erect, two to five fiet high, rising from masses of 
radical leaves. 

40s 



I U 



r» ■"■ 



FIGWORT FAMILY 

Radii, il Innrs. Ovate, crowded; stem I.aves alternate, oblong-ovate, 
roii},di, downy. 

l-liiurrs. Drooping;, lul)iilar, in densi- terminal one-sided spikes. 

Calyx. Four-parted, the iip|)er sef^ment the smallest. 

Corolla. .\ droo|)inj,' hell about two inches lonj,'; more or le.ss in- 
llated tube with short, ob.scurely lobed border; ran^'inj,' Irom |)Ur|)le to 
while, more or less s|)otled within; throat bearded. 

Stamens. Four, in two pairs, inserted on the corolla-tube; filaments 
curved so as to brin.u the anthers together; mature before the .stigma. 

(h\iry. ('one-.sha|)ed, two-celled; style an inch or mure lonj;; 
slij.'ma two-del't. 

('i;/),s7(/c.— Two-ceiled, pyramidal; seeds numerous, small, ^ravish- 
brown. 

'I'he (larden Fo.xi^love is in the main the Common To-N-ilove 
< f central luirope imi)n)ved by cultivation and more or less Inb- 
ridized. The name r().\>,dove >eenis so inapproimate that much 
(|ue>tioning has arisen concerninj,' its ov'xgm. The best explanation 
i> that Fox-^love is a corruption of lolk-^dove which, of course, meant 
fairy jrjove and referred to the thimble-like sha|)e of the Howei. 
The specific name Dii^ilalis refers to the same characteristic. 

.\ well-.^rown Foxglove in full (lower is a plant of dignitv and 
beauty, admirably adapted for >hrubl)eries and woodland walks, 
harily and easily grown. The root is biennial or sometimes peren- 
nial, and the first year send- forth large tufted leaves; in the follow- 
ing summer a >ingle, erect, leafy stem arises, bearing at its summit 
a (len>ely llowering raceme of beautiful drooping bells. In this 
raceme the llowering impulse moves slowly ujjward, thus lengthen- 
ing the blooming jjcriod. The po-ition of the bells on the llower- 
ing axis is secund, that i>, all on one side; sometimes as manv as 
four rows strive to occupy the coign of vantage. This arrange- 
ment is more ai)i)areiit tlian real, the llowers reallv originate on 
all >i(les of the stem, but the peduncles somehow twist around 
>o that all seem to be on one side. A> the fruiting cap>ules ma- 
ture the |)eduncles take their natural position and a fruiting stem 
ha>its capsules on everv side. 

To understand what is doing of a summer day in fo.xglove-Iand 
one needs to watch the bees, whose contented buzzing as they 
gather the nectar stored in tiie bottom of each swollen bell, dis- 

406 



-^r^i- 



FOXGLOVE 



1 



m 
-i 




Foxglove. DiyJtaHs purpiirm 



[I i- 



FIGWORT FAMILY 

ai)i.earin« in tin- llnucry .Icptlis, ,.ut ajrain c.veml uitii pnlkn in 
aj-ain as thuy rcac li tlic next l,I..ss,.m, sli,.ws that thev arc scrvin- 
liic lloucr with great satisfaction to lliemselves. Xo doul.t thev 
tliini< they are attending stnVtiy to tlieir own husiness; im identally 
they are doing the world's work. 'I'h.' l,lo»om lias its own way of 
making its visitors useful. The hells hang one al.ove another, and 
we note that the side nearest the .stem is longer than the u'|.|kt 
side, thus making its central lohe an e.xeellent alighting i-latform. 
This is dotted with .sjx.ts and furnished with long hairs. The 
filaments of the stamens are curiously curved in order to l,ring the 
anthers into one plane; these hug together and the immature 
stigma is above them. When these anthers mature the pollen is 
just where the hack of the hec rubs it olt as >l,e crowds into the 
flower hell for the nectar secreted hy the smooth ridge at the ha.se 
of the ovary. After the anthers have passed, the stigma matures, 
!)ecomes two-cleft, and the parts diverge. It then practi.allv .k:- 
cupies the former positi.m of the anthers, and as the hlossom'con- 
tinues to secrete nectar, is ahle to seize hy means of its sticks >ur- 
faces some of the pollen which adheres to u hee's ha. k. 'J'here are 
on every stalk Howers in several stages of maturity. 

If, however, hees are scarce and the stigma has ohtained no 
l)ollen the hope of the race is not utterly wrecked, there is one 
chance left. The corolla clings tight until the stigma has matured, 
then begins to loosen and in time falls. In so doing the anthers 
are dragged over the stigma and it may he that some strav home 
pollen will adhere. 

The leaves of Foxglove yield to the m.i/rri,! ninimi a very im- 
portant drug calle.l digitalis, whose active principle is digiiaiin. 
It is used i)rincii)ally to affect the action of the heart. 

Dii;il,ilis, as it now appears in our gardens, runs the color range 
of white, lilac, purple, rose, and yellow; its llowcrv stalks are 
superb, and the eniire plant i> a magnificent .s|)ecimcn of tiie gar- 
dener's art. The structure of the llower lias not been bn.ken 
down. However one nion^lrous form has been developed which 
l)ears a large open llower at the top of ihe llower si)ike. There 
ale those who iou,-.idcr inis i;cautii'ui. 

408 



It 



CHELONE 

CHELONE. TURTLE HEAD 

( 'liclinie iihl'ujuii. 

Cltrliiiir. Cirivk, lorlciisc; referring i.. ilu- fcirn <,f ili,. i1,)U(t. 

A nativr iH-ri'iiiiiui 'jf wcsturn and south-wcstiTn ran,i;f,j,'n)\viii^' i-i wet 
I)ljia-s. July Si'picmlnr. 




("lu'lom-. Chilunc iiiii,ju,i 



■m 



ii 



n 






or 



>S'/f;«.--St<)Ut, one to two firt liitjh, ^rowinu in t liiiiips, l)ranrhinf,'. 

/.foxr.v. Opposite, l.road lancvohitc or ohlon^'. (Krpiv serrate acute 
acuminate. ' ' 

Flirwcrs- I)eei)-rose, sessile, in clusters at tlu> summit of the stem or 
HI the axils of the up])er leaves. 

Calyx Of five distinct, ()verlapi)in},' sepals, deeply five -parted, wiih 
bracts at ba.sc. 

Corolla. .\n inch long, tubular, intlated, concave underneath two- 
lipfjcd; lips only siightly open; upper lip arched, keeled in the m'iddle. 
nolcficd at apex, i)r».teciing i.lie stamens; liie lowtT woolly m the throat 
and three-lobed at the ajK-.x. middle lobe the smallest. 

4oy 



np 



il 



} i 



FIGWORT FAMILY 

SUimcHs and UHlliers four, wliitr, wuolly, in two jiairs, iiis.Ttc<! on 
curolla-tulH-. StiTile rihiiiH'iU smallrr and shorter than other-. 
(hiiry. Two-celled; style lon^;, slender, eurve<i; stij,'nia entire. 
Seeds. \\'iMj,'e(l. 

Both the (Ireek and tiic Iln^jlish names of this i)lant emijha-izo 
tlie distinctly rejuilian su>,'f,'esti(.n made \,y the d.rolla. The 
l)nise of the llower, the keeled upiK-r part, the inllated lip, and 
the small mouth, all produce a result that, if not stron;,' enoiij^h to 
liea resemhlance, is distinctly a siij^;,'estion. 

The common northern speiies, Clirloiir i^h'ihr,i, has the same 
turtle-headed corolla, hut white and delicately llushed with i)ink 
'" the li It Lends over many a runninj; stream and >ees itM-lf 

rellected in the water mirror of man\ a (juiet pond. 

TORENIA 

Tiirhiiii Jonnn'i ri. 

Toroiin. named in lionor of Olaf Tun-ii, ;i Swcdi-h I.ulanist. 

A low, mi(lsummer-l)l()oniin<,' annual, with llowers havini,' the jjoise 
and color of tricolor violets. Native to Cochin China. 

Stem- Si.x to twelve inches hi^di, s<|uare and slij;htly win>;e(l, hushy. 

Leaves. ()i)i)osite, cordate-lanceolate, crenate-serrate, an inch and a 
half lonj^. 

l-lourrs. A'iolet-bhie, funnel-shaped, .somewhat Iwo-lipped, in loose 
terminal or axillary few-llowered racemes. 

Cdyx. -Tubular, aiifjular, tive-winu'ed, and five-toothed. 

Corolla. A funnel-.shaped tube expanding into a four-|obe<! border; 
the upper erect, broad, notched or cut: the lateral and lower spreadinfj. 

Shimriix. Four in two jjairs; one pair rneetin-; in front of upper lobe- 
llu' other at the throat. ' 

(huiry. Oblont,'; style lon.u, slcn<ler. 

Capsule. Oblont;; seeds nunierou.s, small. 

Although Torcnia has been in cultivation over a hundred years, 
it is by no means as well known as it deserves. A tropical plant 
and at home a perennial, it must with us be treated as an annual. 
It is an August bloomer; the llowers on stiff stems have much of the 

410 



.W'-'^m^mtri 



PENSTEMON 



])()iso and all of tlic i nlur of violft lri( olor |)an>U'^; indt id in tlio 
(-'outli tin- plant i^ i uitivali'il a- a >ul»litiitf for tlir |)ai!>\. 'I'lic 
folia^f i> (lark grtrn and ahundant; tlu' llowcrs arc terminal and 
axillary. 'I'lu' < alyx i-> angular and winj^id. 
TIk' corolla-tuhe is o|)on and >lijiluly i urvi-d. 
a r.oft j^oldi-n tint at hax.' l>i'iomiiii; |)ai(' bliR- 
as it expands into a hroad liordiT. 'I'lu' 
u|)j)er lohe of the border i-^ pale-hlue, the 
lateral lobes dark violet-blue, and tiie lower 
middle lobe |)ale-bkie above, dark-\iiilei lie- 
low, with a dash of yellow in the middle. 

Looking direitly into the corolla one I'lnds 
against the glowing golden centre two ])ale- 
bhie stamens wliii h have ilasped hands at the 
mouth of the tube and hold between them 
the stigma. The llower is beautiful from 
whatever point of view it is observed The 
plant is tolerant of many conditions, will grow 
in sun or in shade and as it- habit i> bushv 
the plant-, if set about eight inches ajiart, 
will cover the ground. It is best treated in 
masses, as we treat ])ansies. \'arietie>, of course, are forming: 
dlki. called White Wings, ha> pure-white flowers; and i^raiulilidrti 
has very large ones. Did the florists think it worth while, the 
l>lant, doubtless, could be mule to vary as much a> the pansies. 




TiTfni.i. / ' '«■ 
i'l'iffiiitri 



PENSTEMON. BEARD TONGUE 

I'rusti mull (lii;il,'i/!s. 

Priistrmi'ir, (Irci-k tm- ii\c -lamciis, ;ill IInc liciiii,' prc-cnl in this 
P'lm-, ulicn-a- rclatfc! genera liavc only I'mir; diic hI" llic staniciis 
i- I ciMiniimlv -.Icrilc. 

Penstenion is a Nortli .\nierican genus of [lerennial herbs, containing 
about line hundred species. The flowers are tubular, often two-lipjicd, 
anii h---r:v in rh--n-y terminal racemes. '!"he stems uf a fi-w speiii-s are 
woo<ly at the ba.se. Pcnslcmoii ilj^ihilis is native to Pennsylvania and 
the Middle West. 

411 



(I 



%i'V'" ■ ij'iW 



^^mr. 



FIGWORT FAMILY 

■Sinn. Knn, l)raiir hcil from tlu' l.asc, two to four fiil IiIkIi 

and';;;;;.,. ;];:i;;;S' """' "• "^•^'^-'-•"■"'""^ --^"'■; "- "-ikt m-ssho 

C'lilyx. I'ivi'-toothcd. 

(WA, Whit. sliKhily tinsel will, ,,„r,,l.., tui.iilar, al.rui.tlv in- 
llmi.lH.l' "'"'" """'"' ''"'"l'l'^''i "I'l"'- "!• two-iol...,!, ,iu lovv.r 

M.imn,s. l-our (Iiriincl at tho l.asr. asun.lin^' al.ow; a llfil, ,!,,■ 
MiTilc- (ilamfnt, is JHardc.l. 

Ov.iry. -()l,|„n^r; stylr lonj; an.! thread liki; Mi-ma inlirc. 
/•>/«■/.- I'ointcd capsule, many seeded. 

The Canlt-n IVnstemoMs arc in tlie main (icrivativr, or hyl.ri<Is 
..f sovoral specie.. Chief oi ihoe are: J'rns/rwon harhatu. 
al,un(iant in Colorado, varying in color from lloli and pale-pink 
to carmine; rcishmon I/unur^i, or ,i;n,li:u,ohlrs, native to the 
mountam re-ions of Me.vico, with !ar«e dark-purple llower.- J>,„- 
slcmon au„p,uu,lal„s, also .M,..xican, rose-purple, loni; in .ultiJation ■ 
ncuslemou rohd;,, Krowin- on the prairies of kan.as and wistw ml 
Learing large hlo..som> varying in color from red.!i>h-p,irple t,'. 
white; Paislcmon unimi,uit,i,^arniln,s, and Pcstnmn <i,.'il.,lls 

1 he native Penstem.m of any I.Kalitv is worthv of a place in the 
liome garden. All the species hear showv llowJrs, and tiie plant 
takes kindly to cultivation. .\ few are Kastern, but the most 
iK-autituI arc on the Rocky .Mountains and in .Mexico, hrillimt 
and glowing beside every mountain trail an.I in ever\ uplan<l park 
The color range runs from white, through all the re<I>, to purple 
and violet-l.lue, an.I the blossoms under cultivation are likelv to 
.ncrease m size. Vellou appears --p some of the wil.l species 
so that It ,s only a matter of time when it, too, appear, in the 
garden forms. 



PENSTEMON 




Pcnslcmun. I'cnstimon digitalis 



FIGWORT FAMILY 



'( i 



LONG-LEAVED VERONICA 

Verdnkn Imiqi/ldra. 
An ixrcllHit rq)ros<.ntative of tin- sin.nK-Kr..wi„« and upright Wron- 
icas. Xaiivc f, wit li.ld.s ir) eastern Kun.jR. and wistrrn Asia. Sivcral 
vari.ti.s arc in cultivation. Perennial. July to Si-ptimhtr. 

S/rm. Upright, leafy, two and a half feet liiijli 
usually sni(K)th. ' 

/.cam. Lanceolate or ol)lon«-acuminate, 
sharply sirrale, acute, lower o|)|)osite, U|)iK-r more or 
less vertuillate, two and a half to four inches Innj,'. 

h'lourrs. \'io|et, varying in hvi)ri(lH to j.jue, 
borne in erect, dense, braclcd, simple or panicled 
spikes. 

Calyx. F()ur-j)arted. 

Corolla. Small, tubular, with four-Iobed border, 
the lowest Kibe narrower than the others; deep-lilac 
or blue. 

Stamens. —Tw), e.xscrtifl, one on each side of 
the upper lobe of the corolla; filaments blue. 
Oi'ary -Oblong; style thread-like. 
Capsule. Oblonj,', seeds several. 

This Eurojx'an, strong-growing, erect Ver- 
onica makes a fine border plant, for the densely 
llowcrcd racemes give an e.xtended hl(M)ming 
l)eri<xl. In the type the (lower color is violet, 
but in varieties it becomes an intense blue. 

Vcnmiai spuaUi, a very similar species hav- 
ing the same habitat except that it jjrefers hilly 
pastures in a sunny liR-ation, is also used as a border plant. 

When sj.ring is well under way our northern i)astures and 
meadows are full of the dainty flowers of St. W-roniia. known 
as the Speedwells; delicate creeping plants a few inches high, 
bearing pale-blue or white almost circular blossoms, perhaps an 
eighth of an inch across, and marked with dark-blue lines. As 
they peer out from the green turf, one understands the reason 
for their ancient name. Bird's-eyes. Veronica percgrhia, the Wan- 
dering Speedwell, and Veronica serpyllifdlin, the Thyme-leaved 
Siieedwell, are two common s])etiis. 

414 




I.<inK Iiavid Wriinii.i. 
Vtrunica Ifmgi/ldra 



HlJBIAGE.K-MAnDFR FAMFIA 

GALIUM. BABY'S BREATH. BEDSTRAW 

(iil/illill )il('l/iii;i'. 

inlUlllll. the IKIIIK- Ml ,1 |,|am IllflUirMUtl l,y I )i, ,-,, , ,ri. Ic> a- ii-nl in 
I iirdlirifj; niilk. 

A specirs of H.dstraw whose .Icliratc and al)iinflanf nuwcrs arc iixrl 
lo linhien t'.n- licaviiuss o| otlur tlowrrs, in llir same way as ( lyji-upliila 
is usi'd. Kuroptan. May, lunc. 




Cinliuin. Ciliiim midliigo 



Stem. One to tlirir feet liij,'li, hraiuhinf,'. 
/..•<;:r.v. In wliorls of si\ or eight, ohovate to ohlong or li-u 
or less rough at the edges, always terminated by a little poin 
Floivcrs. Small, while, four-petioled. 
Calyx. Without teeth, coherent witii the ovary. 

(V('//<i.— Small, wheel-shaped, four-lohed; lobes pointed v 
bud. ' 

Stamens. —Ti)\XT, inserted on the tube of the corolla. 

Fruit.-Tw'm, separating into two one seeded cari)els. 

41S 



;ir, more 



ilvate in 



■i 



1 jl 



MADDER FAMI LY 

ASPERULA. CROSSWORT 

.ls/>rriil(t. 
Affierulii, ri>u(;hi>h, rt-fiTriiin Id tlu' leave'*. 

Sinn. S(|imre, lnw l)iH erect. 

/.rd-ics and leaf liki' stipules form a n'milar vvhorl at the joint of ilu- 
stem, in eij^hts, sixes, or fours. 

I'lowrrs. luhular, four-parted, lioney-l)earin^', Krou|K'd in cymes. 

Calyx. I-"our-t<M>ilH'<l. 

Corolii. Hell siiaiu'd or funnel formed; ixirder four lolied. 

Slanun.s. J'our; styles two, soniewliat united. 

The .\s|HTuIa> are a f^nmi) of Iut1)s of 
low stature ami delicate foliage, useful for 
Imrders and riKkeries in shaded piaies, hut 
no hetter than many of our native jdants. 
They hloom from .May to July. 

The white- llowered, perennial speiies, 
odoratti, tailed Sweet WcMKJruff, ha-< lonj; 
been used in F-uroiH- as a sweet herli. The 
dried leaves and llowers have the iKlor of 
new-mown hay, a fra>?rance that lasts for 
years, so that the jjlant is |)at ked amonj^ 
clean linen to impart its (xlor to the clothes. 
The (lermans call it Waldmeister and use 

I' it in the conccxlion t)f their May wine and 

summer drinks. 
Aspcrula orientalis is a hlue-llowercd 

.\s|xTula. .Xspiriila i • <• /■> ■ . 

orinitiiis annual species from C aucasus. whence it 

was brought into Kngland in 1867. It is a 
branching j)lant about twelve inches high, with lance-shaped, 
bristly leaves, eight in a whorl. The whorled leaves are charac- 
teristic of the .Aspcrulas as well af of the Galiums. 

No rejjresentatives of the genus are native to the United 
.States, and but one is adventive here, gdioldes, found in New 
England. 

416 




?«aVH/. 



TRUMPET FLOWER 



1 

J 




Trumpet Flower. Tecuma rad'icans 



BIGNONIAGE/E-BIGNONIA FAMILY 

TRUMPET FLOWER 

rt'i(i>iiii r(i(>'niuts. 
Trioiiiii, an ahriilf^nu-iu nf ilic Mcxii ;in ikuiic Teconiaoi liitl. 

A iitTiiinial, ornaniciUal, clinihinj,' shruli, nativi' in wrstiTii and south- 
wi'sR-rn United Stales; found in woodlands and tli'lds. July to Scp- 
tiniher. 

Sltiii. Woody, climhini; hy aerial rootlets. 

I.rdirs. ( >i)|)ositc, ])innate!y compound; teallits seven to eleven, oval 
to ovate-lanceolate, Ijilaleral, coarsely toothed, acuniinaie, aliout two 
inches lonj,'. 

l-lonrrs. Home in terminal clusters, orange-red, trumpet sha|)ed, 
with open spreading,' border; three to four inches lont; and an int li and a 
half across. 

Calyx. Thick, leathery, sli},'htly cur. • pale-yellow, five-toothed. 

Corolla. 'rrumi)et-sha|)e(l, border of l"i\e rounded lobes, tube veined 
within, nectar al)un(lant; end of bud five-angled, the lobes of border 
imbricate in bud. 

Slamriis." Four, in two jiairs, the fifth s'amen aborted; anthers large, 
ver.satile. 

O'i'i/M'.- Obloni;; style long, slender; stigma two-lobed. 

Capsule. - Witli flat, winged .seeds. 

Tlie TniniiH't Flower is a general utilit\ vine. It will iidorn a 
fence, cover a ])orcii, ciinib a post, >;nd supi)ly foliage and llowers 
to llie (lead tnitik of a tree. It climii> by mean- of aerial rootlets 
and tlie main -tem iiolds fa>t and tight, but the light sprav lloats 
free and the blooming clusters look out tt> tlie sunlight. The 
blossoms are fidl nf nectar and the iuiniming-hirds conic for it in 
numbers. 

418 



iPBHSHfiMPHHIMIIimilPP 



riT--,*« . ■*! 'Ht * T" «r." 



INCARVILLEA 

The entire plant has an interestinR one-sided tui.i. The ealvx 
has It, the corolla shows it, and the leallets are l.iiaieral -..ne hiif 
larger than the other." Xoi ,he lea>t of its virtues is 'the length 
..f the llowering season. The tei minal corxmh hegins to ..pcn its 
blossoms in June and it is late Septemher before the en.l is reached 
The plant is hardy, robu>t, and full-fojiaged. 



INCARVILLEA 



Iiiarvi/h-tt Dehivit 



I'll VI. 



Incan'illea, after Inc■ar^ilk., a Frouh J.s.ii, ,ni..i.,nary t,. China. 
Leaves. Pinnate, a foot long, forming a duster. 

Scape. ()ne to two feet high, la.arinK two to twelve lar^e eatalpa-like 
rose-i.urple llower.s, each two to three inches lonj- an.l fullv as wi.k 

Caly.x. Five-lohed. 
_ (><.//<,- Tubular with .spreading', five-lohe.l honlir; tube vellow 
mside and out; tw<. upper lol.fs are smaller than ti,e threJ lower ones. 

Stamens. Four, inserted on the corolla. 

Ovary. Two-celled; style long; stigma two-lipj.ed. 

Seeds. Winged. 

Incarvillea is a i)lant of generous proportions. Its leaves are 
large, its ll.nvers are large, and a well-grown plant needs so much 
room that it can never be a favorite in small gardens. It (lourishes 
m half shade, and, well placed, is elTective. 



Calampelis, or K,rrcmo,drpu.s .sedpcr, is an annual climber na- 
tive of southern South America; gn.wmg about ten feet hid, 
I he tlowers are somewhat tubular, orange-cojnred. and borne'in 
racemes. It clings by means of branched tendrils. 



419 






aganthacf:/e-aganthus family 



s i 



THUNBERGIA 

Tluinhrrf^id uliila. 

A [HTi'iinial tiimhiT ])niilu(inf< ahurdanl yt'llow and oranj,'!.' llowcrs 
Native of southtTii Africa. August. 

Slim. Clinihiiij^, s(juari', liairy. 

Lcnvcs. < )]>!) isiti', trianui'lar-ovali', iiaslalc, rt|iatnl tnoilKd, ron)<}\ 
[)ul)i.'sccm, lomi'iUosc hincalli; |)(.'tii>k's witigt-d 

I-lou'crs. Huff, ytlliiu, or orange, soiitarv 
on axillary |)i'dutuks. 

i'tilyx. Wry small, surrounded by two 
larj^f inflated bracts. 

Corolla. Trunipet-shaped, with a spread - 
ini; border; lube obli(iue, cidarj^'ed toward 
the throat; ixirder t'lvi'-lolied ; lot)es spread - 
inu, two a little smaller than the others. 
Interior of throat dark-purple, which, as it 
shows, makes a dark eye. 

Stamens. Four in two pairs, inserted on 
corolla-tube; anthers curiously frinjjed. 

Ovary. Two-celled, ^jlobular, tif)ped with 
a louK, flattened beak; style long, slender; 
stigma two-lobed. 

Capsule. Four-seeded. 

Thvinlicr^i.i. I limi'urfia ci/.j;,; 

Tlninhcrf^iii alalit is one of the j)Iants 
Jitroduced ihrnugh the effort^ of Thunbert;, the great collector 
of Japanese |)laiits in the firsi half of the nineteenth centurv. 

The species arc mostly tropical |)lants which tlourish with us in 
the greenhouse; but aliitu malics a good outdoor vine and is best 
treated as an annual as it llowers abtindantlv in late summer. 




420 



BEAR'S BREECH 



I 

I 



BEAR'S BREECH 

Ariiiitlui^ iiu'illis. 

Aniiilhiis, Orcrk, a ihom or >|Mnc'; ri'lVrririK i,. tl„. >|,inv ,alyx .,f 
some s|ic(iis. 

Lonrs. Mostly radical, two feet lon.t;; siniiat.lv piniiaiili.i 
floz.rnH^-slem. T^yn, throe to four tVc-t hii;!,, l.^arinu^ white- or n.sv 
llowcrs 111 loose splices. 

(Wv.v. Of lour unc(iual segments, two sides i.eini,' sniaiit r than the 
others. 

C'(w//i;. -Tubular with a single three-lol)ed lip. 
Sliinwns. I''()ur, two longer than the otluTs. 
(hiiry. Two-celled; .style thread-like. 
C"<//)i-«/f.— Two-celled, each cell containini; two seeds. 

Aoiiitliiis mollis was introdiut'cl into Knjjland from Italv nearly 
four hundred years a.tjo and has heen in cultivation there >inie that 
time; hut the i)lant is not common in thi> country and, all in all, 
i> more interestin-r than l.eautifiil. A sin<,'lf s|>ccimcn well placed 
nii-rht I.C vaiual.le, hut the foliajje needs si)a(e and the llowerin.!,' 
>|)ikes arc inharmonious with .softer vegetation. 



421 



CAPRIFOLIAGE^-HONEYSUGKLE FAMILY 



HONEYSUCKLE 

Lnnirera jiifii'niini. 

Liiiiiirr,!, in honor of Lonit/cr, a (Jcrnian naluralist and |ihvsi<ian; 

i5jS-i5,S(). 

A favoritf climbinj,' \\m- wi.h variahlf f(.lia;,'c and frau'rant rrcam- 
whitc, tul)ular llowcrs, ladiiif? to yellnv Ajipcars in sivcral },'ar(lcn 
variftii's: /Irxiti\s<i, diiniisis, IhiUiami, and uiirro nlidih'ila. 




lI'iTli VMIcklr. f.iin'htr,! ;,!/>, /H/'i a 

.9/f;H. — Lonf,', trailing or dimhini;. 

/.(unrs. ()i)p(.siu-, variable, sometimes varie^'ated, liall-i-vcT-;rfcn; 
generally ovale and hlunt, hut sometimes acute, m.)re or less liairy. 



HONEYSUCKLE 

riirwcrs. Axillary, in pairs <.n short ludiccis, iiiliular, cnani wliiir 
fudin;,' to yiilow, Ira.nram. 

Calyx. I'ive-todtliid, 

Corolla. 'I'ul)ular, (nu- and a liali \n two indus luni;, ( rtani-wliitf 
somi-linics i)uri)iish outside; iwu-lippfd, upper li|, a lonu, narrnw .strap- 
lower lip Ijroad with a l'i)ur-t.n)ilud Ixirdcr; teeth n-iindrd. 

Stamens. F'ise, with loni,' thread-like rilaniem>. 

Ovary. Two to three-celled. 

Fruit. A berrv. 



s 



The Jai)ancse Lonirera i> liie fragrant white hnnev>iu kle tiiat 
climbs ujxm our jioniies and over our wall-. '|he ll.,wer> apjiea.r 
in pairs, at first white, Init lade to a dull, pale ullow before they 
fall. At the north the leaves ju^t nii-> of ever^reiii, in a milder 
elimatethey attain it. 

Of other elimbin.u; s|)eries, \\ Ibine, /.oiii,,y.i prri. rviiiruiini, 

bearinj,' a dense head of very fra.u'rant white, red, or ncIIow llower>, 
is a favorite. So is I.onitrr.i caprifuHiim. wliirh ~onielinie> escapes 
from euitivation and has been dcM ribed a> an .\tr.eri( an >i)eeies. 
It is, however, native to middle I'.urope and western A>ia. 






I 
k 



TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE 

Ldiilcrrii sciiifii'r7'iirii<:. 

A native climhinj,' Lonieera, lon.i,' in eulilvalior,. Inarini,' orange- 
scarlet tiunipet-like (lowers ami connate leaves. 

.S>;;;. Ili^h-climbin,';. .glabrous, reachini,' t.ii to tlitirn feet, ever.n-een 
Southward. 

Lravrs. Oj.posite, oval to obloni.', the ujiper coniial.'; two t,, three 
inches lonj;. 

/•V,wm. Tubular, scarlet or oran,i,'e-scarlel in peduncled interrui,t<d 
S|)lkes. ' 

Caly.w Five-toothed. 

Corolla. -Tubular, slij,'htlv swolK^n, one anr' a hall" to two inches Ion- 
border tive-lobed; (leei)-re(l without. ycl|owi\li within. 
Slamni.'i. I'Im-, .style lonj;. 
I-'ruit.—.\ berry. 

423 




HOltEYSUCKLE FAMILY 

lAmueni sempcrvlrcns is a iK-autiful nativi- climljor with ti-rminul 
(lusters of lovely red llowtrs that look like tiny trumpets. Vn 
like the Japanese Uoneysuekle the border is obsiurelv, if at all, 
t\v()-lip|)e(l; the five lobes are alike. The leaves are opj)osite and 
the \i\)\Kr ones grow toj.;ether, making the stem look as if pushed 
through a large circular leaf. 







t24 



TRUMPET HONEYSUCKLE 



I 




rruni]Hl HuiifV^iukli'. l.on'irrrii scmprn'imis 



F< ~- 



VALERIANACFyE-VALERIAN FAMILY 

COMMON VALERIAN 

I 'ak-rii'uhi ('III (ill III is. 

Valrr„>i,i, A nic.lixval Latin nanii' .,f uncc-rlain origin. 

The Kui,.iMan Kardcn siKrics, pnuliuinu llu !m->licinal ValiTian root- 
also one- ol ihc dmractcrislic plants of ol.j j^ur.icns; is|Kriallv pri/cl 
for iIk' fraKrancu of its llowc-rs. (Irows in larKi^ clumps; an.) lu.'s'tMapol 
in Niw iMiKlaiul and the Middle Stales to nadsides and thickets 
I'erennial. .May, June. 

Stem. l-:rect, simple below, branching' above, two to four feet hij^h. 

Slcm-lcavrs Opposite pinnately compound; Icallets lanceolate or 
linear, toothed or notched. Radical leaves larger. 

Hourrs. Numerous, small, whitish, pinkish, or lavender, borne in 
terminal and axillary cymose-panieulate clusters, fra.tirant. 

Cilyx. Small, the limb of s.vera! plumose bristles, like a i)api,us 
uhKh are rolled up inward in llower, but unroll ami spread as the seed - 
like, one-celled fruit matures, 

CorolUi. Tubular or trun>pet-shaped, .small, five-toothed: tube 
.slightly .swollen at the iiase. 
Sliimcus. Three. 

Ovary. One-celled; .style two to threelobed. 
l-niil. \n akene. 



■.*-,■■ -1 






WlKK'ver, as a child, roamed in an old garden will rememiRT 
amon.n tlie stately perennials that adorned and dif^nilied the hn ad 
lentral walk, clumps of Wderian which held an honored place 
amonj; the tiKer-lilies and tin- perennial phloxes. .\i \W j^round 
was a cliim|) of finely cut foliaj,^- from which rose a number of 
erect stems, each crowned with a (infused and clustered mass of 
white <.r pale-lavender, which mas> upon inspection proved to he 
made up of a great many liny, tu!)ular (lowers. Tiie general 

4.>h 



f^'.w;--. :r 



■,if^-Vi 



r<<rjcirBiK^ 



■"l»*" ii¥;;iCVt'~"^ 



COMMON VALERIAN 



I 

a 

I 




("diiimon X'aKiiiin. I'lili riiuiii nffu iiudi^ 



VALERIAN FAMILY 



ff J 



clTni was pU-asiriK fnouuli, hut \\w diii .■ value of ilu' llowrr 
rlusliT lay in it> |Krfurm-. \<. I)uu(|utl >>\ Juiu' irum that >,'ar(li-n 
was rfally((.ni|)iit<, unless a spray or Iw.. of \aUrian addid it> 
fraKranti- to tin- Kcniral total. h,r that H'dnkn sint forth in 
its liou(|uets siKTinifns of many kind- (.f tlowtrs, ratlur than 
many individuals of one kind, \alcrian ha> htrn ni-Kkrtcl in 
nKKli-rn Kurdt-ns. I)ut the (lowers are of lite In'^innin^ to ap 
|)car in the shops as a tiller or l)a(kKround in wK-ath> of iiri^hter 
hlossoms. 

The Valerian of commerie i> mostly imported from l.uroiK-. 
though there is no reason why the plant >hould not he ( ultixatcd 
here. The medicinal pro|)iTty resides in a volatile oil whii ii i> 
abundant in the root. 

Red Valerian, Ccndnllitis rultr, is a comiiact hu-hy plant which 
in summer is covered with many crimson (lowers in thi«k duster, 
terminating leafy stalks. Foliage ^ray-Kreen. .\n attra. tive hor 
der plant. The name Jupiter's Ikanl servo to enipha>i/.e a 
iwculiar development of the calyx of all the Wderians. Hef^re 
the corolla falls the caly.x is rei)resented hy a mere thickened 
margin to the ovary, hut as the fruit matures this unrolls and 
shows itself to he a whorl of feathery ai)pendaKe'.. .Apparently 
this is a very large name for a very small thing. 



42S 



■*i«-]?05KS'*»..^ 



iT'W^iri^wByKs.Msaipfflrti^. ••?iw«a"T 5??. • - m^ .*i 



GUCURBITACE/E-GOURD FAMILY 

A Kroiij) uf tiiidril-lK-arini,'. ( liml)in^» or itroslralc vino with 
alliTiiali- li'avcs |)almatoly lul.td or vi-iiud. Tlit' inllort'MTncc i> 
moiiu. ioii^ or (liduiuus. Tlif lli>\vi'r> arc I'iihiT Maminali' or 
|>iMillatf or iRTfuct— all tlircr kin(l> on the samo |)lant or on dilTi-r- 
c'lit plant-. Thfialw luhc adIuTfs to tlio one to tlircr ullrd ovary 
and the stamens, five or two and a half, coninionly united l)\ their 
tortuous anthers, and sometimes also hy their rilament-. Stigmas 
l\\' or three. Limh of calyx and lorolla often more (»r le-.- tom- 
l)ip.ed. IVuil lleshy or mcmliranateous; seeds lar^e and llat. In 
general culiivaiion are Pumpkin, Scpia-h, Cm umlier, Watermelon, 
Muskmelon,an(l (lourd; all in endless varieties. Mostly a troi)ical 
or sul)-tro|)ical family. 

HUBBARD SQUASH 

Cuciirbita f>if>o var. iiuixiniii. 

.S'/rw.— Prostrate, cylindrical, rounh, hairv, sparinnly i.ranchcd; 
tendrils two to three, forked. 

I. f lives. Alternate, [K-tiolali-, rough, larne, orbicular or kidney- 
shaped, mar;;in more or les.s sinuate. 

l-'lourrs. .Mond'cious; large golden cu[)s, three to live inches across, 
borne in the a.xils of the leaves, the staminate !ong stalked, the pi.slillate 
short-stalked. 

C"n/y.v. Hairy, bell-.shai)od, five-lobed; lobes imbricated. 

Corolla. .\ golden cup, the body about the same diameter at top and 
bottom, the border llaring and five-lobed; lobes large, soft and wide- 
s[)rea(iing or (lroo|)ing. 

Stiimcu.w In staminate (lowers, three, arising from the bottom of the 
flower; the filaments united into a column; the anthers tortuous and 
combined into an oblong head. In (jistillate flowers wanting. 

(h-iiry. Coherent with the calyx; stigmas three, each two-iobed. 

/>mjV.— Fleshy, with a firm rind. 

4^9 



^^ffi&V'»r?»H/^f««f 



MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART 

lANSI ond ISO TEST CHART No 2) 







m 
1^ 



M 

2.2 
1.8 




A APPLIED IIVHGE Ir 



■653 East Mam Street 
'Rochester, New York '4609 USA 
(^16} 482 - 0300 - Phone 
'^T6) 288 - 5989 - Fa« 



GOURD FAMILY 







lilllplp.inl S(|!l;i-Il. L'll.lirli.t /'i-fii 



The ca-ic-t uav \n unilcr>tan(! tlic tlowiT- >>\ llii- C.iunl I'amily 
i- III -tudv tlu' l)lci--nm- III" till' llulilianl S(jua>li nr of the Piim])kin. 
'l"lic-i' arr -■) marly aliki' tlial it really (1<k.'> not mattiT wliic h hik- 
is u>fil, liul as \hv Stiiia-ii i> mnK likely to \)V in tlic ),'ar(l(.'n. ii-^ 
ll()\vcT> are the more available of llie two. In tlie-e l)lo--om> every 
(iiaraderi-tie i-. a> it were, inil into i apital-. I'.very i)arl of tiie 

tlower i> ma-^ive. The talyx is a 
jioinl— i/ed cuji, upon which the 
corolla -it>. Tile .1,'reat vase of 
the ( oroUa ha- a -jiread at the 
>ummil of from three to live 
iiu he-. It- five IoIhs are veined 
and frilled after the ai)i)rove(l fam- 
ilv jiattern, and in the hud they 
( ome to,nelh' !• in the eharacter- 
ir-tic f^ourd way. 

Kacii >iem liear> two kin(l> of 
llower-. There arises from the 
l)asc of one <,'olden iu|i a <;olden club an inch and a (|uarter hi^^h, 
with a short, smooth handle and a lonj^ corruijated hody. The 
short handle is made up of 'iiree filaments that have grown to- 
■lether, more or less i)erfe(tly. At the ha-e there are usually two 
openin.i^s, where the filaments have not entirely united. These 
oi)enin<;s allow the hees to put their tongues into the hollow be- 
neath, which is stored with nectar. The corrugated body is the 
anthers— three of them— so pertVclly united that it is not ea.-y to 
tell where one begin> and another ends, and the anther cells are 
long, tortuous, bent, and doubled ridges. This is the staminate 
llower; it produces jxillen, invites the bees, is gloriou- for a morn- 
ing, and pas>es-awav. The golden heart of the other cup has a 
different inmate. The way is oi)en down to the depths of the 
calyx, or hollow receinacle. as later botanists regard it, and from 
those (U'l'ths ari-es a golden column bearing three hammer-headed 
projections. These are the three two-lobed -tigmas. At the base 
of the column cojiiou^ nectar exudes and the bees are -im!)lv mad 
to obtain it. 

430 



HUBBARD SQUASH 



I 



W'liiU' tlu' liunilik'lic'i' li;i~ tlu' ;i(lv;inlaL;f in llu- >lamiiiati' 
IliwiT, Iji'i au-r it- tniiiiiR' i- liiiii; tniiuiih tn read) tlu- nc( tar easily, 
thf lioiic\-liif- lia\r tlu'ir i liam i' in ihr njirii t iiaii(c ni tlu- \m-- 
tiilatf llnwiT. Si'\i-n \ivv- ari' "ftni I'mmil at one liiiu' in a -in^lr 
t Uji. At tlu' lia-i' 111 ihf |)i~tillaie lluwcr i- liii' tiny v;ri't'ii liall tli, ' 
will in tinii', if all '^'K'- wt'll, linoiiK a Si|ua-h. It' rut i iM-^wi-t.' 
its thri'i'-ii'Uc'il >lruitare in'conii-' at (imc a|>|iarcnt. 'I'luTf an- 
niori' >taminat(,' than i)i>tillalc' iilncmi-, all arc Military, ami cai h 
appears in the axil of a liat'. ( )uv look-- at a Squash or a I'miipkin 
vine with little if an\ iik'a of its luavity, \i't "with it- hroad Icavci 
all ^n't'nnes> and its l)l()»()ni> all ^nld," ihc ]ilant may well i hal- 
leni^e admiration. 

The home of the Pumpkin, CiKiirbilii pcpc, i- ' rlieved lo he 
America. It has lieen found ^rowini; wild in Mexico, and wa- 
undiT (ulti\ation li\ the aliori<.;im- in I-'lorida, .Mi'xicd, and tht' 
\\'e>t Indie- when those rei^ion- were fir-l vi-ited liy l!uro|tean-. 
Dr. ("irav believed all except var. nutxinui, the Huhhard S(iua>li, 
to he of .\merican origin, hut the s])ecie^ and varietie- of thi> f,'enu- 
are hopelessly confu-ed. 

The f^ourd, Cm lirhilii prpo var. ovifrra is a -mailer |ilant than 
the tvpe, and produie- -mall, hard, inedihle fruit; in -hapeo\al, 
j^lohular, or ohlate, in j^reat variet}-; and in color simple or 
hlotihed or -tri|)ed. The specie- i> -old in many varieties and 
under many names. 

The Bottle (Jourd, I.'i'^cuiirli vtili^arls, originally from trojjical 
Africa and Asia, is now ^enerallx' cultivated hei'au>e of the varied 
form- of its fruit-, who>e -niooth, hard shells are often used as 
drinking cup-- The -|ii'cii'- has \ari(.'d into many j^arden form-. 



1 



4,51 



GOURD FAMILY 



CUCUMBER 

L'i'tciiiilis .siiliviii. 

Cwiiiiih ^ijinil'ii's a \t>si1; alliidinu to tin- riii<l i>f llu- fruil, \vlii< h, 
uh.n tlif \n\\\< \- rciiii.wil, f,)riii> a < u]i. Scuiif would ilfrivi' il from 
l!u- I'l-ltii (IIII-, a holl'iw vi'>si'l. 

A trailint; hciliaaou.s annual, iiroilucinj^ thf lonimon C'lKuniln-r of 
the niarki'l. 

Riml I'ilirous and small in i)ro].orlion to tlu' kiiKlli and s|irtad of 
thf stem. 

Slcm. Trailinii, toukIi, hairy, Uw U> twel\T ftrt lont;, I. ranched; 
tendrils simple. 

Leaves. IVlioled, alternate, roufih, hairy, i)alniately veined, eordate, 
three to si.\ inches lupj,', anj^uhirly lobed; terminal i<it)e lonj^esl. 

l-li>urrs. Momeciou.s, vellow, cnp-.shaped, borne in the axils of the 
leaves, jjislillate tlowers .solitary, staminate llowers clustered. 

Ci/v.v. Hell-shaped, five-toothed; teeth awl-shajK'd 

Corolla. .\ spreading cuj), slightly attached to the calyx; same in 
i)oth staminate and jMStillale blossoms; tube short; lobes Mve, broad 
and si)readini;. 

Stamni.s. Three; filaments short, .somewhat united; anthers curi- 
ouslv bent. 

()vary. Three-celled, many ovuled; .style short; stipnas three, two- 

lobed. ' 

/•>((// Cylindrical, five to ten inches lonj;; when younji the surface 
is besiirinkled with tubercles, armed with sharj), ri.^id bristles, which 
later fall otT; yellow when ripe. 

.S'm/.f. Very numerous, yellowish-while, oblanceolate, tlallencd; will 
retain vitality for several years. 

The virtues of llu' CiuiimhiT have been recognized from very 
earlv time-. Native to the foothill- of ihe Himalavas in north- 
western India and cultivated for at lea-t three thour-and years, its 
use ha> now sjiread over the civilized world. The plant made its 
way into Kuroi>e and n.irthern Africa throufiii commerce and 
travel; was earlv brought to .\merica, and !ki> become one of the 
m<wt important garden crops about our great citie-. The value 
of the fruil seems to "lie in the -aii-faction that il give-, it has 



CUCUMBER 

littli' ta-tc anil i- nid-ily wairr, yrt it i> and lia- l.tcn |iir-i^iiiill\ 
MiUf^liI hy till- Ininiaii ran.'. 

Till' jilaiil will iimu in rii ii -oil wJKrcvfr tluTi' arc ilircc or I'ciur 
iiinntii-^ willinut frn-t, liul it I an Iran^niuti' air and uaicr an.l 
carl)oni( at id into fruit nnjy undiT tin -tiniulii- nf (tm-idcr- 
alilf, or ratlur of roiitiminu- lual. It riquirc-- a warm rout run; 





pf^^ 



.i 



( u. iKiilar. C'l'n Hw;rv ytili: ii^ 



a 



as soon a- the f^round i'nol> tlie vincV uori< i> over. Xot all the 
llowei produee cucumlHTs; tlio.-^e that <;row in i lu>ter> never do, 
they .i\e >tanien> liul no |)i>til>; the i)i.~tillate fruit produiinK 
l)lo»oms are >oliiar\'. 

CitaiDiis iiitio ini lude- the M.:-kmelon in all it> varieties, which, 
like the Cue umiier, i> an Indian |)lant, hut ha> also heen found wild 
'n western .\frita. in (Hj'nea, and alon^ the hank- of the Xifjer. 
It i> c ultivated hy the human race wherever the dimate will permit. 
The rough, hairy, trailini; >tem irrow> ti\e to ten feet long, liearing 
heart-sha])ed leaves with routided loiies. Tlie iilo^Mini- are |)olvg- 
amo-mon(e(iou>; that i>, ])i>tillate, staminate, and perfect tlowers 
are found on the sime |)lant. (lardener- -ay that the mehms 
|)roduced l)y the jK-rfed tlowir- have the lietter tlavor. The fruit 
is glohose, cylindrical, or ovate. The -eed- have great vita.lit\, 
which ha> <ioul)tle» aided in the widespread dis-emination of the 
{ilant. 



GOURD FAMILY 

WATLRMELON 

( ilriilhn :'ii/,t;iin's. 

I 'ilriilhis r(fiT> tn tin- < olur uf tin- |iul|i, uhic h i^ ^nimlinu-^ an "r- 
an(^i'-rcil, lunc c ( itnn ( dim . 

Sum. Prostrate, ti.nlit to I'litccn fcrt Imi^'; tcmlrils tun tn thni- 
fnrkid. 

/.nnrs. I)('i'|)ly tlirri- to t'lw -lolicil, jiali' or lilui>lM,'rcfn. 

l-'lourrs. MotKi'iious, |>alf yellow, lioriie in the axils of tlu' K'aves. 

Ciilyx. Ikl!-sha])eil, tUelolud. 

Corolla. I 'ale-yellow, a spnadiii^; cii|>, five-lohed. 

SliUiicn.s. Three, with short t'llanients; stis,'nias three, kidnev-shaped. 

l-'ritil. I'sually an obhuii; spluniid, ^'reenisli lirown, mottled or 
stri|v.-d; with a tirin rind and a juiey, edilile (ore in which the seeds are 
embedded. 

Tlie Watermelon Hrm> to have a social >taUi>. In S|)aiii, Italv, 
and our SoulluTn Stales it i> regarded a^ tlu' ispccial lu\i;r\- of tiie 
poor. Miirillo |>ainl> hi> hei^j^ar Ijovs iiijoyinu the fruit, and our 
ne\vs|)apers lu .er tire of rinf^ii^<^ the ehani^es upon the nej^ro and 
the Watermelon. 

TIh' wild plant iia> hi'en diMoxeri'd in tro|)i(al Africa on liotii 
>ides of the equator. Ia'\ iriii>ione ri'])orte(l that he fotuid larj^e 
distriits liter;.lly covered with it and that the fruit was eaj^'eriv 
devoured iioth liy the >avat;es and ll'.e wild beasts. 'I'in's was 
sometimes sv rt and >omeiinn- bitter, a i harac teristic tiial lias 
followed tlu ; uilivaled W a.lermelon throu^^hout all its hi>tor\-. Do 
Candolie says that the anciciu i',:ryptians cultivated the |ilanl 
and that it i.^ rejjroented in their paintin,t,'>. He alxi ^ives 
it to the anci.'nt Hebrews, Arabian-, and Berbers, but think-it 
laivie into the Roman world ai)out tlie be^inin'nj^ of the Christian 
era and diil not reacii China until the unih tentui\'. 

'J'he Citron of the j^ardens is a round and solid variet\' of the 
S])ecies with almo>t ta>lile->s i]e>!i, which never softens and is 
often used as a preserve. 



4.34 



WILD CUCUMRER 



{ 



WILD CUCUMBER, BALSAM-APPLE 

I'.fhiiiiH y^tis liih.iti!. 

Eriiiiwtyslis, frnni tu,. Creek u,,r,k. ,,n,- nuMnin,,' h,.|.;cli..K aii.l 
Ih.- ntlu-r, M.i.I.I.t; rclVrrinj^ t,, ihf liill.ilr.l and |„irkly Iruil. 

A native annual vine, found in rich l,nv i,'r..un.l.s ami l.exiile -'reams, 
llir..uj,'li()Ut the \..rth. Is cultivate.l |..r a (|uirk ever. Summer. 

Stem. .Smooth, anj,'uiar, ami uroove.l, climl.ini; hi^'h l.- means of 
tendrils; .sometimes hairy at the nodes. 

I.,avis. .Mternate, |.etioled, |)almalelv rive-lol)e<l, iliree and a half 
inches |.,n),', ahoiit the same in width, sometimes hroader; dee|. sinus at 
hiise, veins very prominent beneath, margin oh.scurelv .serrate; lol.es 
pointed. 

Tnulrih. ()pi)o.site the leaves, three to four-liranched. 

llo-arrs Monarious; the staminate Kn^'nish-while, six-pointed 
.stars, m lonj;, slender, compound racemes; the i.istillate one or more 
minute jjreen llowers, consisting of calvx and jiistil, in the same leaf 
axil. 

Culyx. Of staminate llower, bell-like, with six narrow, pointer] lobes 
alternate with the petals. 

Pi'tah. Six, lanceolate; united into an open, si)readint;, star like 
corolla. 

Shimnis. In staminate (lowers three; anthers more or less united. 

(hiiry. .Minute, two-celled; stij,'ma broad. 

l-ruit. ( )val, two inches lonK, Heshv at first, I'mallv drv. ( lothed with 
weak prickles, bursting,' at the summit, two-celled, four-.seeded, the inner 
|iart librous-neited. 

-S'm/.v.- Larf,'e, dark, with thick, hard coat. 

T'le W ild Cue umber vitu- is often seen in ( ultivaliot, < limbin-,' 
over arbors and on fences. TJie foliage i> not very thic k nor the 
iii.iividual leaf ^ery lar^e, but havinji starte.l on its carter the j)lant 
^Tows ra|)i(lly, and once established, althou-^'h an annual, attends 
..) its own sowing so efficiently that there are i)lenty of seedlings 
every spring. Amateurs cmplain that the seeds when sown do 
not come uj) (luickly, as indeed lliey do not; tliey are fre(|uently 
an entire year in the ground before germination. This, undoubt- 
edlv, is due to the strengtli an<l thickne-s of the outer L(;at (;f the 

435 



GOURD FAMILY 



l)i); lila( k xrd. Were tlii-~ iiii kcil, a- i^ doiif in t!if (a>c' of 
nioonlliiwcr m(<I>, tlir ^'irmiii ili'iii mii;lit Ik' iimrr rapid. 'I'lif 

iiillorcM ( iH I' III" liic \ inc i~ «\- 
tniiicly iiUiTotini:. 'I'iif tlnw- 
rrinji rai iiiu-- arc aliundaiil 
and frfiiufiiily a fnot Inn^; 
even an ordinal \ rai fiiii' will 
pHMliKA' frotii out hundri'd ami 
lil'ty lo iwo iiundn-d -laminate 
llowiT-. I!nl tlic iiu/./k' i^ l<t 
find till' |)i-iiilatc tlo\\i'r> which 
arc to i)rod;u'' liic fruit. At 
the l)a>i' of the loni^ racenu', 
.-ometimc> on it- (i-ntral -tern 
and >ometimi> at tin- axil, is a 
minute j^recn lump, whii li may 
lie one ami >omclimes is sev- 
tral pi>tillate tlowers, >o small 
tiiat only a <ila>s will enable one 
to separate them, and so in- 
eons|'icuous that they would 
ni'vcr lie >een unk> ■ ^oujjlit 
for. liut in time, if all jroe> well, eat h unobserved <ireenlin}^ will 
swell and vwill, liecome i)rii kly and lleshy, and t'inally produce the 
hope of the race — four larw', dark -ecd>. 




Willi ( uuimlKr. I'.ihhu'i'yri^ /i'.;.',; 



lirwiidpsis liuUnbsti is an annual cucurbit rei ommt'iided as a 
j^ood (limber. It> leaves are dccjily Ine-lobi'd; the (lower \ellow, 
monici iou>, and the fruit i>retly jireen and wiiite >i)heres about 
tiie -ize of a cherrv. Native to .\>ia, Africa, and Australia. 



436 



CAMPAM l.ACI-.i: HI-I.KM.OWI'IK FAMII.V 

llcrli^ with niilkv juice, alurn;ilr lc;i\< ~. ami -raltcrcil llnwcr-. 
'I'lu- (al\\ ;;rn\\ - fa-t to the (i\ar\: ilu- ( ui'nlla i~ ii-uallv a lii-ll, 
I'lNf liihrd; Inl.c^ \al\ali' ill the hiui. StaiiU'ii- arc lUr, u>uall\ 
I'ri'i' I'roin llic tdrulla. Stvlr nnc ottcii liaiis Inward the -uminit: 
■-tit;ma- two or inorc. I'riiit a inaiiv -ciMlcd ia|)--ulf. ri(K\rr- 
ilfiicralK liliH' and -liow\. 'I'vpiral v;:irdiii ( 'anuianula- arc ('aii- 
tiTljiiry lU'll. Narrow leaved Helllluwer. Kamiiioii like l5ellllowiT, 
llareiiell, and I'latvoxjon. 



CANTERBURY BELLS 

( 'illll ''■illllli! Ilh ililtlll. 

i'liiiif'^nni!,!. litllr ImII, li.nu llv -h.i|ic <4 llic IIhwit. 

Oiu' 1)1' tile niiisi ini])i)rianl of the Camiiuinilas; i)ieiiiiial; loiij; in 
cultivation. 

Slciii. I'lreti, hairy, hranehint;, niu- to four t'eet hiiih. 

l.i'iiirs. Coarsr, >e»ile, ovale-laiueolatc, crenate-ilentatf. 

l-ldurrs. LarLie h.'lj^, >in,i,'li- douMe, in k-al'y raeeme>, hliie, \ iolel, 
\\liite, rose, or pink. 

C'dlyx. I'ive-lohi'd, with relieved, leal'y ui)|)endat,'es. 

i'orolhi. I.anje, hell shai)ed. iulla*"d, horder the loljcd. 

SliiDii'is. I'ive, horne on the >uinmil o|" ilu- lalyx luhe; I'llaments 
curved. 

(h'liry. l'i\eulled; .^tvle one; sti,L;rna> ll\c. 

Cdpsiili'. M an V .seeded. 

("anttTl)Ur\ Hell- come into hloom a- the peonii's arc |)as>in<^. 
and a well-iirowii plantation i> e\lremel\ lieautifui. .Xlthouah the 
jarl\- garden form- were violet lilue and wiiile, t!ie i olor ratline now 

4,S7 



BELLFLO^ER FAMILY 




inihidc- ruH' and i>ur|>U' in v.ir\ iiii; tint-. 'I'lif plant Ik IdPi;- \i> the 
Imiinial-- lliat amateur- liiid -n un>ati>lai lorv , -itn >• in kft-p 

l)iinnial> ii|i to tlir -landaid ni|uiif> 
imn'a-ini.' vi^ilamr. When nin- lud i-. 
lilodinin^ a >c( nnd mii-1 lie in |irt|iar.i- 
tin,), and it i- ra-y td fnrmt. 'I'lic plant 
will M)nu'tinu> hltmni tlu' third yrar, 
liut not nftfii >ati>fac tori!) . 

'I'lu' f^ardtii variftio now a|>i>i'ar in 
single-, doiilili-, anil M'nii-douliii>, a> 
wtM a- in a (iiriou- fortn known a> va- 
rii-ty ((ilyidiilliiiihi, or {"ii|) and-SauiiT. 
Ill tlii> tilt.' (aly\ i> vnlarj^cd and tran>- 
fornu'd, iii'comin)^ corolla-like in texture and takinjj on ilie idlor 
of the true corolla. The doulili- are of two type>: -omelirnes 
one to four perfect I)eils ari' fornud one witliiii another, or the 
(lower hell i> tilled with petaloids. Sometimes the liell lircaks 
down and the entire Mossom i)eeomes petaloid. 

The name Cantorhury Hell harks haik to the Canteritury 
I'il^rims who wore on tlu'ir rilurn from the shrine (>f St. Thomas 
a Het'ket small leaden imaj^es of saints as "sipis" of their pi!- 
j^rimaj^i', and whose horses were also decorated with small l)ells, 
not only to annoume the pili^rii.iaj^e performed, hut as a charm 
against accidents upon ihc return journey. 



CriipinK lt< llll.miT. 



RAMPION-LIKE BELLFLOWER. CREEPING BELLFLOWER 

Camt'iinul,! riipiDiciilohlit. 

The one Campanula tliat lias hecome naturalized in tiiis couiitiy. 
Native to central and .southern F.urope. Perennial. July Seiilemhcr. 

Stem. — Erect, two to four feet hij;h. 

Stem-leave^. < )vate-lunceolat,.', pointed and heart-shaped, the lower 
leaves Kmg-petioled. 

/•'Idwers. — Tubular hells, S(.mewlial droojiin;;, violet-blue, five-lobed, 
sin),'le in the axil of bracts, forming long racemes. 

Stiimrijs - I'ive; sliijmas threi'-lobed. 

Capsule. —Three-celled. 

4.?S 



i: .»*; '.ii 



CANTERBURY BELL-5 




CaiiU'rbury liclln. L iimpanuld ihidium 



BELLFLOWER FAMILY 

( )nf i>f ilic lir~l ('.im|i.imil.i- liruut;lii in ihi- (ni'itr\ ii\(l llic 
ulilv n\\v tiial ni.i\ 111' « c>ii-iili ri (I n.iUirali/.i«l, .1- I'lti^' a^u it lU-Mrti'tl 
tlu' ganU'ii ami wi'iil iiimii ilu hinlwav. < >iif uliiii nuct- it alnn^ 
llu' roaiUidr and in llif litlil- <«|' \v\\ r.nnlaiiil ami N'lu \ ntls, li«- 
niiiii in I'tnn-yhaiiia ami < 'liin. 

'I'lu' iiarcK iniwn -end- np a luft i<\ ircti, ralluT -loiii «U'm» 
I'ai h (TowiH'il willi a Uafy rai rnu- <>\ i,|..ii vinlci liliir t.tlU. Tiu' 
jilant ha* nol nun li nf j^racc hut a ^.'ihmI deal nf -lunlim— •. 

It i- ixriiiiiial and |)(i*m'>->i- tlii' [minm r i.t -prtadinn inviltialcly 
l)V llif riioi. 

NARROW-LEAVED BELLFLOWER 

( .,"i; /I, /;;/(/,; jirrsii iJUliii. 

Nativi' nf siiuiluTn luirn[K- and Innj,' in lullivalinn, mi tliul il> nardi n 
forms arc fXtrcnKly variaMr, Mmtiontd l)y llcrurd in 1 5()6. 

Skm. Krc'it, nnc to ihrir firl 'li^'i. 

Leaves. Lanccolati', hroa-i or nariow, tliick and smooth. 

l-'lourrs. <)|)cn or dirj) iKli-sliaiHil, vioki liluc in lUi t raccmi'S, 

C'lilyx. I'ive-clc'ft. 

Corolla. Broailly iKll-slia|K'd, often two jndu' across. 

SUiinnis. Five; filanu-nts broad at liasc. 

Ovary. Ovoid; stigmas ihrt.rlohud. 

Cap.siilc. Thri'f-cilli'fl. 

A verv c hoice plant wliicli hears many l.ir^r, lui) sliapt-d llcwcrs 
ranging; upward along tall stems ahove a tuft of pretty foliage. 



("ar])atliian Uellllower, Campanula larpdtha, from the Carpa- 
thian Alps, is a tufted plant alxait -i.\ imhes high hearing on 
slender, one-tlowered pedum les an al)unflame of oi)en, iHll-shaped 
tlowers, normally hlue. The general effect of the jjlo-som is that 
of Campanula per.sirifolia, hut the plant's size fits it for the horder 
or rovker^-, e-peciallv as it hlooms continuously during the summer. 

Among additional species olTered hy the trade are: The Chim- 

440 



NARROW-LEAVED BELLFLOWER 




\arn>w-lcavt(l Ikllllowcr. 'Sampaiuila prrsicijolia 



BELLFLOWER FAMILY 

ncy Cam])iinul;i, Campmuiia pyr,imidalis, so named I)ecausc it was 
formerly grown in pots to adorn the unused tire|)laee> in summer; 
Coventry Ik-ils, Cumpamila tnuliliiiim, an e\eee(linf,'lv rol)U>t and 
hardy j)erennial, wliirli in a plantation i> eai)al)le of runninj,' out 
tlie otiier Camijanulas, and so taking po»e>>ion not oniv of their 
|)Iates hut of their names; and Cainpainihi j^lomcnita var. Dulii'i- 
rioi, wiiose hell-shaped llowers form a rounch'sii liead. 

An allied genus, Adawphora, se|)arale(i from Camp<niul,i In- 
minor characters, has Mue, nodding flowers produced freely in 
midsummer in stiff, slender !)anicles or racemes. Adniophcr^i 
communis, from western Asia, is j)erhaps the best of the group. 



HAREBELL. BLUEBELLS OF SCOTLAND 

( \impiiniila r(iluiidifi>li,i. 
.S>(H. -Slender and branching, six to twelve iiiclics hi!:li. 

Root leaves. Orbicular or ovate, cordate, mostly too'lud or crenatc, 
loiig-[)cti()k'(l, early witluriiig. 




Blui'btlls ..f Siull.lll.l. t'.llllp.UlllU 

rulniiilijiiliii 

.Slrm-leii'irs. Linear or lanceolate, entire, smooth. 
l-'limrrs. Hright-blue notliling bells. 

442 



HAREBELL 

Calyx. With five awl-shaiKil lnhcs. 

Corolla. I{ri;;lit-l)lui', i)|n'n hell, fivc-lohcd. 

Stamiiis. l'i\c; ^tiutiias ihrcf-ldlicil; caiisulc ilirir lulicd. 

Canipamda ruliniilijoli i \- [\\v hlik'l)i'Ii <>\ iiicralurc; a ( iti/.cn 
of tlu' world, ^rowiiiL; in Iairn|if, Anifrica. and A-ia. (MiriKks- 
hank- and lii^h Ifd^i'- it i> -IrndiT and drlic ate, ii- -icin- -wavin'^ 
in every lircalii of wind; wIr-ii tran -fiTred In tlie <;arden it Im mnc- 
sturdy and stock}'. A ciiriiiu> <;ardcn form <if tiic >|H(it- t\i-l-. 
known as .sohlanclhrjldni, witli M'nii-douMe llowir- and the (orolia 
s|)lil into stri|is. 

It is e\treniel\- varialile in lieifilit, de^rei' of hraiK hini;, numher 
and size of llowers, texture of foliage, >lui|ie and di\i'r.i;ence of 
(•al\\-lol)e> — eliaraelers whitli seem In >tand in imperfect e(|uilil)- 
rium, ready to re>|)nnd tn >li,i;lu ( iianj^e of t'livironment. 

I.iviiif; as it does in the clefts of mck-, uavini; il- likie hell- 
from inaccessible heit^hts, a])|)ari'ntly delicate and yi't iininciiile, 
it is one of the few llnwers thai have anjjeak'd alike tn the inmlt r, 
the wanderer, the naturali>t, and the pnet. ( )ne retail- with 
pleasure Browning's tribute, where he make> I'aratel-u- >a\ : 

I hi'lpcil a iiuiii to ilii', -cinu' few \\cik> -iiu c, 
\Var|ic(l I'vin fri)rii hi- f^n-iail to ciru' irid - 
The livini; mi I'riiuc-' -mili-^, rcllcc led fmiii 
A iiiif^hty herd of uivcirili-. Xu mean iri( k 
lit' left untried, and trulv \vflhii^;h uiinin-d 
All traces of (iod's tinker out of him; 
Then died, i;roun old. Ami ju-l an hour In-fore, 
Ha\in}^ lain lorij; with hlatik and -oull(.--s cvt-^, 
He Sill ii]i siuldeiily, ami with nalural voii c 
Said that in -pile of ihii k air and ( lo^cii r|o<ir- 
Ciod lold hill it was June; and hr knew will, 
W'ithovil -i!c h telling;, harfln-ll- j^rcw in Jum-; 
And all thai kint;- r.mld (■\fr i;i\c or takr 
Woulii not be prtviou- a- lho>c Mcmjiu- to him. 



Ai2 



BELLFLOWER FAMILY 



PLATYCODON. JAPANESE BELLFLOWER 

I'liilyciiiiiiii f;riiii(Jirl<iniiii. 

Philynidoii, (Ircck, fiLilys. hrcjad, ami i I'llaii, lii-ll; rcfcrrinf^ tu the 
-•lia|ic iif ihc llouir. 

A hraiuhini;. shrul)-likr pfriTinial hearing' several lar^je, i)|n'n, lull-like 
llowers from the siininiit of llie stem and hraiulies. \ali\c to norllurn 
Asia and Japan. July. 




ri;ityii«lon. Plitlyiuilon i^ranili;lbniiii 



.SVcw. -Bushy, weak, one to three feet hi^'h. 

Leaves. Lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, uner|uallv toothed. 

Flowers. ISlue or white, large o|)en hells, inllated in the hud. 

Ctily.v. Hell-like, tive-toothed. 

Corolla. Ojyen hell, violel-hlue, pencilled with lines of darker lilue, 
I'lve-lohed; lobes broad, ])ointed, valvate in bud. 

Stamens. Five; filaments short, dilated at ba.se; anthers long, mature 
before the stigmas are receptive. 

Ovary, (iloho.se; five-celled; style one; stigmas five. 

C"(i/),'«/('. Five-celled; many-.seeded. 

The genus Platycodon is closely related to Campanula and con- 
tains only the single species f^ramUjlonim, hut. though recently 

444 



PLATYCODON 

intrixluied, thi> 1ki> alrrady developed >everal j^ardeii fiirm>. The 
tlnwer l>ell i> a lari;er editinn of lliat nf Ciiwpdtiuhi prrsicir'vi, liul 
diies not ffcnw in -n deii>e a raeenie. 'I'lie >|)read of (lie ordinary 
lilossom i> nearlv two iiu he> and mii^lil easil\- i)e more. The 
c'orolhi lohes are valxate in hiid, and l)efore tlie Idooniin^ imjtuUi' 
can forie llie lolie- apart tlie ( orolhi i)e('onies puffed out into a little 
Lalloon. Like all ll<i\\er> \vho>e stamens die before the stifima> 
mature, the life of the corolla is extended, for it mii>t live to call 
the hees for Ixilh. That the tlowerin^' >lem> usually need >ui)port 
ir. an oi)je( tion, a> this always (lelract> from the f,'rate and dif^nity 
of a j)lant. 

A varietv called japon'uum, with >emi-doiii)le Howers; that is, 
with an inner hell who-e loho alternate with the outer, ^'ivin>^ the 
api)earance of a ten iiointeil ~lar, ha> been developed in I'ranee 
and is now otTered 1»\' llori>t>. 



445 



LOBELIAGEyE-LOBELIA FAMILY 



IIctI)- with a(ri<l, milky jiiiVo and allcTiiatc leaves TlKeomlhi is 
\Tryirre^'uiar,al\\a\>five-l()l)e(l,anilM)melime>lW()-li|i|)e(i;tlulul)c 
split down on tiic upper >ide. The live >tanien> are unitid into a 

tul)e ( ornnionly iiy tlieir filanient> 
and al\vay~ hy their antlier>; from 
thi-^ tulje the >tyle and >li,nma pro- 
trude. The calyx-tulie adliere> to 
the man\-seeded ])od. 

In (ultivaiion are tlie nianv 
garden forms of l.iihUli cr'inis 
and two native >|K'eies, Cardinal- 
Mower ami (ireal Lohelia. 

BLUE LOBELIA 

Ltilir.'ii! ci-'nnis. 




liluL' Lohilui. Lv'iUiii iniuis 



I.iihclia, in lidiiur of Matthias von 
I.ulifl, a I'Kniisli Initanist and 
writer; 15:58-1(110, 



'I'he low, annual, little J.uhelia of hanuin^-haskels and summer ijar- 
dens, variable, eulli\ati-d under many names; llowers abundant, blue, 
usually whiti' in the thmat. Cape of (lood Mope. 

.S7('»;. DiiTuse, almost trailing', six to twelve inches hi^h. 
Leaves. Alternate, variable, varyim; from obovate to ;ieute and from 
erenate to serrate. 

I'lou'crs. Small, on slender pedieels, lli;lu-blue with a li,L;hter eenlre. 

Calyx. I,()bes live, awldike, sjireadini,'. 

Corolla. Irreirular, with a slraiuht fibe s])lit down on the upi)er side; 
tw()di!)pe(i; die upper lip iwo-lolied, (lu between the lobes; the lower 
si)rea(lin,i; md tlnee-eleft. 

440 



CARDINAL-FLOWER 

Stiimois. Five, iiiiilfd into a lulu-. 

(hiiry. Twd-itlliMi; : ,\if loiij;; stiunia two lolnil. 

Ctipsiilc. Many-scfrkd, (i])i-iiiii;^ at llic >miimil. 

Lolnliit ciiiius '\> llic low, iKirmally Muc-lldwcrctl. aiinii.il 
l.olielia, cxtcn-ivcly ii-cd a> an L'(l,iiiii<4 plant and a- a iilialilc- in- 
mate (if window-lxixf- and lian^inj;-l)a~k(t>. It- diiii ate tHliaj^f, 
alcTt-loukinji l)ln-s()iiis, and ra-y cultnrt.' inakf it a miuiai la* (irilc 

It vaiii> in lialiil from a dilTii-i', lialf-trailinji >li'm ovirlianiiini,' 
a liox or window to don-f u|>rii;lit jilant- -uitaMc for ( lo-c cduin^'; 
Mimctinn"' llir foliai,'c, alwa\> variaiilr in form, luiomi^ varialik- 
in ( olor, a|>])oarinLj hotli in yt'llow and in lironzc 

Tln' l>luo of tlic norma! l)lo»om- fn(|miitl\ ,i;ivt ■• ]ila( c to wliitf, 
and tluTi' arc varictit-- hotii ro~c and ( rim~on. In >omu form> tlic 
>\/x of llic tlowiT lia- ron-idcraiilv rnlari;''!. 



CARDINAL-FLOWER 

I,"liil:it t'lrdiuiilis. 

Tlu' niiisf sh(>\vy()f our native l.ohtlias; fc.Uiid in wtl or l<iw unumds, 
licsiiir streams, ditdies, and meailow runlets. Kaiit^e extends fnmi 
New Hrunswick to the Ciulf States, wisl 
ward to Kansas and the Northwest 'I'erri- 
toiv. Hiennial. July to Se|itenil)er. 

Slcni. Krect, rarely hraiuhed, two to 
four feet hif,'li. 

I.ravcx. Oljlont; to lanceolate, sliuhtlx' 
toothed, acute at each end, sessile. 

l-'linvcrs. W'idi slenderer tul)e and more 
deejily cleft lips than most lolielias; liril 
liant red, rarely rose or white, Imini' in 
a lonj,', leafy terminal, rather one-sided 
raceme. 

('i(/y.v. rive-deft, with short tulie. 

CoroUd. \'ivid red; tulie Iivul', sjilit down on a])pareiitlv the upper 
side, two-h'iiped: upjier lip tv.o lulled; under li|i three-deft. 

Sliimcii.s. i'i\i', red, free from the corolla and united into a tuLe; 
anthers pur|)le. 

(h'tiry. 'I'wo-celled; stvle one. 
t apsiiii . .Many-seL'ded. 

tt7 




( ,.r.liii.il-li.«,.r. /.,./.,//,] 
i 'iifiliiiiih^ 



LOBELIA FAMILY 

No oIIht lluwiT 111' tlic Xnrlli kiml - -ut li a llanu' in itir tliit kcl 
as till' Cardinal Lohclia. W lien iran~lcrrtil In liif liank'ii it l"nr- 
Hi't> it> -wampy liomi', adjure- tlif taii^jlf, lake- kiiidlv to drier 
soil, and when |irn|HTly lullivatcd aliain> a t;riatiT iuM«;lil wiiii 
lonf^tT spiko of llanie tiian it ever aeiiieve> in tiic \vii<l. 

'I'iie i)lo»oni i- one of -lender tyjie lor a l.ol.elia. Tlie c (irnlja 
tiii)e i>lon,n and -lender; tlieeoroUa lohe-are narrow and jioinled; 
the rilaniciU lulie extend- far out l.eu.nd llie loroila tiiroal; and 
the >lender -tyle hears the -tigma con:-ideral)ly i<eyond the ring of 
purple anthers. 

GREAT LOBELIA. BLUE LOBELIA 



Ltihilia syf'liililiid. 

Stew. Krcct, anj;uiar, leafy, one to four feet lui;li. 
Lnnrs. Allernute, ohlon^^-iaiueolate. acuii- or acuminate, uiiec|ually 
serrate. 




(■,n,,t T,..l.,li,,. 
I.til'iU'l .Syf^liiiilii'i. 

l-'ldurrs. Borne in a long, dense, leafy s])ike which is six to eighteen 
mchcs in leiii;ih, liriLrht-hlue marked with white. 

(.'(j/v.v. - Hairv, tubular, Uvc-cleft, lobes eared at base, retle.xed. 

44'S 



GREAT LOBELIA 

(orolii. 'I'uluilar, irrc^'iilur, diu iu;irlv to tlu' l.asf ,,n ilic ui-ikt 
side, tu..-lii.i„,l; till' iii.piTlip dell Intw.rn tlic luKi's; luwvr lip tliiir- 

Stamens. I'ivi , uiiitid ititn a uiIh' l.y tluir aiitlurs. 
Ovary. 'I'wu-n Hid; stylo i mi v; stigma t^'n-ldlxd, l'riiii;td. 
Capsiili: Ojniiinj,' at tlif sum. lii; iiiany-scidid. 

The (ircut IJliio [..ihflia sliwiild l,i' in our t,'ar(l'.n-.. It produ. cs 
a ma-s of hrilliant l.ku- llowrrs in mid-uninur; all thai it a-k- in 
onkr to do woll i> j,'ood >,,il,a moi>t Lx atioii, and to I.f li't aloiu-. 
In thr wild it will, uikUt lavorahk' lir. umMaim-s, pnxhu c lloucr 
spikes ("IT two ftrl loiii,', and if fid and jirotn to! doul.tk's> would 
do far hotter. 

In ronsiderinK tlic i)o»il,ilitiis of oar wild ilowers, <,nc- should 
ri-mfml)(.T that wlial they ai hieve of >talk and 'lower is done under 
the law of eompetitiun ; they live where they nui>l ; thev arc ..m|.li-h 
what they ean. Mul relieved from this struK.U'lf for ■■xistenc e and 
phued in the less strenuous environment of the j,'arden, if the 
essential cunditiuns arc congenial, the i)laiu will improve. 



f 



449 



DIPSACAGF/E -TEASEL FAMILY 



SWEET SCABIOUS. MOURNING BRIDE 

Scdhiosi! iitrnliiir/Hircii. 

.Siiilnnsii. fiiiiii siiiliirs, Miili'; lni,iu>u ul il- rc|iUK' ;i-- a nu'dkiiR- 
ill skin ili>i'a>is. 




Swilt SlilllinlH. Sltlhiu^il 

iitrnpitrpitrtii 



A [)CTL'nnial IhtI) from soutlici.i Kur()|)c; in our t^'ardciis an annual. 
July to St'ptc-mlKT. 

Slews. Uranciu'd, two to three feit liijih. 
SlcD'-lon'cs. I'innattly lohcd; lohes toutlu'd or cut. 
rio'd'i'r-iit'diis. On tonji |iiilunilc>; iiiM)iutic a sinyk- row of bracts; 
llorcls all tubular; outer row lart;er than the inner tlorets. 

450 



SWEET SCABIOUS 

('<ily.\-liihr Cuii,!!;!!,,,!, |,ri>tly. 

C'tiroll,!. 'Iiil.ular, (.l.li.|iic, imir t,) I'lw il.ft. 

Sl.iiinns. lull;-, iiiMrtcil <in ccnilla ml,,.. 

.S/.v/c. Clul) slia|.ci| ami prolrudiiii;. 

Iniit. Akcru', it, ui ,x .muncl uiil, lUv |k t>iMriii .alvx IuIms. 



uil. 



.ts; 



Sncrt Sial.i.Hw .,r Mcurnin- liridr i- ;, t;anlrn favnrltr l.uau.c 
"f ,t> easy (ulturc-, I'Mni.lnl |Kri.H| nf |,|,„,m. an.l n\ l,nc.> ..f it, 
' I'liir raii^ji'. 

'J'liniik'h ,i,.cly alhV.I tn the .,.m|..Kiic.. an.l -riallv rccmhlin- 
tiu'm.it l,dnnK> to a >n,all family know,, a- />,>,/,,/, <vr. .,r TvasrU 
Indccl, .SV,//,/„v,,, ,,f whi, li wo have tw,. na-ivr s|.c, i,., ar,<l /)//>. 
W'"v arc tl„. .„ ly .nm-A u| the family j;r.,win,- in ihi. . ,,„nl,v. 
Ihf |.nn.i|.a! <liMiiuii,,n l.iiwirn thi^e and ihr (,.,„,, nMir. Ii,'.. 
•n III" . nndiiiuM nf iho anll,ir>, wl„Vh in the cmpuMtc-. air unite,| 
int.) a IuIh' w l,ik. i,, i|,i. 'IVa-rl- tluy arc frir. 

The l]..vur-lu'a.| ..f Swm .Sal,i..u, ,..nMM> ..f manv iL.rct. 
with f.ni,- l..la..| r..r.,lla,, ..f whi. h ,■;., I, ..iiHr r..w i. lar^-i-i-'than the 
..tiHT> and i,arc.a..in,i,'ly >., a> ila'y pr.Ker.l fn.m the eeniri; t.. the 
iirrumtcmi.e. Th.^c .-..r.-lla. are ..f varvin^ K.n^'th, with wi.lr 
funnel-iike m.,uths, >., that their nertar i> a.re^il.lc t.. s|„,rt- 
t.m-ucd a,i.| l..nK-t-n«ued in>ert> alike; hen.e the ll.mer. are 
vi.ite.l l.y all the insert trii.e wl,.. |.,ve h.,nev an.l have win->. Thf 
nirlar i> |,n„re.i .„., I,y the upper part nf the ..varv an.? i> prn- 
te.t.'.l a,-am.t unweK ..me vi it..r> -ant> an.l the like ~l,v the hairv 
Innn- .,f the .„n.lla tui.e. The ll.„-et> dcveh.p t;ra.luallv, .„ tha't 
tile \vh..le hea.l ..ffei-s attraeti..n. t<. it> in>ert frien.k f,.r aV.m-i.ler- 
ahle t,me, r,.n>e.iuently they return t.. th., s;me hc.,d .lav after day 
The anther- in earl, iL.ret mature an.l >he.l their p., lien ..ne at 'a 
time; afterward the stylc> lengthen an.l the >ti..'ma> mature .imul- 
tane..u>ly with the result that a l.ee well du>te.l with pnllen . ..ul.l 
easily tertilize all the llnret.> ..f a ll..wer-lifa.l. 

In ..ur ,-ar.len> the plant i. kn.,wn a> Mnurninf,' Hri.le; in Fun.pe 
-Mnurntul Wi.l.m i> the a.cepie.l name. It >e..m> th.l the llnwrr- 
hea.ls are evtcn-iveiy u>e<! in .Maulurn iiun.pL- i.,r funeral wreal!i., 
whence the name. 

45 1 



COM I*OSIT/lt-GOM POSITi: F AM 1 1 . Y 



'I'lir ^,'rr;il family (if Coinpi's'iUr, uhuli lontiiiiis oiu'-triitli of 
:ill llu' s|ic(iis (if tlowcriii^' |ilani> in tlio wdrld, i> marvclldU'lv 
t(|iii|i|ii(l t(i will in the siru^j^lf for lifi'. Ii^ iirt'-i-mincm f lit> in 
it> ai»ilil\ t(i ripi'ii nidR' >tr(I> to a >ti'ni than an\ otIuT faniilv, 
and I (in>i'(nu-nliy it ovrrc.tni-N !'s nrif,'lii)or> and |mi»i'»c> tlu- 
oartli liy --liccr foui- of nuniiKT>. Tlu' to|) of tlif llowix Mrni is 
llattc'iU'd and lorni^ a |ilatf(irni, iallr(l tlu' rcc rjitai Ic, upon uliiiii 
thr individual tlowir- arc >rt, often to tiir numlicr of hundrod^ 
r!K>c' an I illiiT tuiiular or ray IIouits, or lioth. 

In thr luliuhir llo\\fr> tlic (alyx-tulif i> ^o united to thr oni- 
ullc'd ovary as to ho si-paratr only at the >unuiiit wIkti- the ealv\ 
border, teehnicaliy called a pap|iu>, appears in tiie form of hri^tles, 
awns, scales, tcetli, a minute ( u|), or nothini,'. The corolla tuhe 
is small, slender, I'lve-iohed; the lohes valvate in the luid. The 
s mens are live; the anthers unite to form a tuhe surroundini^ the 
style, from which it finally protrudes. The style is two-deft at the 
ape\. Tile fruit i.-. a seed-like akine, crowned, usually, with the 
remnants of the calyx-tuhe which a|)|)ear so often in the form of 
white hristles that tiiey are called i)appus; (Ireek for j^rand- 
fatlier. 

In tlie ray-llowcrs the corolla is stra|)-sliape(l and the strapoftcn 
has five minute teeth at the apex. The ray-llowers mav he stami- 
nate, pistillate, or |)erfect; tlie tuhular-llowers are usually perfect. 
The Composite tlower-heads apjjcar in three forms; that of which 
the Sunllower is an examjile consists of a disk of tulnilar-tlowers 
and a row of rays about the edife; thi> is a radiate lica.!. A llower- 
liead consistinji wholly of rays also is radiate, of which tiie dande- 
h'on is an example. A llower-head consisting; of tuhular-ilowers 
and no rays is called discoid, of which the Kupatoriums and the 
Greenhouse Stcvia arc examples. 

4.S2 



COMMON SUNFLOWER 

AI...III the flowcr-bfa.l arc Rallicrnl a numlH-r of |.ra( ts m,i,u- 
limf>Uafy,-.ui,»iimf,.(ariuii>; fr.M|u»nlly MV.Tal r..w>. -umrtinus 
I'lit om-; l,ut ill any an.l rviTv ( um^ lluv niakr the iiiv.^lii, re aii.I 
ils l.'au.> arr t.-nm-.l ^. ak-.. 'Ilir l.ra.ls an.l ..ale.. ul,i. I, i.ft.n 
Kn.u ..n tin- rctcplailr anmn^ the llnw,r>, arc . all.d , h.,lT; ul,.,, 
llu->.' arr wanlinj; llic pia, \v U sii.l to I,,- nakcl. 

Tlu- auuin.n ^ar.lin i, Inll ,.f Cum,,,,,,-,,..; .,,„„. |,,„,, ,,j.,.„ 
Milllvaud fnr huh.lrc.l ..f ytar^, ..tlur. arr rcMHi arrival. .\|.- 
I'arcnily. tlu- numhtr wnrthy ,,| , iiltivali,.n U iinlimii..! an.l ilir 
• han^y. wroiiKhl hy i iiliivali,.n v.ry ^;nal. 'I'Ik. family liily 
h..l(l> it-, |)l:uf ar, the m.)>i cnkicni lypc ..|" i)..\vtrin,!,' piani-. 



COMMON SUNFLOWER. HELIANTHUS 

J flli'illlllllS lillHIIIIS. 

Ifr/i.nitlnci, (Irck, llou.r (,f ilic -un. 

Thf familiar annual Sunlluwcr ..f tlir Kar.l.n, with hn^ . ]^^.■^^]^ .„„! 
larj;.', r.)Ui;lii>li kavis; variahic; llirivi.. in Minny |,la(.s. 

Slrm. Six lo trn feet l)i:,'li, r.)u^'li, hairy. 

l.r,nrs. l.arKo, usually alkrnat.', |..tinU..I, varvinx in si/r and 

/■l,'urrlir.„h. -Wu'^c, f-.ur t.. luvlw i,„ Ins acniss; invohuri' .,f 
many lialy hriuis, imhriiau.l. 

Tulndar-ilorcts IVrtilc, cn.w.I.-.i in .■..n.cnlri. cir.Ks .,n ll.c Hal 
n.rcular . hsk wln.J, ,s tlu- rcccptai k-; each ll.,r.l nnl.ra.v.l l.v a i„r.ist. ,U 
bract calk'.i dialT. ■ ' 

Ray ilonts. ^•.li,,\v, in a sin-lc n,w al.„ut th. viV^v „f iho disk' 
neutral, that IS, wiilidul stamens <ir pistil. 
( iilyx. Ue.luce.l ti) tu.i awns. 
i'orall,!. Tuhular, five-li)lie<l. 
Stfimnis. I'ivc, the anthers making a tuhe. 
.S'/v/c. '{"wo-deif, .livi.>i..ns reeurve.l. 

_ i W-. (•..mpre.^.s..!, an^'ular, win-k.s.s, the persistent chafT remain- 
mj; with the fnnt. 

Tlu' In.lian Sun ,,r the K-i'len n„ure ,,f Peru, is a plant nf su, h '-tature that 
in one .S.Mnnier, being s<,wne „f a ^ee,le in .\,,ril, it hath risen up to the height 



"•» '"Z ^"^ 



^m immm i u r .Mm 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

.,( (niiri.Tii f.x.t ill niv n.ir'li-n, wlun- ..lU' tl..ii; • n.i- in w. ii.lil ihrr.' puind 
aiKl ivM> i.iin. r^, anil c r""<' .n.rlliw.iri ilir i1..um- 1i> ini-.i-nn- -i\I< .ri m. In-. 

I,'.....|. (.H!\H1. 

A ( art'f ul M luly < >f t lu- jjn'ai ll. iwcr lifa<l < >f i piir ( ;ari Uri Sui\ll' iw ir 
will make (Uar the -Iriutiirr r', all llii- i uniimMli-. -Mm-, Ihi aiiM' 
of ii- -i/f. it ^how- in inaniiitud form all llu' pari-. 'I'lir ti|> of tin- 
llowir -Ifin ilalltii- niii iniu a tli-k ; llii- i- thf re. tjiiai Ir, ami isrrv 




Sitnll' r\M r 

a.lUi I.U.I. '.. Ihr ll..vi,r l.i.Mirii! [..Hill, . ili. il.."i 
«illl ^linm.l rrn|itivr. ./, Illr .ikini inaluicllK. 



(■om|>nsiii- licail lias one, lar^'c nr ^inall. Around llii' outrr rim 
of ihi' (irdilar (li>k. arrani^.d a- doM' a- i- ( onvtnirnt, are llu- 
lar^^r vt-llow r.iv>.; tlu'si' conMiuiir ihi' i liii'f licaiily of llu' llowt-r; 
it i> iIk'v that atlrai I atU'nlioii. \\c tall tlu'm iH'lal>. ap.i >.i they 
arc, Itul carli oiu' rfpri'M'nt-. in fad i-, a M-jiaratr an<l in-lividuai 
llowi-r. In tlu- Sihillowir lliis oiiliT ( in U- of ilnrcN have lo-t both 
piMil and >lamon>, arc oirolla |>iirrly for >lio\v: hut thr >lio\v is 
worth whilr, for it i- thi) who lall f f \,vv. All tlu' ollur llorcts 
on till' di>k arc >mall tul)ular-llowirs ( row(kd row on row in 
concontrii (ink->; (nunl thoin and you mv that liiiy numlur 
luindrc'ds. 

If vou o!)si'rvc clo-fly you will find that l.y tin- time tin- lar^,'c 
ve'llow ravs arc proprrly in jilaco t!io outor row of tui)ular-lloirts 
have- o|)fncd; I'.hn that tho tlowcrinj,' ii.ipul>c jjrott-od- from llu' 
outcT row toward the lentre. 'I 'c di-k iloreis of any l»lo— omint; 
head may Ir- soon ])assin}i throuu'h four rei^ular -ta^cs. In the 
centre are unopened huds; next 'ine o])en iloret-. ilie -lana-ns 
>heddin5,' l)ollen; then we ,net tloiels in which the -tamen> have 

4>\ 



-a^^y.:.-.-jy ' - 



Asapy:^. j^. 



GREAT SUNFLOWER 




(iruii'i Simll(i\vi-r. llilidnthiis I'nniiiiis 



. oifv '■. -?•':. Mi .■.iv^:-M"j^i%,vai^^^h^iSM»^:f:^;^s^?w»#: 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

withered while the stij^mas have opened, and, ljein<? receptive, are 
loaded with ])()llen; last of all, next to tlie rays, are rows of withered 
llorets maturing tlie fertilized fruits. Tiie llowerini? im])ulse is 
called centrijHtal; that is, it proceeds from tlie circumference to 
the centre. In one respect the llorets of the Sunllower are unlike 
most comjMJsites — they still retain obvious traces of a true calyx 
and consecjuently are destitute of ])a])pus. The rays stand u|) 
hravelv to their duty until the very centre florets have opened; 
then they l)ef,Mn to droo|); their work heinj? done, they pass away. 

Heneath the receptacle, strenj^theninj? and sui)portin}; it, an' the 
leafv hracts, row U])on row, that make the involucre. AH com- 
posite heads have this; its otrice is the protection of the more 
delicate parts within. As the rays hefjin to drooj), the involucre 
l)ract> become active and dose as much as ])ossii)le about the disk 
to protect the maturinj^ seeds. What seems to be a seed is an 
akene; that is, a seed-vessel containing a single seed. Tliese are 
large, i)rown, shining, each at first with two little ears tiiat arc 
oliviously the remains of a caly.x. 

Moore's famous lines: 

.\s the sunflower turns on hiT pod, when he sols, 
Till' sanu' liHik whiili she lurn'il when lie niso. 



has been seriously questioned and regarded as a poet's fancy 
utterlv without foundation in fact. 15ut whoever carefully ob- 
serves the growing jilants of the dreat Sunllower in his garden will 
l)e convinced that at a i crtain period of tlieir develojjment the 
growing ti])S do follow tlie sun. This is not true of the younger 
plants; and, obviouslv, it could not be true of the stem sununit 
when loaded with llower-heads. or even of a single llower-head on 
its stiff |)e(lunclc, but at tlie time when tlie leaves of the summit are 
gathering Mito a msette, pre])aratory to the appearance of the bud, 
the tijis seem to be esju'cially sensitive and they do follow the sun— 
at least mine do; one cannot speak for his neighbor^' Sunllowers. 
The ("ireat Sunllower lia> varied into many forms. Ciilifoniii its 
is a large, double variety; i^Ioliosiis has enormous globular heads; 

■45" 



PERENNIAL SUNFLOWERS 

then- is also a dwarf of this variety; tlu- Ru-ian C.iant i- tin' form 
cullivati'd -n Kus>ia for its xrilr-, wliirh are >o!;I nj;on tlu" >lri'fts 
a^ jR'anuts are sold witli u>, and eaten raw. 

The Suntlower is jjrown a- a eommen ial erop in ^outlurn I'-urope. 
in I",i,'vi)t. and in India. The i)rodiuts are the seed-, the oil tliat i- 
extracted from tliem, and the oilnake tlial remain-. 'I'lie I'llire 
of tile -tem> i> verv -tron<f and makis a tliread that look- iiki' >ilk. 
It i> elear that there are i ommereial ])ossil)ilitie- in the i)lant were 
it wortli while to develop them. 

It i> well to urow the Sunllower ju-t to renew one"> a( (juaintame 
with the vellow-liirds. On their autumnal mij^ration they >eek 
Suntlower seeds and will vi>it alnio>l anybody who has them. 

Ihiunilhus lU'hilis is the i)rimitive of the ( ommon, -mall, annual 
Suntlower. The -tem 1. ram lie- freely from the l.a-e makinj^ a 
l)U-hy jilant. The leave- are ovate to triani,'ular, i,'enerally cordate, 
j^lossy, irrej^ularlv toothed or entire, and the llower-head- have a 
si)read of two to three inches. Thi- -jK^cie- is largely thrown for 
cut llower>; in the type the centre is dark. It ajipear- in hoth 
sin.nle and doulile forms and doe- he-t in a -andy -oil. 



PERENNIAL SUNFLOWERS. HELIANTHUS 

Ilclidnthus ilcrapft.iliis. Udhliithiis rigidns. Ifcli.inlliKs l„liilonis. 

Tlu' rcrennia! Sunllinvers are in the main tillur the tyjie or tlu^ 
variaticin d" three Xorlli .American IIiTuinthi dcafxialus, r'n'jtlus, and 
luii:!(irus. Tluv a]i|>ear siiii,'le, semi douhle, and full dou!)lc'. July to 
Ocloher. 



Stem.— \ dry fnim two to e'-ut feet, stitT, more or less hraiieliiiiL', 
more or less leafy. 

/.caves. Sessile or sliort-i)etiole'l; in ffclidiillius rii:ii!iis .-ix to twiKe 
inches loni;, firm, thick, rouu'h-hairy, ovate to hroad iamvolate, entire 
or slii^lulv'^loothecl, narrowed at the hase into a winj;ecl petiole; in 
Hfliiuillius (hrapctiilus three to eight inchvs lontr. ovate-lanceolate, 
shari)ly serrate, rout,'h above, pubescent beiieadr, in 1 h'Uanlhns luti- 
I'lonis four to ei.ght inches \o\vj., ovate -lanceolate, rou,i,'li abovc' and below, 
more or less serrate. 

4S7 



r f 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

Flower -heads. Radiato, two and a half to four inrlics arross; in type 
sinf,'lc, flcvilopiiij,' into scmi-douhk' and doul)k' forms, Tlif disk in 
Ifeliiuilliiis rigidHs is brown or |)uri)iish; in tiic otluTs yillowisii. 

Pislc-florets. Fcrliii', rays neutral. 

The garden race of Perennial Sunllowers is derived in the main 
from three species: llvlhnillnis da ipctilu^, native to tiie Alle- 
ghany regions and \e\v Kngland as well a> the Middle West; 
Ifrliiulliiis n\!^idiis, and licit nitliiis Ifeti/lonis, Western forms de- 
veloi)ed in the Mississii)|)i Valley, adu-tomed to heat and not 
unaci|iiainte(i with drought. All radiate com|)osites under favora- 
l)le conditions increase the numlier of their rays, and these native 
sunflowers have ])rove(l jjarticularly amenalde in that respect. 

IIclitHthiis dcc.ipctd: ■ in name apparently records that the 
heads api)ear with l»ut ten rays; this i> a mi>take,— they are fre- 
(pienlly numerous even in the tyi)e. The plant |)refers moist soils; 
ranges as far north as (Juei)ec and as far south as Kentu( kv. 
I'nder cultivation it has given rise to tlie horticultural variety 
miiltijlonts, whose garden forms differ mainly in the extent of 
doubling, season of blooming, height and liabit of the plant, and 
size of the tlower-head. Among the i)est of tiiese are: Jldrc-plcnns 
and grditdi/ldni.s, both almost comi)lelely double; iiu'ihr with 
very large llowers; mdxiiniis with a large single llower liaving 
pointed rays; Soleil d'Or with (luilled tlorets. These nmltijlonis 
varieties are deservedly the most jjopular of the sunllowers. 

lldiuilhiis rii;id!is, naturally one of the dark-disked sjK'cics, 
bears showy heads on long ])eduncles, and under cultivation has 
varied chielly in tlie direction of doubling, and lengthening the 
blooming period; many favorite varieties are leferred to tin's 
primiliv( (cslivalis, i^randijlonis, snni- plains, and .Miss .Mellisji. 
/fclinillnis latijlonts is the parent of a very desirable garden 
variety— ,sY;«/-/)/e/;;/.v— which keei)s its half-double form with 
very little care or attention. It is, of course, well understood that 
all higlily bred varieties, if grown on poor soil or neglected, revert 
to type. 

The landscape gardener who is an artist and has space at his 
command will often Ihid tiiat he can control results and prcnluce 



SUNFLOWER 




SuntlowiT. Hilidiilhus ilirupeliiliis. (jardun l-Drm. 



^Sgg ' 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

desired clTects l)y transferring and massing the TleliiHithi native 
to the ref^inn rather than hy relying upon the petted darlings of 
the garden. Darlings want to be ccxldled and that is not always 
j)ossil)le. 

The Jerusalem Artichoke, IIcImhIIius liiberdsiis, by no means 
an artichoke and having not the remotest connection with Jeru- 
salem, has been grown in the past as a fo(Kl; the creeping roots 
pHKlucing in autumn a number of irregular tubers which are edible 
and iuive the llavor of artichokes. This ])Iant was intnxluced into 
England, in 1617, from the Farnese gardens at Rome under the 
name (lirasole Articocco, the Sunflower .Vrtichoke. Tiie Anglo- 
Saxon genius for changing names is here exemplified, and ( lirasole 
soon iiecame Jerusalem and so it has remained. The ])lant is a 
trustworthy sunllower; it can bo relied upon to do well with little 
care; it will even increase, its tubers look out for that; sometimes 
l)cople regard it as a weed. The stem varies from five to twelve 
feet high, branching above. The leaves, four to eight inches long, 
are usually ovate, serrate, acuminate, rough. Flower-heads two 
to three inches acro.ss; disk-llorels yellow; rays twelve to twenty. 
It blooms late. 

Hd'unilhus orgyalis is an interesting species from the dry South- 
western plains, eight to ten feet high, having unbranching stems 
with very many linear, drooping leaves, eight to ten inches long, 
which give the plant an exceedingly unusual appearance. 

HELIOPSIS. OX-EYE 

Ilciciipsis lai-vis. 

Ilileopsis, Orc'ok, like the sun. 

\ beautiful native comjiosite, re.scml)ling a wild sunflower, found 
i)l()()ming in sunny thickets during July and .\ugust. \cw York, south 
ami west. 

Stem. One to four feet high, smooth or slightlv roughish, often 
I)urplish. 

Leaves. Ojjposite, petioled, ovate or lance-ovate, smooth or roughisii, 
triple ribbed at the base; coar.sely siTrati', acute or aruminate 

4.0 



^^, ^ 



HELENIUM 

Flouvr li(<iih Kadiutf, ti-rminatin^; tlic lirancl.vs. witli a sprrail of 
two and a hall to llircr iiulus; rays goldin yellow, krtilr; disk llorcts 
yellow. 

hnohurc. Of two to three rows of hraels, the inner f-horter than the 
others. 

Kidptadr. Convex; liialT yi llow-ti|)|)ed. 

Akcms. Four -sided; i)ai)i)Us either wanting or of two to four minuti 
teeth. 

Heliopsis is a ^reat addition t<> the wild jjarden. The llower- 
heads are three inches aiross, of a heautiful jiolden-yellow , and 
look like wild suntluwers. Tlie distinction between the two lie> 
larf^ely in the sliajje of the reeeinaile, the character of tiie 
pappus, and the fertility of the ray-tloret. In Heliop>i> llie 
recei)tacle is conical, the pai>pus is either wantin}^ or con>i>l> 
of a few minute teeth, and the ray-llorets are fertile. In Heli- 
anthus, the sunllower, the ray-llorets are neutral; the reief)- 
tacle tlal or convex i)Ut never conical, and the pap|)us of two 
chalTy scales. 

Heliopsis hh-is is advertised under the variety PiUhcriam, 
which is, of course, a i)roi)er tribute to the one who brought it 
from the wilds and introduced it into the j;arden. Hut any one 
may feather the seeds in the wild-wood tangle, l)rinf,' them home, 
and in due time the lovely creature will smile from the hardy 
jjorder. The variety scabra is simply a rouglicr form of the plant. 



HELENIUM. SNEEZE WEED 

Hell II ill »i autamiiak. 

Aiuieiit (iieek name of ohMUre iiicanini;. 

.\ tall, handsome perennial; one of our fmest autumnal composites, 
r.se 1 in jiark jilanlini^. 

Stem. I'.rect, roui;h, leafy, two to five feet hit;h. 

Leaves. .Mternate, lanceolate, toothed, often decurrent on the stem. 

401 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

I' lower-heads. Kiuliatc. showv, vclldw, ai. incli and a half across 
l)()rnc in I.h.sc orynihs. Kays hriKlit yellow, fertile, inclined to droopj 
disk-tlorets tubular, greenish-yellow, crowded on rece|)tacie 

Involucre.— Oi a few ionj,', slender, rellexed Ijructs. 

Receptacle. — Cllobular or conical. 

Akenes. Top-shaped and ribbed. 

I'apptis. .\ few thin scales. 



Holenium lia> been very j,'eneral!y i)lantc(l in i)arks aion.t,' with 
liK-al forms of Heliantluis. It ma»cs well and <,'ivcs a varietv in 
color effects. Altlioiif^h the rays are bright- 
yellow, the (lisk-llorets are i;reeni>l)-yellow, 
whicli affects the tone of the ma>s. Culti- 
vation has already produced several very 
beautiful varieiie-, and more may be ex- 
pected. 



RUDBECKIA, CONE FLOWER 

Rudhcck'bt liK iiiihtii. 

Xaiiieil in honor of two |irofcssor> — 
ku(ll)C(k, father and son; priclin'.-.,,ors 
of I.inn:eii> at Ipsila. 

The typical ])erenniai species which has pro- 
duced the favorite double form known as 
(lolden {'dow. I'refers nioi.st locations; rans^'es 
from Canada to Florida, west to .Montana and 
south-west to \ew Mexico. 

::icm. 'I"wo to seven feet hi;.;h, smooth, 
branching,' above. 

/.c/rcv. -.Mternate; lowest j)innate with five to seven cut or cleft 
leallets; upiiermost u.suaily three-cleft or undivided. 

_ rUnccr-licads. Radiate, on lon>; |)e(luncles, two and a half to three 
inches across. Rays bri-ht-yellow, several, neutral, somewhat droopin-'- 
disk-tlorets ;;reenisii-yellow. 

Iitioltu re. Of t\\ o ruu s ul bracts. 

4'' 2 




Ililiniiim. IleUnuin 
\iiitunnttiU 



fi I illrMMMIMi 



PURPLE CONE FLOWER 

KciCptiidr. Ohldiiy and in I'ruil ( \ limlrii al; dialT yt lli)W-ti|)|K'(l. 
I'lippiis. NoiK' iir a inimite- crowii liki' Imrder. 
Aknus. I'uur-an^lrd. 

RikHhiU'I liuini il'i i> dtu- nf tlic t;dl \i^(irnu> cnnipo-itf^ wlilrli 
hri^litcn iIk' tanfilc and adurn llic ruad-idi-- in Aii'^ii-i. It (it'icn 
^lan<l> M'Vt'M tVi't liii^li, hearing a Ido^c (oIIci liun <it" Imm |n(ltm« led 
lu'ad~. with (li^k> MHiU'wliat t'lniinati'd. 'I'lu' liri,i;lit \cllii\s ra\- 
drdiip a littk', l)Ul the gcnt'ral I'lTcct of tlic llMWir-hcad i- thai of a 
suniliiwiT. 

Thi' gardrn favorite, Goldm Glow, is a full d(.ui)If form of A'/d/- 
licrkiii Itiiniitii whiih lias hriii lultivatcd >iiuc iS(/); luit w Iuik f 
it canio or how it wa- dcNclopcd si'cnis to liu ([uitc unknown. It 
was "found" among a coHLCtion of plant-). 



PURPLE CONE FLOWER 

Ecliiu'iccii piirpiii'ca. 

Ixhiuaic:!, Circik, hnlj^rhn;^; referring to the rci(]itarle widi its 
-iKirp, |"iinteil c lialT. 

.S7('»;. — Usually smooth, usiialiv two or 
three tVet iii,i;Ii, from a thick, Mack, ])un- 
>,'eiit-taslinj,' root. 

I.ciivcs. Ciiielly alternate, three to llve- 
rilihed, veiny, ovate or lanceolate, denlale- 
.serrate; lower haves with long-niuri^ined 
jyetioles. 

I-'bni'crs. Radiate; rays dull rose-|iuri)le; 
rather persistent, lonu, drooping;, |)i>tillate 
hui sterile; disk-llore'ts l)rowni>h-]iur]ilt'. 

hivohirrr. ( )|' se\erai rows of hracts, 
with spreailinu and pointed tii)S. 

Krrrpl.uic. Convex or conical. 

(.'ha:j. kii^id, >piny - tijiped, persistent, 
lon^'cr than tlie di.>k llorets. 

.l^r«rv. -Phick and >hort. |.,ur-sidrd, ,.,,„,,(.„„, ,■, ,, Zn„:...a 

Willi a li/uUucI IxiMlel ill! piippLls, pur[>una 

4'',5 




COMPOSITE FAMILY 



Till' I'urplf Cone FlduiT is a cnarsc. -tunly plant of \hv tviK' of 
the familiar lilai keyed Sii>an or Cone IIowit, Kiidhcdci't liirla, 
only lar^'er, the ray> dull ro>e purple and rell. \e(|. The iiloominj; 
>ea>on i> lon^j, the llo\ver> elTei live; but tin' plant lielonj^^ with the 
stilT, unyielding >,'roup>. 



LEPACHYS 

t.i'fhidiys fiimii'il:!. 

I.I- fun li vs. Circik.a tliii k xalr; rifiTrinj^ tn the lliii kciitcl u|i|".T |iart 
of iIk' 1 half. 

One of our native, ]H'rennia! e()miK)sites, now tonsiderahly use'd in 
l)ark ])lanlin<^. 

Slrm. Slender, hoary, wit!) minute, aj)- 
pressed hairs, three to I'lve feet lii^;h. 

/.iinis. Alternate, jjinnately i)arte(l; 
leallets three to seven, lanceolate, acute. 

/■loicir-linul.s. Radiate, rays hrij^ht-yel- 
low or ])arti-colorvl, dr(H)|)inj;, two inches 
long; (lisk-llorets reddish-hrown, tubular, 
crowded on the receptacle. 

Involucre.-- \ single row of small, green, 
spriading bracts. 

Rcccptiulc- Conical or columnar. 

J\ipf>us.~Simt.- or a short crown. 

.U'0(f,9.— Flattened laterally, and mar- 
gined. 

Le])a(hys is one of our Western com- 
])o>ites which is proving itself an ex- 
cellent ])ark i)lant. The nower-heads 
are unusual in appearanc-- for the ravs 
look as if poised for tlight, ready to wing 
themselves away at the first opportunity. From the tip of the 
thimble disk to the last ])()int of its drooping ray the tlowerdiead 
measures about two and onedialf inches. The dark disk-llowers 
creep u|) the column, and the great yellow rays wait till the last one 
opens and then the season is over for that head. 

464 




I.ipailiys. Lipiuhys pintiald 



WHITE TANSY 



WHITE TANSY 

.\ihilh-,t [>tiirmi(ii, 

A [Kipiilar, haHy, imtcp ,ial hcrl., niiu h iisol for cut (lowers, a[>iMar- 
iriK in Kanl.ns |.rinci|.ally in its .loiil.lr variiiy. \aturali/..(l from 
luiroiic. lli-lily priml jjccausc of its lon^ Mo>sominn period, extending 
from JiUR- to ( )itolHT. 

Root^. I'lrcnnial. l)y horizontal or crcc|)inj,' 
rootstoiks. 

Sum. Oni' to two ftrt lii!,'li, ulal irons or 
slightly pulH'sciril, nearly or (|uiie sin)|)le. 

/.(vnvv. Linear or iinear-laiueolate, sessile 
and slightly elasjiin^' at base, aeute at apex; 
reK'.iarly ami dosely >errate, sometimes |nil)es- 
cent oti the viins lieneath. 

'•l(ncrr-lu<i({s. Radiate, white; rays six to 
twenty; heads in loose corymhs; disk-llorets 
yellow. 

Involiurc. nell-sha[Hc|; bracts ovate-ub- 
liinj;, imbricated, 

RiccpUulc. ("halTy. 

Akates. Oblong', sliKhtlv comr)resse(l; iiai)- 
pus none. 




White f.ih-v. A.hillui 
ptdrmiai 



The prefcrrcfi form t^i .i,lii/loi [)l,irmua 

is the variety known as TJic Pearl, in wliich 
ail the tubular ll.iwers have been replaced with ravs and each 
flower-head becomes a little white ro.ette. rortun'atelv in this 
transf.irmati.in the plant has lost little, if anv, ,if its wild vi^'or 
at the same time that it has -ain.-d >o ureatlv in beatitv. 

The familiar Varn.w, ArhiUca millrfolhim of the roadside, i. a 
liuropean weed thorou-hly naturalized at the North. A variant 
form with llower-heads of ma-enta-pink has been transferred to 
the hardy border; this appears as variety roscnw. The tvpicai 
form was, and perhaps is, still u:.ed in that kind of domeMi,- 
divination of which Scotch and Kn^Ii^h folk-lore is so full. On 
Midsummer Kvo a bunch of Yarrow under the pillow would brin« 
to tile .sleeper in dreams the future hu>band or wife. An olcJ 

4'l.T 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

rliynu- -.licnviii^^ tlii- lulitf i>. -lill rxiant amont; llu' (nmmnn |w()|(Ic 
iif I'Ji^land: 

'I'liuu |irriiy Inrli ..f \'i-nii- tnr 

'Ihy Irur ri.iiiic il i- N .irruw , 
Now who my i|c,iri-l fricnil -hail }»■ 

I'rav till ihiiu tiic id-iuDrruw. 



DAHLIA 

Ihihliii rar'nhilis. IKilili,i rnsni. 

Nanicil in iMiinr uf Dr. I>alil, a impil aiiJ friend of I.iiin.iii-. 

Ddliliii Vdridliii'i.s is iHlitvcil to In- the |)rimitivf f<irm of all tlu- Dahlias 
in niltivatiiin, with tiu' |><is>iM,> i-xaption i>f the Caitiis I)ahlia, P'ilili,i 
Jiuirlzii. I'liumi ai an ricvatidn nf mvcii ilioii>aM<l firi i>n tin- tnutiiilains 
of Mexico. Mxlri'imly varialik'. 

Kiuils. TuhtTous, must hi' stored in winter and planted. 

Stem. Four to six fivl lii^di. 

I.fiivfs. I'innateiy compound; the liallets lohed. 

h'lini'ir-htads. Radiate; rays red, yellow, or white; ili>k lloi .ts 
yellow. Hy cultivation the ilisk llonis are turned into ra\s producing 
the will known double t'orms. 

luvolmrc. Of .sevt-ral .series of hrads; the outer seriis leafv', re- 
tlexed; inner series more or less siariou>, iIom' to the ravs. 
Kcicf/tiiilc. Convex, covered with involucral scales. 

The hortii iiitiiral history of tiie l)ahlia i- wi'll known. Tiio 

plant \va> di-covered l>y Cervaiite-, the dire( tor of the .Mexii an 

Uotanic Oardens, ;md hy him sent to Sjiain late in the eij^diteenth 

century. From tlii-- -tm k in ijSi; -|)ccimen> were lirou<,du into 

F'.n.niand. hut the^' all died. In iSoo a i onsi^Minunt of -eeds and 
I, ,i.,.>-^ ,..,._..„( ,!;■-... ii,. ... I.' (■_ M .. • 'i-i. 1- - .1 



ACHILLEA 




Achillc; 



a. Arliilh 



t pli'irmica var. The JVarl 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



strains i>f mlicr s|h'« ii'<, l)Ut at hast' thi- Halilia of tin- ^ardtii is 
thf miKliriid and variahli- furm^ (if Ihilili.i roM;t. \\\v t"ir>t ^|k( ic> 
of tlir \i,v\n\-. intriKliin-d int(» ( ultivalion. 

It is I'videnl that from thr lir-l llic >|k* ii-^ varied marvi'iioii>Iv 
within ikarly dctinnl limit-; that tlit' original rinht-ravi'd iloucr 
drvi'lopcd doiiMi- form- with wonderful fai ilil\ ; and that verv 
early two definite Kroii|» known as the bhuw and the I'ani \ ty|)es 
were estal)li>he<l. 

'I'his tlasMluation still exists; its limits are will iinder-tood 
and its laws dhserved in all i ompetilion- anion^r Dahlia >;rower>. 
The Show Dahlia i- ii-iially of one c olor, thouj^h it «1«k'> not lt»c 
standing if the edfjes of the ray are darker than the urouml. 

The Faniy Dahlia is always of two or more (olors, Mriped or 
with ed^fs li^'iiter than the ground. The !'om|ioii i> -im|il\ a >mall 
brother of the Show or the Fane y Dahlia, having; the same (dlors 
a-id the same form with smaller and more abundant bloom. These 
three groujis rejiresented the development of the Dahlia until i8«o. 
They are slitT, formal (lowers of -urpri-ini,' re^'ularitv and j,'reat 
ran^e of color. The standard of perfei tion recjuires that no yellow 
eentre is to be seen. The reaition a^^ainst th'> f( i \\ IIowit, I'^is 
"ehub-faeed dahlia which carves out of >oap, lard, or wax his 
re>,'ular jiomiions," found expression in the Cactus Dahlia. The 
origin of this type is virtually unknown. .\ Dut( h dealer ^'ot a 
root from Mexico that i)riKluced one plant which is the parent of 
all the cactus forms. It is not known whether this root was ]iro- 
duced by the seed of a wild or of a ( ultivated form; neither is it 
known whether any wild >inj,'le Dahlia of the cactus tvpe has ever 
been found. The jilant was named Diililid Jiunczii in honor of 
the .Mexican jwsident and so appears in all the -garden lists. This 
new Dahlia was named Cactus because of the resemblance in form, 
but chietly in color of its i^lossom to that of the ( rinison-llowered 
Ccrciis spciiosissiiiius. The name has lo-t whatever si(rnifn;,tni. 
it mi<jht at first have jxjssessed, for the Cactus Dahlia ha> ac(juired 
all the colors of its race. 

The Decorative or Cactus FTybrid i^rov.p inclu.'ic- a!! form- that 
vary from the strictly formal and cactus types. Many arc lubrids 

4().S 



DAHLIA 




Dahlia in variety. Diililia vtiridhilis 






COMPOSITE FAMILY 

as Ihe name implies, many aro smllin.tjs of tin- Show Dalilia. In 
this ^roup aro placed the new and hyl.rid form-, manv of them 
tliiffy and toiiselied. 

The single Dahlias in cultivation diiTer con-ideiMhlv from tiie 
wild type. In the primitive form tiie ray> are >lender, jiointed, an<l 
far enou^'h ai)art to j,'ive a >tar >liape to the hlossom. The' pre- 
ferred f,'ar(!en form has l,roa<ler and rounder rays with the si)a(e> 
between closed; l.ut ai)art from the>e dilTerences it well repre>ents 
the primitive llower as it blooms on tiie mountain-side in Mexico. 



J 









PYRETHRUM 

Chrysdiilhcmnni rdcdiiiiim. I'vrith 



nun ro^iiiitr. 



The well-known perennial I'yrethrum cultivated in manv varieties 
and olten forced for sprini,' llowers. Native of Persia. Ma\, June. 

Stem. Krect, one to three feet hi,i,'h, hrancliinj;, smooth. 
Leaves. I'innately cut, the lower Knaves petioled, the upper sessile. 
riourr-heads. Radiate, terminal, solitarv; rav.s fertile, of v;-rious 
colors, hut chiefly shades of red. 

Involitere. Of many close-pressed bracts imbricated in several .series 
the outer shorter. ' 

Reeeptacle. Flat, without chatT. 

.Urwfi-.— Ribbed; papj)us none. 

Pyrclhrum in },',irden literature and Ian<,nia,f;e almost always 
means Pyrclhrum rosciim, a Iiandsome, summer-blooming, peren- 
nial (om|)osite with erect stems and linely dis>ected I'oliaj^e. The 
llowers run the ran-^e of red to white through j)ink, carmhie, n.-e, 
crimson, and lilac. They look like re.l ox-eye dal s ami vary 
from a single row of ray> to double forms likJ those of asters and 
chrysanthcmum>. 

The type originated in the mountainous regions of Persia and 
along the llank> of the (■auca>us: has been long in cultivation- 
is of exceedingly variable nature and docile in the hands of the 
gardeners, as more ih.in six hundred najned varieties liave !;cen 
developed. 

470 



■;&r?i 



SUMMER CHRYSANTHEMUM 

Willi us they are larniily, if rmt pritK ii)ai;y, forced in tlie <(reen- 
houses for tl •■ -i.rin.i,' trade, and as a rule are not uitivated in our 
garden i;ui ;'•-;( ,\hi, do cultivate theiii reconniiend tlii'ni as 
hardy;, d c, iiy mow 'I'liey >eeni hetter aide to \\itli>tan<l our 
\\inler> il>;.:; to vnciu ■ our summers. They must have a co(,l, 
moi>l rooi-ruii.a.i;: l-in;,' -urface-rooiinj; ])lants -ufl'er if under the 
direct ray> of our hot summer sun. J)oul.ile>-, there i> a jihue in 
every irarden where they would llouri>h, and it i> ct'rtainly worth 
while to take the irouMe lo lind ii. 



SUMMER CHRYSANTHEMUM. KEELED CHRYSANTHEMUM 

Chrys .'illicmiim fariiialuni. Chrysiiitthriinnii trimlnr. 

The most l)riiliant of the annual Chrysanthrmums, easily distin- 
jr\iishrrl hy the keeled or ridu'ed scales of the involucre and the dark- 
pur])K disk. 

S/nii. I'lrecl, nuich-hranclied, alioui 
two feel lii>,'h. 

/.(■iivrs. ' Cul lo the niidrii), sei^'ments 
narrow, irregular, and ileshv. 

F lower -hriuh. .'Solitary, on stems or 
branches; rays broad, three to live lolie.i, 
white with a yellow rin;,' at base; have 
varied into many dilTercnl forms; disk- 
llorels dark-|)ur[>le. 

hn-olurri'. With about three rows of 
ridued or keeled scales and an upjKT mw 
of scarioLis scales. 

Rc<t[)lii(l,-. .'^Ijiilnly convex. 

Pappus. .\ minute crown. 

The SummiT ("hry-anthennim, or 
Keeled Chrysanthemuin, so named be- 
cause of the ridj;es on the involucral 
scales, is the nio-t Iirillianl of all ilu' 
annual chry>anthemums. The jirinu- 
!!vc .-.f thi- j^arden r.u e v,a.-. br-ught int.- F.nuland I'rom Morocco 
Ml ijqS. It attracted great attention from tiie l"n>t. Hecause of 

4?! 




Siimir.ir ('lir\ ^^inlhiniiin 
< liry^anllumiin: lri<,d,ii 



.^Km 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



the variety of color that it displayed — white rays with a yellow 
zone at hase and a (lark-i)uri)le di>k— it received the name Chrys- 
tnUhrmum tricolor. 

The (garden varieties ])r(Klured from this wild form are hoth 
sinj^le and double, hut this was to he expected. The unusual 

achievement has heen to add a 
rinj; of another color to the 
orif^inal yellow as well as to 
ohtain strains of hoth red and 
yellow. Varieties are now of- 
fered in the market with a rinj^ 
of red, maroon, or |)ur|)le out- 
side the rin}^ of yellow, and in 
some forms the entire ray is 
llushed with pink. 

Tlie old-fasiiioned Summer 
Chrysanthemum, or (jariand 
Daisy, Chrysanthemum roro- 
iiijriiim, or Aulhcmis corona- 
riii, from the Mediterranean 
ref^ion, also annual, is (ii>tin- 
guished hy its keeled involu- 
cral scales, the up])er row of 
\vhich is scarious. The leaves 
are lji]iinnate!y parted, somewhat clas])ing or eared at the hase, the 
segments rather closer together than in airiiiatum. Tiie rays arc 
bright lemon-yellow, sometimes pale-yellow, almost white. The 
disk-tlorels are yellow. .Semi-douhle and full douljle forms are 
common and pojjular. The plant grows three feet high, sometimes 
more. 

C\^stmary, or Mint Geranium, Chrysanthemum halsdmita var. 
ttinaretotdcs, is a perennial sjjecies with sweet-scented leaves and 
discoid yellow llower-heads in llat-to|)i)ed clusters. The plant is 
erroneously known as lavender. It has escaped in a few places 
from old gardens. 

Com Marigold, Chrysanthemum segctum, "the beautiful pest of 

472 




Gariaml Daisy. Chrysanllunium 
torottiirium 



K^- 



■'Vi.!/.. 



.r'^'^msM:M^emm's^' 'ng: 



SUMMER CHRYSANTHEMUM 




Oislniary. ( lirysanlhennim 



the rnrn-ficM-," i- an iinnual >|Hrii'- wiili 
golrlcn ray-, ( ullivaU'd and xinulinio- 
foniil, l)Ut nall\ not worlhy of tlic troiililc 
It is native to (ircal Britain and llic Con- 
tinent. 

(".olden I'Vatlier, Chrysaiithcmum pnc- 
dltiim var. iiurcuin, iiortieulturally /'yW'- 
Ihnim <iuriiiiu, i- tlie low-i;ro\\ini; form 
witii vello\vi>h foiiatre, eonimonly u-ed 
for earjjet iiedding. Somelinus tlie foli- 
age is verv yellow, and >o remain- through- 
out the season; it is very li' t'ly to hecome 
greener as the summer advanies, I'specially 
if llowers are allowed t<> form. There is a 
dwarf variety, aur'ctim crhpum, with foli- 
age eurled like i)arsley, and another, 
i;l,i!((iiii!, with (lusty white foliage. This 
si)eeies is not eonsidered hy botanical 
authorities distinct from Feverfew, Chrysanthemum parthhihtm. 
'I Marguerite, or Paris Daisy, Chrysanthemum frulist cits, is 

the own ])erennial greenhou-e plant, shruli!)v at ha-e, 

hrani ...ig al.undantly at the to]). Native to the Canar) l>land>, 

it has been tlie e-pciial i are of 
the I'rencii gardeners, and its 
extensive cultivation ha> resulted 
in many varieties. The variety 
(hrxsdster has yellow rays and is 
known as tlie yellow Marguerite, 
(liant T)ai>y, Chrysanthemum 
ulii^inusum, becomes a stout, erect 
hush four to hve feet high, l>er- 
ennial, hut l.liM.ming the hrst year 
from seed. The blossoms look 
like particularly fine ox-eye dai- 
sies, two to three inches across. 
Though native to the swamps 

473 




Gcililt'n 1\.ii1ki-. ( liry.uinlhemum 
aiinum 






(.♦-'4 % ,■ 



■iy-^' 



w^m^Mi^^m?^m, 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 




of Hungary, tlu' plant has thriven iindiT ^Mrdcn conchlions and is 
now (k'sor\i'(lly a fa\iiriti'. 

Ox-eye Daisy, i>r W hiteweed, C'h, <a)itlicmiim Inicanthcmum, is 
the well-known i)esl of tlie meadows uf \ew luij^land and the 
Middle Slates, detested l)y farmers lait loved liy arti-lic va^rant>. 
'I'he (lowers are often f,Mthered for decoration, as ihev la-t a lon<,' 
time. The ])lant eame to us from I Europe. ( )ne of it> j^reat cenires 
of distribution wa> tlie baltle-lieid of Saratoi,';' and the route of 
l5ur<,'oyneV army, lieravi-e his hor,-e> were fed ujion fodder uhi( li 
ran from central (iermany, and this weed, so tradition savs, was 
in the hay and its ^eed^ s])ran,i,' up in the track of tlie armv. 

The Shasta Daisy, of Mr. Hurhank's (reation, is a Inl.rid of 
Inioinlliriitiiw, whidi i> modified and imp.oved liv .-trails of 
(lerman and Ja])ane-.e dai-ies. 

Hardy ('lirysantliemum is tlie name ,i,nven to the clir -anthe- 
munis liloominji in tiie border in ( HioIkt and Xovemher. There 
have Ions,' been in cultivation i>lant> called ''("hinoe" or Small- 
llowered Chrysanthemums, and tlie-e, now groujied under the 
"Pompon lyjie," have been greatly improved and are offered in 
variety by all dealers. 

The Hardy Chrysanthemums have been overshadowed bv the 
llorists' wonderful Howers, but there are in<lications that tliev are 
coming to their own. It is certainly a mistake to >urrender the 
garden to the fir>t fro-t>. In northern ( )hio it often lia|)])ens that 
a killing frost comes in September, followed by weeks of beautiful, 
warm, summer weather— init the garden is ruined. A little 
care, some yards of cotton cloth, a few slakes easily moved, and the 
Xa-tuniums, the China I*mks, the Marigolds, and the Pansies 
would i)e saved. Indeed, the (Jaillardias, Calen<lulas, and (kra- 
niuins make a brave fight on their own account. Sweet Alyssum 
never surrenders. Petunias do their best. Cosnn)s, of course, 
stands. Hut, at the best, these plants of the summer live a pre- 
carious life, and the real foundation for the OctoIxT garden is, and 
must be, the Hardy Chrysanthemums. These are essential for 
mas>ed effects of color, and they \',\\v marvellous vellows, yellow- 
browns, and pinks. There are ab.) jilenty of whites, and it is to 

474 



3.^ 



FEVERFEW 

the whites lluit om- mu>t turn fur tlu' pradiiKikiT in llif (Ktnlur, 
as ill fail in any, j^ankn. 



FEVERFEW 

( 'lir\s,'nillin)uim partiii iiiii))!. 

IVri'nnial, urowini,' in tul't: ; tarly iiuroiliictd intn tliis (-dimtry ninl 
still in (ullivation; in the I'.astim Stales has cscaind inlu waste |ilaees. 
I'Airi)])e Summer. 

Stem. One to ihrir t'eet hii,'h, leafy, hranchini,'. 

Leaves. N'l'ildw-^reen, ]iinnately parted into nvatr or ohloni; seg- 
ments wliich are pinnatilid or incisid into rounded divisions. 

I'ldU'er-liedcls. Radiate, three-fourths of an in'Ii aero>s, uhitf or 
cream, home in loo.se terminal or ax- 
illary cymes; the jjedundes leafy or 
hracted; rays whiti-, few or many; 
disk-llorets white, lijjped with pale- 
yellow. 

Reecptaele. Slif^htly convex, naked. 

hivoluere.- Broad and Hat; .scales 
imiiricated, margins scarious. 

/'(I /)/)Hi. "Minute crown, or none. 

This is one of the old favorites 
that <frew in ])il,urini jjanlens, and 
still finds a |)hue in tiie hardy Ixir- 
iler. The plant make> l)U>he- liiree 
or more feel high and of j)ro|)or- 
tionate hreadth. The leave> are 
l)innaielv divided into toarse divi-ions, which are cut ;-:,Min into 
rounded and toothed ~egnient>. Tiie tlower-heads exercise the 
unquestioned right of a comi)o>ile to vary, and while, during all the 
vear< of cultivation, tliey have not enlarged in si/.e materially, 
manv dilTerenl forms ai)i)ear. Among lhe>e is a half-douiile wit' 
])erhai)s twenty white rays and a jjale-yellow (li>k; another is a 
full-(loul)le, though not very regular; a third has -lender tubular 
rav^ and small (luilled di>k-llorets; a fourth Hat ray- and a hemi- 
si)herical (li>k of small (|uilled llorels. In all lhe>e variations the 
haljit of growth and cliaraiter of foliage lemaia um hanged. 

475 




I'l vitUw. ChryMintlumuni f^iirlhhiium 



-.^i: ■!■:■ 






>*.~Jci'B'- 



:^A-. 



.-.■^K 



^^w. 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



^^ 



YELLOW CHAMOMILE. GOLDEN MARGUERITE 

.1 iillu'inis tiiiiliiriii. 

Aittliriiih, (Irci-k, nu'aninj; oh^curi'. 

A h avy-scentcfl perennial of abundant hlonm, hearing ^'ulilcn ycllciw 
daisy-like tlDwers; one to two inelies aemss. i!ur<)]ic, Stiiiiiner. 

Sliiii.- I'.rift. anttular, two lo tlirte 
feet lli,^li, of i)U>hy lialiit. 

Ixiivrs. Alternate, pinnately iji\ idi d. 

ilp'^crr -heads. Daisy- like, j;olden- 
yellow; rays many, fertile; disk yellow. 

luvolufrc- Hemisplierieal; liraets 
iine(|ual, small, iml)rieate<l. 
Rccrptiulr. — Convex, elialTy. 
Pappus. .None; akeiies ohlonj;. 

The (Idlden Mar>^uerite is a iilaiit 
a ^iiod (U'ai like I'yretliriini, hearinj^ 
ai)un(lantl_\ from mi<lsiinimer to fr(»t 
beautiful daisy-like tlowers. ( )f lliese 
the disk-llorets are on a rounded re- 
ce|)taele and tlie raysare eitlier l)rij;ht- 
yeliow or ])ale-}ellow; botli forms arc- 
in eultivalion. 'I'he variety Kchciiyi 
is the present favorite for cultivation. 

The Ciiamomilc of commerce is the llowcr of Aiilhciin's uohilis, 
a much-branched, downy-stemmed plant, bearinj; daisy-like llower- 
heads with yellow disks and white rays. For medicinal purposes 
the heads arc cut as soon as expanded and carefully dried. A 
double form is in the garden, and the medicinal form has sometimes 
cscajjcd from cultivation. 

There is an old and still i)revalcnt oi)inion that this |)lant thrives 
.tetter for being trampled ujxm or kept prostrate. This notion is 
incidentally alluded to by Shakespeare in " King Henry l\," "For 
though the camomile, the more it is triwlden on the fa>ter it 
grows — yet youth, the more it is wasted the sooner it wears." 

476 




('■iiMill M^irt;iuritf. 
tinili'fiil 



,\iilliemis 



<j>>M^ .- - 



• , *:!**' 



GAILLARDIA 

Tlic Mavwc'C'd <if I'ur rnad-idi^ and \va>tf iihuf- i- a ('lianinmili\ 
Antlicmis niliiln. Tlu' tlo\viTdifail> Itmk liko >niall, wliitf dai-it-<, 
tin- li'avcs arc timly rut and tin- plant is ill->nK'llint,'. It |>(wsc^-f> 
tliat wonderful ahility to exist wiierf it is not wanted wliirli iiiako 
it a weed, and it ( rowds iln^^c to the wiieel traek> at tin mad-ide 
and takes i)()»es>i()n of l)arnyards and net-leclcd tield-. Tiie 
tl()\ver-lHad> <;<) to >leei) at nii^lit, tlie ray> turn liack vard and so 
put tlie di>k i)roniinenlly forwaril. just why is not clear. 

The >tem Ijram lies wonderfully, and in a favoraMe >ituation 
(joc-s marvels. .\ sinf,de Mayweed plant ^niwin^; alone uix.n the 
summit of a low heaj) <>f clay, hy ac lual mea>urement, attained a 
hemi-'phere two feet in diameter and hore hy ai tual count over >ix 
Inintlred open llower-heads at one time. \o plant hy the >,'arden 
walk could compare that morninj; with the i hild of the waste land, 
either in perfection uf form or fulfilment of ohlit^ation. 

GAILLARDIA 

Cdilliirdiil cristiild. (.iiiilhirdui piildu'lld. 

Gaillnrdia, naincil in honor (jf (laillard <k- Mi-rcntontRau, a Vu-u> h 

Ixitaiiist. 
The (.garden race of Gaillardiu are hybrids of two species: Liailiirdia 
crishita, a i)erennial form, and ilailldrdia puhkrlla, an annual plant. 
Hoth arc native to the Western plains and jjrairies of North .Vnierica, 
from the Northwest Territories to Me.xico. May to Sepleniher. 

5/cm.— Krect, one to two feet lii,i,'h, hairy. 

Leaves, (iray-j^reen, variable. 

/'7()wrr-/.C(/(/.— Radiate, terminal on lonj;, slender ]>i(luncles, two to 
three inches across. 

Kaxs. Neutral, larj^e, broad, yellow, or i)arli-colore<l; banded, >liow- 
ing yellow, oran|.;e, brownish, crim.son, i)ur])le, often wiUi a nielallic 
lustre. There are garden forms in which the outer rays are tubular 
and the di.sk-llorets much enlarged. 

/)/.?/!.'-//(irf/.s-.— Yellow, often purple; their corollas slender tubes with 
five teeth; teeth hairy. 

Involucre— Two or more rows of loose, leafy bracts. 

Kcccpiiicle. C(m\cx or f,'Iobosi-; fimbrillate. 

Akene- Top-shajR-d, rib.>ed, very hairy, crowned with a pajjpus of 
six or more long, thin, awned scales. 

477 



rv>r^^^*^w^^ 



--^^f^'^i'S':-'^ 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

Tlu' (liiillanliuN of ..ur j,'ar(li'ns arr the liyhrid-; ami variants of 
two t\ |ii( al >in'tifs, native to tin- warmer |iarl< of the I'liited State>. 
They ea>ily rank amonj,' our l)e>t j,'ar(len |>lant>, prixlm in^ a- they 
do mas>es of l)eaiitiful and elTective llower> from midsummer v.:a\\ 
hite autumn. Lovers of the sun, they seem never to find our sum- 
mers too hot and they aI>o endure eonsiderahle cold; one often 
tind> belated l)lossom> in the (Jaillardia lied when other plants are 
jiro-t rated by the frost. 

The cultivated forms are so varied and so eonfusinj; that it is 
prac tieally impossible to distinj;uish them. If your plant live> over 
the winter you know it is of the crislahi race; if, on the other hand, 
it dies in the autunm, it> dominant >train i> ptitdiclht. The mo>t 
satisfaitory ]>!an is to call them (laillardias and let it j^'o at that. 
Theeolor ran^'e is red, yellow, and oran^'e, with >hade- of brown, 
often bri,i,ditened with a metallic, purpli>h tinj^e; the>e (ombina- 

lions produieeffectxif >tartlinf,' liril- 
iiancy, eat h tlower-head suj^ge>tinf{ 
a sunburst. 

Anionj,' (lailiardian virtue^ is that 
of being excellent cut ilowers; the 
heads stand up on good self-respect- 
ing stems and take water freely. 

ARCTOTIS 

Arctolis griiiulifi. 

Arctolix, (Irirk, hcar's v.u; alludiiif; 
Id the silky, >liaggy akunc. 

.\ remarkably haiulsomi' annual from 
soulh-westein .Africa, of the daisy tyjie, 
forming much-tiranched busby plants 
which bear from early summer to late 
fall ')eautiful white tluwers. 




.XftlDlis. .irilolii i'fiiHi/i.t 



Sinn. Erect, much branched, two to three feet high, moIIow, covered 
with white woolly hairs. 

Ac(ri'f.s.- Thick, grayish -green, covered widi while vviAjJly hairs abovc 
and beneath. 

478 






t^'^^g^ii^- WS-: 



CAILLARDIA 




Ciailliiiilia in variety 



'.■>." ^^.' '''7* ' 



^";'-, '''^t^^'>^r''^i^^''f:'^'iW^ 'W'"":i ^-Sp-'-.- \y"'i 






COMPOSITE FAMILY 

I'ltiu'cr-hfiuls.- RiidhiU; white, with a l.hii>l) (ciitrc, hiuiiiK ;i s|)ri'ad 
of two iind a half to llinr inches; rays many, fertile, white on upper 
surface, with a dash of yellow at the base, pale lilac hlU'- lieneath; ilisk- 
•lorets blue with white |xillen. 

hnolwrr. A llat-bottomeil cup of three to four rows of woolly 
brads, with free tips, and two or three rows of thin, translucent bracts 
nearest the rays. 

Kccffiliulr. I'"lat or slightly convex, honeycombed and rmibriat;(l. 

Pappus. Abundant, of while plumose bristles. 

yl /.-CHf i-.-Sha^Hy, with white bristles. 

.Xrctotis is a remarkably handxinie aiimial from soiitli-westtTn 
Africa, and a mo^t valuable addition to our li>l of ^iinimcT llower-. 
It belongs to the dai>y {\\w of wliile-rayed comi)o>ites; its tlowcr 
\k-m]> on long slfm> are larj^e and showy, beinn pure white on the 
upju-r surface, embelli-lied with a yellow zone near the disk; the 
reverse of the ray is pale lilacd)lue. Under the inlluence of briglit 
sunlight the (lower l)ecomes .ilmosl llat and the pure-white of the 
rays k /asls charmingly with the i)ale-blue disk with its slightly 
projtcu..*; white >tan,ens. The (lowers close at night i ) open the 
nc.\t morning. 

MARIGOLD. CALENDULA 

Cdli' lid Ilia otfiriiii'ilis. 

Caleitilii/ii. T-atin cutemLr, the first day of each nioiiih, referring 
to its iDiitinuous tlowerin^ in the i limale of I'liif^laiid. 

This Marigold is often grouped among sweet herbs, having bee i use<l 
as a flavor for soujjs and meats. Native to the Mediterranean region. 
.•\n! lal. Summer. 

Stmts. Krect, branching, one to two feet high. 

Leaves. Alternate, obovate. 

/•7(i7£rr-//r(/(/.v.- Radiate, orange to yellow, two inches across; rays 
in several series, fertile; disk-florets tujjular, staminate only, ])r()ducing 
no seeds. 

Involucre— 0{ one or two scries of close-growing, jjointed bracts. 

/?(■(■<• /)/<ir/f. -Flat. 

.Ur;;r.v. Curved and without pappus; only the outer ciicic of ray- 
florets produces seeds. 

480 



'S.ii,_ 



'^^Jiil-^W> ^ 




i 

i 



i 







MARIGOLD 

iy<i| '^rtat ami l.i-liiii,' 
]Mi|iiilarit\. It lia-- lui n iKilic aicd I'l ilic \ ir^jin and made prinni- 
nciU at luT fc-tivaN. It lia> Item an tin- 
l)lim uf afffilmn and -\i)i|)alh\, a^ will a- 
of jValniwv an<l ^;ri(f. .\i the >anu' lime 
thai it ad<irniil tlu' drc— uf j^ii-al ia<lii-, it 
wa^ i'-ui'rn( d a> llif " llirli-( ifiicral nf ,dl 
lH)ttai(r." 'I'lir drii'd llurrl- wrri' -uiiiHiMd 
to add urcatl) to tlif llasnr i>f -..mii-; and 
^\rii|i> and < nn-irvr-^ were made (if tlu- fn ~li 
lliiwc,--,. All tlit'M' UM-. lia\c i)a--cd away 
and till' plant now Imld- il> piair in the 
Hard' n hi'iau^c nf h- real intril- a-' a liardy 
annual, liludniinv; frnni niid-uninur until 
fm-t. 'I'Ik' llci\viT-luad-> -hari' with many 
( iini|M)>iti'> the lialiil of i ursine; the rays 
inward at nitjht and >o nearly elo-inj^ the 
lie, id' within thi-- iialf-( lo-'t'd head the 
dew(lro])> ofti'n re-l in tlie niornini^. Tlii^ 
|)eeuliarily ha^ .ijipealed In I'.n^'li-h poit-^ 

from Sliake^peare to Keat> and lia^ hieii tiie occasion ii, "ctic 
outl)ur>ls which have ;mmortali/.eil the llower. 

llark, bark, ihc lark al luaM'n'-. ^atc .-ings 

And I'hfilius 'fiiiw !■) r\M\ 
Hi-, >ifi<ls to water at th"-e -|irin^s 

( )n (luiliced lliiucr- ih.it lie-.; 
And winking Mary-l)uil> lHi;iii 

To ope their (i Men eyr-. 

— "Cymlielinc," Am II, So. i, Sii akisit. \i(K,. 

Tile niarii;iiM, that jjoe^ to lud wi' th' -iin. 
And uitli liini rises weepiiit;: 

— "Winter's Tale," Act IV, Si. .^, Suakijsi'KAKi:. 

Open fre-h your rouml of -larry folds, 

\'e arditil niarii^oMs! 
Dry lip tlie moisture from your goMen lids, 

For great Aiju'lo hi;!:. 
That in these days your praises should he sung. — Kf.ats. 
4S1 



M,iri:.;.iM. laUiuluU 
i>::i' III iU\ 



-m...f - 



m 



■• 'V- 






COMPOSITE FAMILY 

Orininally sinj?lr, llu- llnwiT-lu'iuI ii<»\\ a|)|K'ars in many forms 
(li-tin^'iii-lifd liy -izi-, mlnr, and (Ir^irtc of duuMinn; in color it 
varif.-, I'rotn italc-yillow to dccp-oranj;*.'. 



RICAN MARIGOLD 



'y.U'i/c.v fndti 



Tiii;rlr':. ilrriM'l finm 'I'imr-. .in I.uiimmii iltity. 

All rnct annual IktI) intriMluird ironi Mt\i(i>, and ^;riatly (hant;r<l 
frnni its itriniiiivc form liy llic I'riiuli ^an liners of die siMirntii mitiiry. 
MiilsuniiiHT. 

Stiiu. Ilrcit, mori' or less lirancluil, two fit't liiK'i- 

l.riivcs. ( )p|tosiit'; pinnati'ly divided; st'jinunts lanci'olatc. 

Ilm^rr hiihh. Solitary al llir summit of tin- stem; yellow or orange; 
die rav lloreis in a sin^^le series, normally [\w, tlie disl;-llorels tubular; 
transformed into rays liy cultivation. 

IiivoliKri'. -^^nv series of hracts more or less u'rown toKellur. 

Racptiiilc- Convex, naked; stem swollen and hollow just helovv. 

.UcHc.v.- Oblontj, angular; pa])]>us a membranous cu| with two 
awns. 

Till- African Marigold ohlalnetl its common name from a mi>- 
ai>i>relien>ion on tlic part of the I'rencli gardeiurs as to its native 
land, iiv the time the mi-take ua- understood tlie name was 
li\ed and has continued ever since. I'lie plant is one of tlu- most 
sturdv, upstanding, and trusiworthy of garden creatures. It 
recjuires good soil and should not he irowded, as it needs free 
circulation of air among its sieiiis. In the primitive form the 
ravs were few and the disk-tlorets tubular, but the skill of the 
French gardeners soon converted these into rays. 'I'here are, 
however, in most double How er heads a few dorets still tubular, 
but these are not .seen unh -s looked for. The gardener's idea! 
is that there shoulii be none of these. The Inier strains now sup- 
])lie(l by the llorists are wonderfully regular, full-rayed, and vary 
on the chord of yrllow from ]iale-!emon to deej)-orange. A bed 
of these makes a eluih of gold in liie garden, which lasts long, 

4^3 



AFRICAM MARKJOI.r) 




African Marigold. 'l'at;il(s ,rala 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

for, like all the composites, the rays arc on duty until the last 
stigma is fertilized. .Mari},'olds are plants of strong odor. 

The French .Marij:;old, 'J',i,i;clrs pdtitla, also from Mexico, came 
into Kngland from France and so obtained its misleadini; name. 
A small |)lant hearing a small llower, it forms a neat and comjiact 
little l)Ush. The llower-heads are small and the color markin,u> are 
variable, ranging from nearly pure-ycllow to nearly pure-red. 

Tagdcs signala var. piimila is a dwarf, leafy, i)U>hy form with 
small bright-yellow five-raycd llower-heads, a favorite for i)orders. 



COREOPSIS 

Corcc'ipsis hinccoliitii. 

Com>t>sis, Orcuk, like a hug; ufiTring lo ihu sha|)c of tin- akcnps. 

A grouj) of several sjK'cies native to our Western and South-western 
Stales; cultivated for their extremely brilliaiU yellow, or red and yellow 
flowers. The two most common in gardens are Corropsis laiucnlala, 
a perennial, and Coreopsis tinctoria, an annual. Bt)th have been 
modified and hybridized. Summer. 

Stem. -Orowing in tuft.s, one to two feet high. 

Leaves. -Tanceolate or oblanceolate; sometimes divided, entire, 
mostly crowded at the base. 

h'hrwer-hcads. Radiate, one and a half to three inches across, on long, 
slender jK'duncles; rays yellow, broad; (iisk-tlorels yellow. 

/(/'C(»/"frc. AVilh two kinds of bracts; tiie outer narrow and spread- 
ing; the inner more or less scarious. 

ReeepUuk. Slightly convex, cliatTy. 

Piippus. Minute or wanting. 

.Ur«(',v. —Orbicular, winged. 

Coreop-is of anv >pecies, when at home, i- a weed, wherever 
that home mav be. In cultivation the plant retains many of its 
weed virtues. I'^stalilish Coreopsis lanecolala in the garfien, not 
only will it remain, it will enlarge its boundaries and possess 
the soil. The ( hief objei lion to Coreopsis is the extreme dilTiculty 
of keeping the tlower-head^ from going to seed; thi., is necessary 

4S4 



s^ 



COREOPSIS 



if there is to he a sati^factdry pnxliirtion of I.Ioom, aivl to kvv]) a 

1)0(1 in iiand rcfiuirts ( (nuiiuia! cuttin.i,' of head-. 

A lull hed in I. loom i> a JKautiful >i,<,'l)t; llie ilowcrs >eeni 

some way to emlnMly ilu- joy ,,1" livinj:: on their lont; stcm^ tliev 

ride with the win. I at tlu' sime time that they ^low in the -un. 
As the >eeds i)e,t;in to ri]>en 

the inner eiri le of 1 tract- hiiij 

tif^hl ai)oul their trea-iire-, 

and the heads hetonie cone- 
shaped. When mature thr 

tiny akenes are roundi'd at 

the hack, llat beneath, 

winged at the ^ide with two 

little |)rojeetions of iiajtpu-; 

altoi^ether their appearance, 

pc'rhaps, ju-tities tlu- nanu — 

like a huj; — ("oreo])-i-. Pos- 
sibly it is just as well io u>e 

the name without thinking 

what it means. 

The name Calliop>i> began 
as a misnomer, but now seems 
to have become fixed upon 
certain garden form>; neverlhele-- it should be imder-toiKl that 
every horticultural callio|)>i- i- a iiotanical coreop-is. 

Coreopsis liiulorhi is the annual >])e( ie> mo-t in cultivation. 
It i> tall, the Mem l)ranches only at the >ummit, llv liMve- are 
pinnatilid with long, narrow divisions. The tlowerdiead> are 
radiate, the broad rays browni>h-red or partlv vellow. A verv 
sati>factorv annual. 




Corcniisis. Cxnvliis liwu'l'ilj 



aH 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



CHINA ASTER 

Callislephns iliiin'iisis. 

C<il/i.<;lf/>lnis, Creek, from kullislDii, mnA lieauliful, and slcplinne a. 
( roun; referring to the douhle i>ai)l)iis— llie "heauliful (Towm" tliat 
surroumls the seeds. 

Strms. - Hrislly, l)ranclK'(l, two feet hi^ih. 

Leaves. -0\n\, coarsely toothed; lower petiolatc; ui)i)er .sessile. 
/•/(r.tVT-//f(;</.v. "TermiiKil, radiate two to three inches acro.ss; rays 
red, white, tjliie, or puriile; disk-tlorets yellow, all fert,ilc. 

1'hc nan China .\stcr is historically correct. This composite 
was intHKluced into Kurojje in 17,^1 i)y way of seeds sent to tlic 
lanlins des Plantes of Paris, hy Father d'lncarville, a Jesuit mis- 
sionary. 

The tyi)ical form was a plant two feet hij^h, cacii stem hearing 
a terminal llower-hcad two and a half to three inches in diameter, 
consisting of a lar«);e central di>k of yellow tubular llorets and a 
douhle or trii)le row of ray tlorets, in color rose-lilac, white, or l)lue. 
This tv])e reappears whenever the highly bred forms degenerate. 
Immediately upon the arrival of this new i)lant, the French gar- 
deners set themselves to the task of turning all the disk tlorets 
into ray-llorets. Thcv were eminently successful and as this trans- 
forming process does not atTect the fertility of the llorets, .Aster seeds 
are very likelv to come true to the i)arent plant. C.erman, Knglish, 
and latterlv American growers have all co-oi)erated hi the develop- 
ment of the .\ster, until now there are strains marvellous in beauty 
of form, at the same time liiat there has develoi)ed a red and a 
blue color range of excpiisile variety and delicacy. So f;!r no yel- 
low has appeared. 

In the present gardiii race tliere are llower-heads whose rays 
are incurved, others wliose rays curve outward, some which rival 
the show dahlias in regularity, others whose tubular lloret- have 
devcloi)cd in size and varied in color to produce the (juilled forms, 
still others that suggest chrysanthemums by their tousled beauty. 
Moreover, liie la.-,t word i.- by no nuans said. The >imi)lc stem of 

486 



»W«I!J»W»,*.»«"«I 



CHINA ASTER 



1 


^ 

^ 




^r 


; / . ' 'i- - 7 


^ »-* k 




iMir, 


.^1 










K^ 


■ 




"^ 4:'^^^^i 



China .\stcr. Calliskplnis IwrUtnis 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

the type l)ranche(l long ago and lias varied into both dwarf and 
standard forms. 

Botanicallv, the genus is an endless (■onfu>ion; horticulturally, 
the genus is' an endle>s delight. H<.nv long the Aster had heen 
cultivated in China before it came into Kurope we do not know, 
hut it i . |)rol)al)le that it has been a garden plant for ages. 



ASTER 

A sicr. 
Name is Greek for star; referriii!]; to the radiate head? of tlie flowers. 

Perennial herbs, with erect braiiching stems and starry flowers; the 
species freely hybridi/iiig- 

Fhrdrr-hcids- Radiate; rays w h i t e , 
]iuri)le, lavender, l)lue, or i>ink; the disk- 
florets yellow, often changing to purple. 

luvnliKrc-bracls.—'SloTC or less imbri- 
cated, usually with leaf-like tips. 

Kcicplddr.- Flat, alveolate. 

/'<j/)/)i/5.- Simi)le; of capillary bristles; 
akeiies more or less flattened. 

The glories of color, of size, and of 
petalage, that lie undeveloped in our 
native Asters, it has not as yet cnti red 
into the heart of tlorist or gardener even 
to conceive. To do nothing more than 
transfer them from the hard conditions 
of the fields, to relieve their fierce strug- 
gle for existence, to anticipate their 
needs and to supply their wants, gives 
them a chance to increase in height, to 
multiply their stars, to double their rays; in short to indicate 
what careful cultivation might accomplish. Tlie wealth of the 
fields has imiiovori^hed the garden. One species, Xovcr Aiif^lia", 
has been in general cultivation for rather more tha" a decade 

488 




Aster. Ailcr irico'iJcs 



BOLTONIA 

and is giving an cxcfllenl accounl of iisilf; l)Ul tlie fields arc 
full of Wild Asters, just as good and, in >ome resiHMts, hctter. 
The White Aster, .1\/(T crirohhs, growing along the road-ides of 
northern Ohio, coming up almo>t to the wagon trai k, iilooming 
at tile height of four inches to four feet as (ondition- i)ermit. 
is one of the mo>t i)eautiful of native Asters, and, under favoralile 
surroundings, produees an a>toni^hing wealth of i)loom and beauty. 



BOLTONIA 



BoUonia aalero'ides. 

Named in liDnor of James B(,!ton, English l)<>tanisl of llu- eighteenth 
century. 

Perennial, bushy-l)ranche(l, smooth herbs, pale-green with the aspect 
of Aster. Moist places along streams. Illinois to Mi.s.souri. .\ugu.st, 
September. 

.S/fw.— Three to four feet; in cultivation six to eight. 

/.fUT'cs. Lanceolate, entire, thickish. 

F/fwrr-/(f(J(/i.— Radiate, an inch or more across; rays many, pistillate, 
white or pink or pale-jjurple; disk-llorets yellow. 

/;rc()/«f re. -Hemispherical; bracts imbrica- 
ted in two rows, appressed, with narrow, mem- 
branaceous margins. ^-^-a^^^Ef i v\vc 

Receptacle. Convex or hcmi.sphcrical. ""^^^m fc?^ 

.l/to/f.?.— Flat, obovatc or inversely heart- 
shaped, margined with a callous wing; pappus 
of few or many brisdes or two awns or none. 

Holtonia is an a'stcr-like plant that has 
come into general cultivation. .Mihough 
only two or three feet high in the wild, it 
can easily reach six and even nine feet. 
Hy cultivation the flower-heads have enlarged and the ra\s in- 
creased. The plants bloom ])r()fusely, stand without staking, 
and take care of themselves, having once been established. 
They are often grown for cut dowers. 

489 




liiihonia. hoUbnia aitcroUes 



'1a». 



11 181*' 



IfYS^ 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



TASSEL FLOWER. CACALIA 

Emilia /l,immea, 

.S/rw.--Al)()iit two feet hi^h. 

Leaves. Oliovatc ami ])itii)li(l. 

hlinvrr-hcads. Discoid; lul)uiar llorcts oran^c-rcd or (lull-srarlct 
closely ])a<'kc(l in an invohicrt- niaiic ii]) of ;i sin),'lc row of oblong hracts 
united at their ed^es, home in a loosi' lorynih. 

Tliis little flower lias loiiff been in ( ullivalion, Idit there are 
so manv itetter summer itioomers that it is rarelv seen. 'l'i\e 




T;i-i-^l I'l'iwcr. r.miliii J<t>n»ua 

common name is well cliosen, for the involucre makes a strong 
urn-like cup into wiiich liie llorets are packed fairly to sut'focation; 
the urn con>i(leral)ly smaller at the top tiian bottom, so that the 
entire head has a stnmt; resemblance to a tassel. Tiu' inllorescencc 
is terminal with a head at tlie summit u{ the stem wliich, of course, 
limits the growth of the plant. 



4()o 



ENGLISH DAISY 



ENGLISH DAISY 

hi II is [>er,'itnis. 

BeUi%, Latin, hiiliis. ]irclty. 

A dwarf ptTfnnial fuTh. the Dai^y of l',m,'li>li fields and i>f I".ni;lisli 
littratUR'; it apptars in our markit willi llu- larly |iaii>ii>; tin- mm 
nurrial I'ornis usually dDuhlu. April, May. 

I.ravi's. Clustered, risini; directly from a creepini,' rootstnck; oval, 
obovate with a lew rounded teeth. 

I'lowerliCiuis. Three-fourths of an inch to an inch across, solitary 
on hairy scapes, two to three inches hij^h. 

Kays. Fertile, white with crimson ti])s; disk-tlorets tubular. 

Jnvolitcrc. Of one or two rows of green brads. 

Akcucs. -Without ])api)us. 

The Fnglish Daisy j^rows hut lialf-lieartcdly in this covintry, yet 
is [)crsistenlly olTered by the f^ardeiiors in tlte sjjrinj; with the 
pansies. In western F.uroiie it is at home, and its abundance an<l 
beautv seem to have touched the emotions of all tlie \ve>lern 
Kuropea'- jjeoples. There is a ( aress in all its common name>. 
In Scotland it is IJairnwort, the children's plant; in i'.ngland the 
Day's I\ve; in France, Marj^uerite, a pearl. And the Fnjilish 
poets from Chaucer to Tenny>(m have felt its charm and >un;,' it> 
beauty. 

of all the lloures in the mede, 
Than love I most these lluures v.hite and rede, 
S()(h that men < alien ilaisies in our town. 
— Prologue of the "Legend of (iood Women," ("il acckr. 

When ilaisies pied and violet-; hhic 

Anil lady-smoi ks all siKcr white 
And cuikoo huds of yellow hue 

Do paint the meadow^ with delight. 
— "Love's LalH)r's Lost," .Vi 1 V, Si. 2, Sii.\ki;spk\i;k. 

Meadows trim with daisies pied. 

— " L'.Mlegro," Mii.ton'. 

Woe, modest, trimson-tipped !l 



ver. 

To a Daisy," Hukns. 



491 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

Tvpirallv, the llowcr-Iiead^ have hut a sinjjlc row of ray-, luit 
undiT cultivation tlic di^k-llnrcts liavf \>vvn ronvcrt(.(l into rays 
making the doiihle forms. In M)mf of tlu'x.- variation- tin- original 
colors have been retained, in otiiers the i rimson from 
the tijisof the rays has si)rea<l over the entire -urfai e 
and iietome varioii-ly inten-ified. In some forms 
the rays are llat, in others they have hetome tjuilled. 

SWAN RIVER DAISY 

Braihycixnc ihi-ridifiiliii. 

Brachycome, rir('!k,sli<>rl hair; alluiliiiK to the |)a|)|)us. 

A graceful little annual from Australia, suitable for 
borders. Midsummer. 

.SVfW.— Six to twelve inches, tufted, slender, leafy. 
Leaves. Small, piimatelv dividid and forked. 

Swan River iJ.iisv. , , ., ' • i i- 

hnuhyumie iheri- I'hmrr-hcads . .\l)()Ut an mch across; radiant; rays 
dijblia violet-blue or while in the ly])e; ilisk-llorets either yel- 

low or dark. 
Involucre. — Flat; bracts narrow, scarious at tijis. 
/fcff/i/iif/f.— Naked ; jjdppus short i)ristKs. 

The Swan River Daisv would naturally be more of a favorite in 
Kngland than in tliis country. It i-, howi'ver, a most charming, 
free tlowering, sunmier blooming little i ompo-ite, which wins 
heart> whenever it has a (hanie. I'nder iiillivation its colors 
vary along the line of violel-blue into blues and lilacs and pale- 
purples to while. 




402 



•*«MM 



mum 



iliMH I Pilii 



ZINNIA 



ZINNIA 

/.iuitiil flff^illlS. 

Z.iniihi, ill Ivni'T of |..h.inTi i;otifriiMl /inn, profi-^.r <A Ixitany at 
( ii)ltiMj;i-n in 175. 

llanlv aniniiil fnini NK\ii>i, iDnumni in uardm.--; lilnoius fruiii mid- 
suniimr iiit" lato autumn. 

Stems. I'lrict, ^tiff, hairy, nni' to two fi'it liinli. 

l.cavfs. ()|i;K)>iif, Kudatr or illiiilir, < la-iiiiii;. 

i'linor-hcads. Kadiaic, icrmiiial; ray> ntliNcd; colors various; 
(lisk-llori'ts originally yellow, hut iran>l'ornuil ui the '^'ardcn rare to rays. 

liivolturc. Ovate, cylindrii-, or In ll.-<liaiH.(l; muU> in st viral >t rits, 
Ijfoad, rounded, more or less (olored. 

Rcicptadc. Hollow, tubular; iliatT takes on the eolor of rays. 

Akcncs. Two kinds, trian;4ular and liearl slia|Kil; laterally com- 
pressed, t\vo-l(H)tlie<l at the summit, [re<iuently one awned from the 
inner an^Ie. 

Zinnia ir- a plant of >urpri-e>; oneV Zinnia lied may he a jjarden 
of (leli^;lil> or a record of (li-ajipointnieiit ; it all depeiuU upon llic 
colors wiiidi the hlo>-oni- a>>unie. \o other llower of i ultivation 
lakes on sucli a siirpri>in.n niunher of luic-, hut there i- always an 
elenient of chant e in what a -ee-l nia\ jirodute. 'I"he llower avoids 

hlue, hut reveN in ri(l> ami ;.. . n, d take- on marvellou- I rid 

and hron/e etTecls. Its x ar'.el and crini-on- ari' worthy to -land 



hefore kinf^s, its i)ink> an( 



'.nion 



- are heautifiil, il> ran,i,'e of 



yellow i> hrilliant, hut it- wiiiie^ are dull and o|ia(|ue; and althoiiLrh 
the Zinnia i> lapahle of the nn-t dear and vivid colors, it i- aUo 
capable of niuddyinii every red and dulliui; every \ellow, to ihe 
(li>ai)p()intnienl of amateur- and the de-pair of llori-t-. The jilant 
is sail! to Ik- unfashionable, the truth i- the plant i- imtru-tworl!i\. 
In addition, the lack of plea-ant o<lor, and a uTtain har-hne^- of 
le.vture and >tirfne.-s of ( arriai^e limit it- iiopularily. 

The j^ardi'n form, under ne;„'U'(l. (juii kl\ revert- to it- tir-t olate; 
indeed the "roi,'ue-," a- i)rimitive- amoii.4 hi'^dily hred> are (ailed, 

1 1 f \ \-. 1.1- ' '/'"(-I'-i C,.,I ...*,' I1..11I.I lie 1 11 ir. ,1 .t,./ 1 Till' 

arc to lic io>;:iu m niw-i /,ii;n;.i : -c'l- a!iii -,,.i.,.., .» ..,....t..i ... t .i<- 
primitive is a head (ompor-ed of a -in,i;le row of broad rays sur- 

493 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



rniinilitif,' a cylindricil n( (•i)ta( k- c(>vcn'<l with (iiluilar flori-ts 
wliii h an- golden, wliilc llii- i lialT lakf^ nii ilu- (n|..r of tlir rays, 
(iivcn tliis hasis it isi-asy to sec wliat tin- jiardrncrV ideal lia-< Itttri. 
Tl.c proldfm was Ut transform \hv>v tiil)ular llorfi> into ray- 
llort'ts and to ( over tiic lon^ rci tptai li- with row> an<l r< ws of ravs 
fvfiiiy ovtTlai>i)inK. This ha^ JKin dom-, and a hij,'hly l.rc<l 
Zinnia is as rcj,'iilar and formal as a >how dalilia 

TIk' history of the garden Zinnia i- well known. The first 
doiil)le form a|>|)eared in 1856 in tjie nursery of M. (Irazaii, at 
Ha^neres, l'ran(e, anionj; a nuniber of plants raised from seed 
received from the West Indies. Tiii>, was taken l.y the famous 
I-'renili grower, \'ilmorin, further developed, and placed upon the 
ma-ket in 1S60. Throu),'li the sixties Zinnias were ^reatlv in 
vo^ue, l)y iSSo they had lost caste; to-day they (Kcupy the phu e 
that justly helonK's to them, alongside of the I'Vench and Afrii an 
marigolds and the China asters, admirable for hanks of (olor. 
There is a variety which has all its llorets tuhular, there are al^o 
curled and crested forms. All forms arc likewise grouped into 
tall, medium, or dwarf. 



It ' 



COSMOS 

( lisniDS III f>i II III).' Its. 

Cosmos, from thi- (Ircik wonl, uIiiim> riMit uWii is o rlitus*. ht-tKc 
an ..rnaiiifnt or bi'iuuiful lliing; I'mii'lv, ami usually, the universe 
ln'iausi." of its ordcrlitirss. 

Slfiii. Aniuial, glabrous, six to ten feet hif,'h. 

Leaves. Ojjposite, l)i|)innatily cut; lobes linear, remote, entire. 

l-'lower-luiuis. Radinie; rays while, j)ink, or crimson; disk-tlorets 
yellow. 

Iinvliicre. With ovate-lanceolate scales. 

Reeepla ChafTy; akenes smooth, with a short beak. 

.\mon^' tlic "garden annuals that have recently come into promi- 
nence Cosmos is one of the most interestinj,'. .\ .Mexican jjlant, 
it has nut ye! (juite become accustomed to our .-hort seasons, and 
althoujrh it bears cold bravely, it is sometimes overtaken by the 

494 



ZIIfNIA 




Zinnia. Zinnia ilci^iina 



COMPOS rXF FAMILY 



snows oi NO . iiIht lM.'fure half il> l»inls liavi' i>|«Tii'(l. The i-lTnrts 
of the gufili li ' ^ arc turned toward dfvrln|iinj,' |>hml> with a sliwrtcr 

MUMin anil lower, la'ttcr foli- 
aKt'<l >t«'n)>. Tin- primitive 
llowiT of CtisuKi^ liipinihiiHs is 
>trllatt', that is, it ha> o|(tn 
-pail's ln'twcH'n its rays. 
'riit'M- ray- in rultivalion liave 
broadi-nid and roundiMl iti 
outlinr and havr '■vi'rla|)|H-d, 
so tiiat the new lOrin- do not 
-how anv vai ant sparer la'- 
twirn till- rays, hut present an 
unl)roken face. This same 
tcndeni y has prevailed in tiie 
garden evolution of many 
other (lowers, notably dahlias, 
coreop-is, and geraniums, 
(hardeners seem to ahhor a 
-pace hetween the petals of a 
flower as Nature does a vacuum. The ,-i/c of the primitive llower 
is about an in( h aero--, but the best varieties are now three inches 
and even more. The primitive -tin k was killed by the first frosts, 
but the ra( e now !iiar> considerable cold. I'nijuestionablv, Cos- 
mos, beautiful as it is, has po>sibilitic-> of much greater beauty. 




Cosnu'S. C"(Avmfl5 hipimiiitu^ 



GOLDEN-ROD 

Solidago. 

Name from solidare, to join or make whole; in allusion to rcputiMl 
lualiiig i|ualitit's. 

IVreitiiial lurhs willi wand-like stems, sessile or nearly .sessile stem- 
leaves, and yellow flowers. 

rhr.i'i'f l^r:v-{'i, — Small, radiate, fi-.v {■■•■ rrsat-.y-n'-.werrd; either raccn-ied 
or clustered. 

4<)fi 



WA' 



GOI.DEN-ROD 




(iiililcn -iid. S<!ii/ai^i) ;.:v'r,(Z 



m 



n 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

Disk and ray-liorets—YcWow, except in Solidnf^o btcolor, whose rays 
arc cream. 

/«r<>/»frc.— Bracts appressed, destitute of herbaceous tips. 

Rcceplaclc. -^^maW, not chafTy. 

Pappus.- Simple, of equal capillary bristles. 

/IAyhcs.— Many-ribbed, nearly terete. 

The (lowers of the Goldcn-rmls are in small radiate heads, each 
of which is surrounded by an involucre made uj) of a few more 
or less appresscd scales. The heads are clu>tercd in many ways, 
sometimes in the axils of the leaves, sometimes they make a panicle 
of little racemes, sometimes a tlat, irregular corymb. 

The receptacle bearing the flowers is small, and has no chalT. 
The pappus is simple, and composed of capillary heads or bristles. 
The rav-llorets arc small and i)istillate. 

Over sixtv species of Golden-rods arc described in the seventh 
edition of Gray's "Manual of Botany," and these hybridize so 
freely that thev are often difficult to identify. 

S<)mc species, like Solidago aimideusis, are continental in distri- 
bution, others appear in a limited area. The following are the 
familiar si)ecies most easily recognized in northern Ohio; they arc 
the ones that a gardener of that region would select to emphasize 
color elTccts, relieve dark places, and build up wild tangles: 

Solid^igo jiiiicca, on the shore of Lake Erie, begins to bloom m 
June; its habitat extends from New Brunswick to Saskatchewan 
and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. 

Solidiijio ueuoralis is the low-growing species in dry, open fields, 
and mav be recognized by the peculiarity of its recurved racemes, 
all bending in the same direction over an area o. several square 
riKls of i)lants. It begins to bloum in July. 

Solidaso oiuadcisis is the most beautiful species of the genus; 
tall, bearing a broadly pyramidal panicle of recurved racemes; it 
comes into full bloom in September. 

Soli'higo ohioatsis is very abundant in northern Ohio. Its 
llower-heads are borne in a tlat, compound corymb which termi- 
nates the simple stem. There is no suggestion of a raceme about 
the intlorescence. Its best bloom is in September. 

498 



CORNFLOWER 



Thrc'f smaller and Ir-s (■nn>|)Kiiniis <|)oci(s lilomii aloni; tin- 
I'flf^f of ilic \vol)(l■^ (luring Sc|)i(.>ml)iT and ( UioIht. ( )ni-, SolhLii^o 
hiiolor, >tan(U fmrn (inc to two kvt hi^li; a -inijik-, u|.rif,'lil >lcm, 
with tlo\vcr-licad> ilu^lerrd in \hv axil- of iIk- ii|)|kt leaver, forming 
an intiTriijiiod >\nkv. Tiir ray- an tnam-mlor or nearly wliilf, 
the disk-llorets yellow, so tiiat Two-colored (lolden-rod is an aji- 
|)ro|)riate name for it. 

Another, SoliiLii^o oicsli, in its variety rtxillaris is ahundant. 
The stem rises two to three feet hijih, u-ually -imple; liaves thin, 
lonf^-lanceolate, and in their a\il> all aiont^ the stem are little clus- 
ters of bright-yellow llower> -naking a veritalile (lolden-rcMl. At 
the summit is a little thyrse. 'l'hi> -pei ies i> >aid to have given 
the common name to the gemi>. 

Solida;^!) lalifol'hi will he found l)looming in Xovemher. The 
leaves are broadly ovate or oval, >lrongly -errate, and i()n-i)ii u- 
ously pointed. The heads are in very short axiilarv i haters. The 
rays arc only three or four, but large for a Ci olden rod, and a 
beautiful brilliant yellow. 

Other -i^cies are plentiful, but tho.-.e mentioned are ea>ily 
recognized. 



CORNFLOWER. BACHELOR'S BUTTON. KAISERBLUME 

C 'ciildiiria cyiiniis. 

Cciiltiltrca, from ("hiroii, the ('cntaiir; fnmi llu' ligfixl ih;it Chiron 
used this plant to heal the wounds of llcrnile-. 

TheCorntlowerof Kiirope, largely known in this country as Hachelor's 
Button, is a favorite annual; grown princi|)ally for cut tlowers: tvpicaily 
blue, but ap[)earing in many colors. Midsummer. 



Stem. Slender, branching, two to three feet high. 

I.f lives. Alternate, linear, acute, s^'rayish with white, woollv hairs. 

h'Lrd.'cr-h(\uh. Solitary, on slender stalks; cotii|)osed of tubular 
tlorets only, the outer row large and sterile, apparently taking the place 
of ray-fli>rets. 

/«7'rt/»fr('. -dlobular, hard, c<)mj)act, of many imbricated scales 
whose margins arc usually fringed 

4W 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

Receptacle. Convex, hcsit with linear ehaff. 
Pappus. Many soft bristles. 
Akciics.- Oblonj^, slij^inly tDmpressed. 



The ("entaurcas are known as Hard-heads or Knapweeds, due 
to Ihc eomi)ael involucre thai >urround> llie iiead of lloret>. 
Haehelor's liulton is a name >hared witli several t1ower>, notal.ly 
the double buttercup, Ramhuiilus arris, and Cowphrhui i^lobosa, 
i)Ul Cornllower and Kai-erblunie are i>er>onal. The iierb i> a 
weed infesiini^ the wiieat fields of central i:urol)e; one often >ee> 
on the Continent, as the wind wave> >weep over the ^'rowin^ wheat, 
a mist of blue showin.i; at every dei.re»ion. The well known 
incident of <^ieen l,oui>e of IVu^^a, tlyin^ with her children 
before the advanc in.i^ armies of \ai).)leon, and upon some <lelay 
keepin.i^ the little ones good and haiii)y by playing with the blue 
bl()s>oms of the field, ha> endeared this lli>wer to the (lerman 
people. Tor one of lho>e little boys became the old Kai>er, 
William 1, Kmperor of C.ermany, and in memory of that day the 
Cornllower was ever his favorite blo>som, and to his peoi)le it has 
become the K.ai>erblume. 

The starry heads fairly twinkle a> the wind >tirs their long, sway- 
ing stems, for the .^liowy outer llorets are tiny . ornucopia^ >et on a 
cinle around the di>k.' The inner llorets are mu. h >maller. have 
slender linear lobes, and may be the >ame color as the outer llorets 
or different; in the tyi.e they are usually the >ame. The five 
stamen> may likewise be the col<.r of the lloret; all thi. re-enforces 

the prevailing color. 

Hy mid>ummer the bloom is past and the bed a .lesolation, but 
that'is true of poi)pic's, sweet-william-, and all the bulbs. It ( annot 
be re-iuired of anv llower that it ^hould live forever, an.l if the bed 
is properlv picked tlie blooming seax.n i> lengthened. If it should 
chance to be undisturbed, in late Sei)U'mber there will be a plentiful 
crop of seedlings, and if undisturbed until the following >iiring 
then' will lie blooming plants in May. 

The Mountain Cornllower. Cailnnra inoiil.ni.i, is a perennial 
species from Austria. Th.e leaves are cottony; the ilower-heads 

500 






CENTAUREA 




(Vnuiurca in \aiii l\ 



^ 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



larj^e; the rav-llorets deeply cut into lonjj blender teetli. l.lue; the 
ili.k-ll..rets purple. There are several varieties in i ullivati..n. 




Dusty Miller, CaiUmroi dnvmrii or amdidissima , and Ccn- 
Unnci '^^xmuosiarpa, are two lo^v-Kro\vin« perennial Knai.weeds 
prized for tiieir silvery foliage. The entire 
plants, stem>, and leaves, are covered so 
thick with >oft, white hairs that they look 
hke white velvet, and they are planted t.) 
contrast with darker growths in borders and 
inl)ask«..-. Of tiie two, ,i,'yw»().vr</r/>(; has 
Ihe hner cut leaves, though they are not 
always as silvery as niudidissimi, whose 
leaves are more broadly cut. They are 
Italian i)lants and rejoice in the sunshine. 
The tlower-heads are small, rose-violet or 
l)urple, and without garden value. 

Stokes' .\ster, Stokhid ryaitca, is a most 
interesting i)lant in that it has ])oints in com- 
mon with both asters and centaureas. The 
mar.nnal row ..f llorets is composed of corollas which have a very 
siior? tube at the base, greatly broadened at the apex an<l cut mto 
Ion-' narrow strii.s. The centre is filled with tubular llorets of the 
saim- color or darker than the margin. In cultivation the tlower- 
heads are three to four inches acro>>, and the blossom looks hke 
a centaurea. 

SWEET SULTAN 

Ceiilituria mosduitn. 
Hardy annual brought fn.m the Levant into England ab.nit three 
hundred years ago. 

Stems. Krect, two feet high, bnr.rhing bolow. 
Annr.s.— riiuiatifid; lobes dentate. 

=;o2 



I)u>ty MilliT. Cnihiiirt'ii 



SWEET SULTAN 

I'lourr lifiidx. Solitary on lon^. slender peduncles; tlorits all tubular, 
the outer row beeominj; larjie, funnel-shaped with llnely trin^eii marjiins; 
the (lisk-tlorets small with lon^ styles thai usually take the color of the 
outer tlorets; s|)read of tlower two to three inihes. 

Involucre. C'llobose-ovate; scales larj,'i', tlal, apjiressed, dark->;reeii 
with i)ale scarious marj^ins; two up|)er rows wholly scarious. 

I'iiplms. Many while bristles. 

.{kciHS. -Oblong, slightly compressed. 



Swcel Sultan is a royal tlower, and ])ro])eriy possesses a myal 
nanu'. Hlnod brother to the Jiachelnr's lUitton, in it the family 
characteristics are enlarged, refined, and glorified. Many tlower-^ 
coarsen as they increase in 
size, but the larger the Sultan 
thet'iner it is. The outer 
trum])ets become veritable 
cornucopias, an inch and a 
half long, half an inch across, 
with edges deeply and deli- 
cately fringed. The inner 
tlorets enlarge also and send 
out such a multitude of di- 
vided styles, each tip])ed with 
the hue of the marginal tlow- 
ers, that the centre is a glow 
of ex(juisite color, over the 
soft mass of the disk; the re- 
sult is enchantin ;. This 
tlower-head of excjui-^ite 
beauty is held at the summit 
of a hard, round ball of an involucre, made up of large, green 
scales whose pale margins serve to emphasize their form. This 
involucre holds tight, and well it may, for within is the hope of 
the future — the seerls of the plant. The color range of the Sul- 
tan group runs through rose and lavender and purple and yellow 
to while. The fragrance of orris-root lingers about the tlowers, 
giving them an ad.ded touch of old-time elegance. 

S03 




Swnt Sultan. <'r«/cii(ri,j I; 



.'.IM 



^ 



i??^^^^ is" ■m*z»WT^#r 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



Althi)iij^h the Swtrl Siilian> arc known a- Ccntiiiiroi wosduiti, 
till- Harden race anMldul.tk"-- liyhrid- nl" at Ica-i ( Cthniroi i)ios,hdt,i 
and Ccntaiirca uiiivaiUus, l)()ili -|)c'(ie> liavinj; hccn hmu^'ln into 
lui^land from the Levant, one in 16^8, the other in 1650. The 
two spec ies are often ri'^arded a- one, hut the gardeners of Kew 
hold them to he se|»arate. 

The liloom is easily fon cd and tlu- tlowers are ahundant in the 
shops in the si)rinf,'. W lien forced, grower- (omplain of the 
tendency of the stems to i)end and curl, due. douhtk-, to the 
weight of the tlower-head, l)Ut in tiie garden no siu h dittK ultv 
ap|K'ars. The |)lant grows readily from >eed, i- perfediv hanh, 
delights us in midsummer days, and when it- i our>e i> run. jjas.-es 
a" y. 

Hotanically, the genu- Cnitaurri. the Knajiweed. i-, ver\ near 
Cnldits, the Thistle; the main difference iving in the character of 
the outer tlowers, the sh.a|H' of tlie akene-, and the \arialions in the 
pappus. 



CHICORY. SUCCORY 

( "ulioriioit iiilybux. 

Cichorium, the .\rahic name, loiiiiiii,' tlinniKli ilii- ( irrfk. Succurv 
]iriil)al)ly from sunrrrerr, to run undfr; rcl'irriti^ l<i ihc -uoiif^ ia|>- 
riHit. 

A i)ercnnial plant, native to the Far Ilasi, now widely disirihutcd as 
a weed over Europe and Kastern America. Its l)itter tai)-root is u.sed 
as an adulterant of colTce. June to October. 

Kont. A dee|) tajy-root. 

.SVfW. - One U) three feet high, rigid, anyied, and i;rooved. hranching. 

L(ru.rr Iravrs. Spieading on the ground, .spaiuUue, deeplv cut, nar- 
rowed into ])elioles; U|)per leaves of stem and l)ranclus .small, hract-like 

Fl(mrrs.— Vd\v azure-hlue, rarely pinkish or white, set clo.se to stem, 

//c.j*/. -Compo.sed of ray-llowers, tip 01" each rav five-toothed; sur- 
rounded by two rows of involncral bracts, the inner whorl lon;^ and ihe 
outer whorl short and rellexed. .Ml the llorets are ravs and all are 
fertile. 

Akeiifs. - .Short with broad .surr.mit. 

Pappus.- Sm-dW, chaffy .scales. 



CHICORY 



("liicory is a si)ra\vlinj,'. awkward, wirdy |ilant wlio-.e j^'ciUTallv 
(lishevollcd apiK-aramo is Miniewhat ninijH-n^ati'd liv the drlii aii- 
l)faiity of it- l»lii>som-. Tlu' k'avi'> (iu-tir at tlic ^numd and the 
tlowcrint,' >tiiii> arc Imif,' and -tiff and liarr. Tlu- i1mwit> ai>|>iMr 
-in>{ly ur in two-. alliTnatc upon tlir irnjitluninj,' -tern- wlii( li arc 
ai)out two feci iontr and have at i)a>c' a 
collection of ri|)cnin<,' hcad>, then (lower-, 
tlien hud-. At the end of the sea-oii the 
last (lower surmount- the stem and -ur 
vey- the wre.k of -unimcr's f,'lorv. Tlic 
l)lo>s<)m is of e.\(|ui-ite heaut\. I'.vcry 
(loret is a ray and every rav is fertile and 
all are l>iue — |)ale, tender l>lue; corolla, 
stamens, and stylc> lo<^ether make up the 
total of delicate color. 

The ])lant has escaped from cultivation 
and may now he found "waitini; hv the 
way" from tiie Atlantic coast to the .Mi->i-- 
si})|)i. Hut nowhere does it seem to have 
struck dee|)er root and made itself more 
tiioroughly at home than in the vicinity of 
Hoston. In the mornin<i; from June till 
()ct()i)er the waste |)laces of the citv are 
illuminated with the shimmer of divine 
blue over the fjreen of the j,'ra>> and weed. 
Creatures of the niominj,', hy afternoon 
their tleetini,' life has passed. .\ y()unj,'er and as fair a hlos 
som will ai)i)ear to-morrow — and the im|)ulse of life moves 
steadil\' on. 

Chicory is a waif from the Far East, and it still rejyeats the echo 
of its Egyptian name, thikoiirzch. l"he strong ta])-root which i> 
universally used as an adulterant of cot'fee gives it a commercial 
value; and a })erverted taste afl'irms that coffee is better when 
ass<Kiated with Chicory. In this connection there is a tale told 
of Prince Bismarck gcxKl enough to be true. The storv runs that 
once, finding himself in a country inn and greatly desiring a cup of 

505 




Chic 



( ii lii'irimti hilyl'in 



^mm. 



•ar ■ '3i»aB'.-t.ii!^K#s^'.:!3wr 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

(otTce, hv insisted that wliat ho wanted most of all was a deccxtion 
of C'lii((iry; in fact that all the Ciiicory of tlie e>tal)li>hinent was 
not too miuh to sii|)|)ly his needs. Wiu-n the lii|uiil wa^ hroiij^lit 
him he directed that it he poured upon tiie ground; then trium- 
phantly ordered a ( uj) of coffee, rea^oninj; that, as there wa> no 
more Chicorv in >t(Kk, there woulil lie none in iiis cot'fee. 

The hitter leaves forced and Manched in a warm, dark |)lace are 
used as a salad by the French, and a very j{0(m1 salad they make. 

It is interesting; to note how two farmer poets sei)arated l>y the 
Kulf of two thousand years look at Ciucory. Virj,'il, wlio was 
probaiilv color-l)lind, as we know many of tho^-e old Romans were, 
views it from the aj^ricultural side wliolly, for he writes: 

Thi' >i)rt-a(lin}^ >ui,rory i \\nkv> the rising fii-lil. 

Kmerson, whose fields no douht were overrun hy tlie weed, 
nevertheless having eyes to sec, rises above tlie practical a> a juiet 
should, and sings: 

Tlic siurorv til iiKUi h tlu' skv. 



Kndive, CirhorUim aulivhi, an old-world species, has large, 
si)reading root-leaves which have long been used a> a salad. 



AGERATUM 

Aqcri'iliiiii ciiiiyzo'idcs. 

.],qer(iliim, (iri'cl^, not havinjr ulil aj;c; so iianii'd from the alisi'iui' 
of till' tlulTv white ])ai>l<us u- lal in co^H)o-^itl• llowrrs; not ajipliia- 
hlf to Ihi- llowcr. 

.\n annual, used consi(lcral)ly as a border plant, be !,<; corymbed 
heads of a/.ure-biue flowers. Native to tropical Anu'ric. U sjiaringly 
natur'.li/.e(l at the South. Summer and autumn. 

.S7('»;.— Krect, l)u.shy, one to two feet high, downy. 
I.e:ivfs. OpjMisite. oval or nyatc. crcnate->;erratc 
/•V(m'(T-/;r(/(/.?.— Di.scoid, blue, half an inch across, tlu' long, divided 
styles giving a fuzzy apj)earance to the head. 

i;o6 



GOLDEN IMMORTELLE 

Iii'olurrr. ru|)-shaii<'(l, of two rows of hairy, iniliriiatol hrads, 
Kcccptiuk. {"oiivrx, naked. 

Akeiic. SlfiidiT, aiiKltil, wiili a (japjnis of five lo ,si.\ wliilc, awl 
sha|H'(l hrislks. 

The MliR' AmTatiim, wliirli i> ilu- form commnnlv found in 
j^anli'ti', i- a native of lro|)i(al Anu'rica. Alllioutiii Miif i> tiu' 
pri'lVrrt'd color, lIu- llowir> vary lo whiir and ro^'. 'I'lie litacN 
arc di'>titi;te of rays, llic lulmlar (1ower> an- 1 lo-cK < rowdcd, and. 
a- tlio styles are very lon^, tliey t;ive the llower-head a -oft, jihuns 
clTeet. 

GOLDEN IMMORTELLE 

lleliiliry\iim liriuti-<iliiiti. 

Helirhrysiim, (ircek for --un and «"!''; rtfirriiii; lo the lirilliatx v ..f 
the llowcr. 

One of a j^'roup of African and Australian coni|iosilcs, rcniarkalilc for 
their brilliant involucres, which i^ive the elTect of ruvs. 'I'he j^roup pro- 
duce the unfadinj; tlowersof commerce, known as Immortelles, .\nnual. 
Variahli'; easily cultivated. 

Stem. — Stout, two to three feet hij;h; branched, 
/.rii^r.v. Oblong-lanceolate, narrowed to short |H'tioles. 

I'lower-lu'iuls. Discoid, terminal, .solitary; disk-llorcLs yellow, 
crowded. 

Invulid rr. Many rows of |H)inted bracts. 

Hriitls. ( )verlapping; brilliantly colored; normallv vellow to orange, 
but now varying into many colors in the long-cultivated forms. 'Ihe 
bracts retlex as the head gets olrler, and become narrower in the series 
nearest the disk. 

.Uc/NW. "\V(M)lly, crowne<l widi |)appus of nianv plumose bri.stles. 

Among <.lher Immortelle-- in cultivation aie l/vliplcniiit 
Mdiii^lrsH, Sun-winged Iniinortille, which hears a loose corvmh of 
>huwy tlower-lieads, rose or >ilvery-white; Rlioddnllic niutuliilii, 
having hell-shaiu'd head^ of white, pink, ortrimson; .Irroclinum, 
with white or rose heads; and XcrdHlheimim diiituiini, a siK-cies 
native io the Mediterranean regions, with llouer-head^ pur|)le, 
violet, or white. .Ml are annuals and all of ea>\' cultivation. 

The Immortelles are a nio>t unusual and interoting grouj) of 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



II 



t, ; 



plants. Thfv an- AfnVan ami Aiisiralian, native to <lry sands, 
aitiiMnmrd to limited mni■^tlIre. They are as hrilliantly (ujored 
as n)arin<)ld> and a|)i>arently have as many rays a- an asttr, and 
they do not fade. The ^ct ret of the Immortelles i> simple eiiuiinh 
after one ^ets the key to the mystery; l)el'ore that tlu-\ sirm the 
marvel of the garden; in a certain way they are the marvel of the 
garden, even after their >lriiitiire i> understood. The siherv- 
white, or bright pink, or Hlowinn-yellow, that looks like corolla, 
and is so indestriu tiMe, is not lorolla, nor i* it even calyx — it is 
involucre, antl (orresponds in structure and jMi-iiion to the dull- 
lirown lirai ts that remain after the st-cds <if aster or of daisy have 
ri|H'ned and llown away. .Nature never >;els so far afield as to 
make corolla of such indestructihie stuff. She makes invoKure 
stiff, usually i;reen at first and then hrown, liut in these wonderful 
plants from the .\ntipodes the involiu ral hracts hccome the deepest 
red, the rosiest pink, the mo'^t hrilliant yellow . It is they who j^ive 
the (lower call to the insect world. 

To make clear: all these llower-heads are composites of the dis- 
coid tyi)c; that is, they haw disk-tlorets, hut no ray-llorels; what 
look like ray-llorets are the hracts of the invohu re. Hrat ts in all 
composites are ]>ersistent, normally Kreen, finally hrown, hut the 
hracts of this j^roup are hrilliantly i olored and so they ma\ dec eive 
even the elect, until one tears the head to |)ieces and then the truth 
comes out. 

If a skilful gardener should take the Immortelle in hand with 
the aim of lessening; the disk and enlar^inj^ the hracts, it is \erv 
prohahle that a llower could he |)roduced as re<;ular as a dahlia or 
as tousled as a chrysanthemum — and indestructihie. The only 
(|uestion would he whether it was really wortli while. 

It is interesting to note tliat a large export trade in everlasting 
(lowers centres in Ca|>e Colon)', South .\frica. They arc gatiicied 
hy the Katllrs chielly in the Drakenstein .Mountains and iirought 
to the country storekeeiKTS, who dry them in long sheds and w hen 
dry pack lliem in cases. Tlie KalTirs go out in families, tiie women 
and children do most of the work; |)rohal)ly tlie head of the family 
gets most of the ])ay. It is not a very easy task to gatlier them, as 
often the hest s[)ccimens grow in most inaccessible ]>laces. 



GOLDEN IMMORTELLE 




Golden Immortelle, lltluhrhum bracUalum 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



i i 



Ifrliilirysiiiii tirenariitm, a innnnial -"iK-iii-., Inariiin ^rnall, 
j^lohiilar lua(l> in (um|)a(l littlr nirsml)>, i> ixttHMVily lullivatid 
in I'Vamr ami u>i<l in tlic nnanufaiUirc nf nu-morial wri-alli^ ami 
ir(»st's. The llowi-rs arc naliirally ycli')\N, l)Ul are l)ltaihf(i and 
(IvimI in various colors. They are not a> l)eautiful a> ihe C'a|H.- 
Ilowers. 

PEARLY EVERLASTING 

. I iiilfiliiilis ni,iri;iiriliii cii. 

Aiiiiptiiilii, llriik, withciiu kiiuuii >if5niri(arm'. 

A lu-aiiliful, perennial Kverlaslinn, urowin^ U|Km dry M>il virluaiiy 
lliroiinlioiil till' United States, except dm the extreme s»)Ulherii coast. 
Also found in northern Asia, .\unust, September. 

Sti<n. I'>ect, leafy, one to three feel liinh, tloccose, woolly, curym- 
bosely branched at summit. 

Jmvcs. .Alternate, entire, linear-lanceolate, narrowed to a sissile 

bas<.', revolute at margin, ;,'reen -downy 
above anil wtM)lly beneatlr, the lowi-st 
often spatulale, obtu.se. 

l-'Um'er-hviuh. Ui.scoid; of dia-ci- 
ous flowers, many, borne in terminal, 
com|H)Uiul corymbs. 

Pistillair /lords. With tubular five- 
toothed corolla; two-cleft style and 
copious pappus of capillary, se])arate 
bristles. 

SlamimUc florris. With a slender 
corolla; an undivided style; anthers 
tailed at the base; pappus not abun- 
dant. 

Involucre. Campanulate; bracts 
ovate-lanceolate, obtuse, ])early-while, 
imbricated in several series. 

Kerr plarlr. Convex, not chalTy. 
/'(//>/>H,v.— Several bristles; akenes 

Pi-arly Evirliisting. Amifhalh oblonj;. 

nuir f^ar itiii m 

The Pearly Everlastinji; bears 
many small flowcr-hcads, each consisting of several rows of per- 
sistent white bracts, ranged around a disk crowded with tubular 




J. i 



raf= 



WINGED AMMOH.UM 



lliiTtt^. 'I'liis ^'tnu- i- M|i,iratri| licitii (.lii-ipliali/m;, ilu- liMnr.ini 
ICvirhiMinn, l'\ tlulait llial i ;u li lilllc lluwi r liitd i> (limiou-; 
ihal i-, |M>^M'--r> H|iaraU' |ii>tillali' aii'l lamm ili linuj-r-. 

'I'lu' .swri't l!\tTla>liii^, liihif)lhi!i:iin uliiiiu/ »/, i> ihc i i(inm<in 
fra;;iaal i\\rrla^lin^ iDiitnl ii|m.ii Miy hill— iilt - ,ir\i| |«a-liiir laiuU 
llimiiyliiiiii thf Nnrilt. It i~ imi < ultivalfil; lir-i, L.tau-i' il \- ->> 
aliimdanl in lln t'uld-. and >t< nnd, lictaiiM' lluTc air liittiT Imv 
!a-tinjj> in ilu- ^jardtn 'I'lir plant i- intiTi-^iin;;, rmild In- util 
ulili/.rd !)y ilu- iami- .|m i^ardincr >iikin^ dilnr clTivH, and it- 
franranrc jx/rvadc^ tl <■ air in ii> ( \)><».n Imnu-. 

WINGED AMMOBIUM 

.1 iiniuihiuiii ,!l:ilniii. 



. I ■rill'' ■■I'll, C.ri-' 



l\ i IJ.' i I I'll- s.lll 



A jKTi'nnial, .sun-li'\ n l; | I i.l, naiivi- In Ni w Snutli Walis; lirinii;til in 
Kn>{laiid in 1825 1)) Mi. k.r i-^i I.i^ :- 

Stem. -One In three leet lii.L:h, CDttony, 
winj^ed, rather weak. 

Kodl-lcinfi. (Mtlmti and ta|ieriii:,' down- 
ward inli) a petinle. Steindeaves small and 
extended down the branches in the form ol 
leafy winj,'s. 

/•7(iU'(r-/;r(///\. One -half to one iiuh 
across, discoid, solitary, or two or three near 
togethir; disk llorets tul)ular, yellow. 

/»/t'(»/Hfrf. -Several rows of pearly while 
bracts, closely surnmndin!.; tik- discoid heaii; 
chaffy scales on the receptacle; akeiies tlattish. 

.Xiintiohiuni iihiliiiii i- a -prawlini; plant 
with ^ray^reen, (ottcny, winged stems 
and terminal llower-. 'i'hc llower-heads 
are little while l«ali- with yellow centres, 

about an inch ac ross, not unlike our native everlastinjis. I'lanted 
in warm but liglit, sandy soil, with not mm n water, since moi-turi- 
is its enemy, it is readily raised from seed. It is more intere-tinj; 
than beautiful. 

5" 




\\ in^-r"! \nuiii>)>iurn. 
Ammi/hiutn tiUUnm 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 



TALL GLOBE THISTLE. ECHINOPS 

l:<hiiiii[>s rxiiltiitiis. 

luhiuofs, Crirk, \\U- ;i luMlK,h..K; iillu.linj; to the spiny, invuliural 
scali's. 
A tall hiunnial, of ihislk-like aspect, six to seven feet lunli, well- 
foliated from base to summit and crowned l)y perfect spheres, two 
inches in diameter, ..f disk-ilorets, steel-blue in color. Summer. Russia. 
.S7cm. Krect, whitish, woolly, nearly simple, leafy, six to .seven feet 

/.cnr-v.— Alternate, twice o-- thrice i)innatisect, the lobes and teetli 

pricklv. , 

/•7,wcr-//f<J(/.— Globular, covered with disk-iloret.s, steel-blue. 

1- lowers. Tubular, five-lobcd, steel-blue when ojieninK, fading with ajje- 

The Tall (llobe Thistle is a plant of 
f^rcal dignity, resembling a gigantic gray 
thistle, but when in IjIodpi it> tall >tems 
are surmounted by halls, not thistle- 
heads. So well foliaged are the stems 
that a group of them miglil ea>ily make 
a lea 'umn to emphasize an entrance, 
or stand as a sentinel. 

Tiie llower-head in full bloom is a 
si)here. Nature rarely achieves this 
form in tlowcrs; it is often suggested 
but rarely attained; in this inst;'.-ue, 
however, tiie unusual is atcomjjhVhed. 
The head in i)ud is spherical, the head 
in full l)ioom is a sjihere, it is i>nly 
during the periinl of partial bloom that 
the e\(iuisite symmetry is disturbed. 'Ihe llorei- at the top 
oi)en first and the !)looming imj)ulse pnKceds downward; that 
is, from the centre outward, thus reversing the order of thistle 
bloom, whiili is from the circumference inward. The bees 
swarm' about the oik'u llowers in ecstasy; big l)ees and little 
[jt-es— all are there and all wild with delight. 

512 




CloU' ■''liistli-. A.i/imr'/" 



,i//,i'w\ 



■jm*m. 



TALL GLOBE THISTLE 

Tlicrt' ar'j -i'\i'r;il -|K('ii- of I'.c liiin'ii- in cultiNatinii: -uuw nf 
tlu'^r are >malliT |ilaiil- and Ix-.ir llnwcr- of darker l.liu', i«ul lor 
height, poi-^c, and (h'gnilv, iwiilli/ii-' la-ily -land- lir-i. 



a ;_'t'mi- o| -loi i, wcfilv . 
h>'ad- in loo-c ( or\ inli- 



Other CoivpositiC in cultivation are: 

Tile luipatorium-, or 'rhoroughwort-. 
ereet ;)erennial-, hearing di-coid llower 
and lilooming near the (lo>e of -unmier. 

Eiifitilorinm piirpiirdiiii, Joe I've 
Weed, become- a huge |>lanl wilh a 
-tout, reddi-h -talk nearly an im h 
through, crowiu'd at it- -unirnil wiih 
gri'at nia— e- of hloom, made of man\ 
-oft, lleecy, magenta pink lloret-. Iiriglil 
in the -un-hine liut dull in tlu' -hadow. 

'I'lie -ingle erect -leni Itear- hand-ome 
whorl- of dark, |iointed, -errali' leavi-, 
whi( h fe;uher it from iia-e to -nmniit. 
The |)lant live> the swamps, the liorder- 
of riviTs, and moi-t, low, alluxial -oil. 

l-'.iip itoriitni per/oliatuiii. the Itonc-ei 
of the domestic malirta mcd'tui, i- often 
tlu- onlv notable white tlowiT in the 
tangle <if ga-/ colors \\hi( h the low land- 
mer. It- grayi-li color i- more -u» ( i 
down the ga\ mixturi' of yellow and jiurpie of the oilur com 
|)o-ite- than ])ure white would lie. 

Tlu' mo-t delicate of all the iaipalorium- i- /■'.iipilnriiiiii .f^rr.i- 
lo't'lr^, fc.unil on the edge of rich wood- amid llie undergrowth. It 
hear- clear, i lo-e ( orxiiih- of deli( ati' white llower-, and long 
petiole-; thin dark-green leave- dee|>ly and -harjily -errati'. 'I'iii- 
-|H'( ii'- ha- heen taken up hy the llri-l-, cullivalcd, ami -ol<l in the 
-ho|)-. It -erve- ihe -ame |)urpo-i' a- Siivia. 

.Moii!^ wiih the I'.upatorium-, hlooming at the -ame time and 
under -imilar condition-, i-thi' Iron \\eed,lrTy/('»;//; iiovehDnin'iisis, 







encourage in laie -um- 
-ful, perhap-. in toning 







iii'ti'lii'iiii'i 



iM 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

■i f,U -lender plant of three ..r f..ur ^lalks -r.nvinp tofjether, topped 
with a large cluster of very l.rillianl i-uri-l. llovvrr-. H is the mo.t 
brilliant purple wild llowrr of northern 
Ohio. In height it ecjuals the >un- 
tlowers and Joe- I've Wee.l. The 
leaves are alternate and m altered. 

HIazing Star, l.uilris, is a genus of 
iiardv perennials wiiieh Wear their 
rose -red, or purple llower^ in wand 
like spikes; the petaloid coloring of 
tlu' invoUural bracts increasing tiie 
brilliancy of the llower^. The nio.t 
,l,„wy species are Luilris rlci^'iiis and 
/./<////s {)yniostacliyt, both of xailliern 

'''l"'.i!panr< Uane. DnnnnmnK i. a genu, of hardv . onipuMte^ of 
which several sp.-ci. - are . otning into general usc. be, an.- tltev 
,,1,„„, In Mav. The llnvers roetnble large, yellow, ox^.ye da.Mes 

and are a brilliant addition to the -pring garden. 

Southerns" >d, Aiicinhn ^ihro- 
t.niiDi!, is an ardnaii- . nuich- 
iiranched, woody hemmed |)eren- 
nial, bearing niaii\ oale. gravi-h- 
gieen. dissected leaves and small 
Yellowish llowerdiead-. It is occa- 
sionallv found in old gardens. 

Wormwood, Arlcniislt ahs'uith- 
iiiiu. is (losely allied to Soulhern- 
wo(Hi and greatly resembles it. The 
l)lanl is two to four feel liigh, the 
leave- grav, mui h divided, and 
intensely bitter. The Hower- 
head- are small and yellowish. An 
cMen-ive use of the iilanl is in 
the manufacture of ab-lnthe. of which it is the i-rincipal 

ingredient. 

51 t 




I.a\iTiilrr C.iH"ii. S.nr-I':iht 



Ljiiii i i ll j ii mj a tiu i M 



LEOPARD'S BANE 




Leopard's Ijanu. Donnikum 



COMPOSITE FAMILY 

Tarr;i<;on, Artemisia dranluruliis, the aromatic i)lant UM'tl for 
seasoning? salads and llavoring vinej^ar, hclonjjs Iutc. 

Lavender Cotlun, Sdulolliui iliuiiurrypitrissiis, is a hardy, lialf- 
shruhby, mu(h-l)ranched plant aljoiit two feet high, with small 
silverv-i^ray evergreen leaves, and in the summer many small 
heads of \ellow llowers. Is t)ften used in cari)et beds. 

Tansv, 'I'aiimtiim vub^arc, is an aromatic plant now dwelling 
I)rin( i|)allv upon tlie roadside, con-isting a|>i)arently of a mass of 
dark-green feathery foliage that in July heeomes a hank of yellow 
buttons which are discoid llower-heads borne in dense, tlat-toppec' 
cymes. 

Some verv curious old Ehglish customs arc connected with 
'I'ansv. 'I"he leavo were put into cakes which were eaten at 
I'",asler, some say in memory of the bitter lurlis eaten by tlie Jews 
at tlie Passiver; (.ihers deny tliis and say tliat pco|)le ate Tansy 
because it was wholesome, after so much salt l"i>h had been con- 
sumed during bent. Certain it is that there wa- a cake or fritter 
called Tansie and into it Tan-y leaves entered as an essential 
ingredient. 

The li>t of delicious viands served at the coronation of King 
James II and his cpieen includes '•Tan>ie." Tansy tea is still 
used at tlie South for colds, but fro.u I•;llgli^h cookery the plant 
has aljsolutely di>appeared. 



I 






;i6 



SWEET HERBS 



SWEET HERBS 



TtuTc I'xists in our nnnlfrn garden- a .urnu]) nf plants kiinwn a> 
Swfi't IIi'rl)>, wliich an- ( ulli\ati'(l -uk-ly and (■\|)rc->l\ I'nr the \alui- 
lluit tlH'ir fuliaj^f nr -tH'(l> ]>()-m-> in jiivini^ llavor to food. A 
study of tlu'Nf tliro\\.> an inlirt^iini; lif^ht upon a pluiM- of aiK ient 
lifi- wliicli, altiiou,i;li woil known IH-Ioritally, conii'.-- to u> with an 
addi'd (■mpha>i> liy wav of lioriii ullnrt'. 

In till' first |)la(c, we llnd that llio most of thc-c plants i;ro\v 
wild in tlu' region> ahout the .Mo(htirr;'.ni'an Sim; tliat i~, witiiin thi' 
limits of the Roman I-",m|)ia'. Mori'ovtr, ail wcrr and --till arc 
usL'd to nivo varied llavor> to ditTerent food^. particularly meat 
food>. W'c know that the (Ireek i'ir>t, and the Roman aftiTward, 
was an epicure; and we also know that the foods of tlu'^e early 
days were limited in variety, and that upon ihi' tallies of the 
wealthy meats predominated. Tiie Roman > >ui,dit varied llavors 
for the jjratit'ication of hi> jjalate, and di>co\erinj; tiiat these wild 
plants from the hill-sides could render this service, he transferred 
them into ihe j^anlen. It i>, therefore, j)rol)al)le that Sweet nerl)s 
were amoui^ the first plants <-ultivated in I'.urope. Tlu' i nok 
who felt that a new kind of animal shoul<l be i reated to tenij)! hi> 
masterV a|)i)etite, did not under>tand the matter a> well a^ 
the old Roman>; wlu'n they had chan.tjed the llavor of tlu' mi'at 
the\' had created a new animal a> far a-, food \\a^ conceined. 

'rhe>e Sweet Herl)> helonj^, for the mo>t part, to two<,'reat natural 
familio: the Mint^, l.dblita\ and the I'ar>ley>, ['iiihrlli/rnr. 

The ])rincipal Mint> in modern u-e are Sai,'e, Thyme, Savory, 
Marjoram, S])earmint, and Peppermint. Anioii;^ tlie Parsley- are 
Parsley, Dill, Pennel, and Caraway. 

Although the>e plant.- helon^ to families hotanically diffiTetil, all 
have thi> character in lomnion: the\ contain, either in foliage or 

517 



SWEET HERBS 



in fruit, an ari)mati( , vnlaliic oil, suliiMc in watiT. wliii ii ^ivcs tlu- 
|K'( uliar ( liarai tcTi-ti( llavornf tlu- plaiil. .\> llif voiatilizatinn of 
this oil is iiastcnni liy la'al, it i> rcailily ^ivcn fnrlli in mhi])-, >ti'\v>, 
and meal (lrcs>inf^>. 

'I'he Minl^ may lie i<nn\vn i)y tiuir >(|uari' Mcms, two lipi^'d 
corollas, and tin- four si'fd> at the holtoni of ilu' laiyx. Thr Pars- 
leys are (listinfjiii>he<l hy their I'lve small jietal-., the {lowers home in 
umlu'ls — of which the wild carrot is a typiial exampU — and the 
llal, dry -eeds which usually have liny oil lubes. 'l"he leaves are 
< c>mi)ound. 

All are weedy plants, little, if any, changed from their wild proto- 
tyju's. Thi^ i> conijirehensihle when we retail ihal ihey have 
never been valued eitlier for ciiarm of foliage or beauty of flower; 
bul whollv for the llavor which re-ided in the i-MUtial oil ihat they 
naturally prmluced. C'onse( |uei)lly, n( > early gardener ever t Ik lUghl 
it worth while to subject ihem to the disdpline of selection. Of 
lale, however, varietii-^ of a few of the best— nolaijiy the Sage and 
the Par■^ley— are olTered by tiie trade. 

.\-.ociate(l witii these Sweet Heri)S in early gardens were 
manv plains highly valued for their medi( inal qualities. Some 
of the>e >till retain their place among accepted remedies, many 
have been sujier^eded. The potency a-< rilied by the old herb- 
alists to the>e i)lanl> is so gnat that one i> tilled with wonder 
that i)atients ever died, until one examine- into the prescrip- 
tions, and then one is more a^^oni^iled that any of them ever 
recovered. 

.\n old volume on the " .\ri of Simpling " t learly expound-^ 
the ancient Doctrine of Signatures. 

It savs: "Though Sin and Saltan have plunged mankinde 
into an Ocean of Inl'irmitie--, yet the men y of (lod, wlu'cli is 
over all His workes makelh iierbes for tlie use of man, and 
halh not onely Mamjied ujion them a di>tinct forme, but also 
given Ihem jiarticular signatures. whereb\ a man may read even 
in legible characters the u>e of them. . . . Vi|)er's Hugloss 
hath its stalks all to be >peckled like a snake or vijier. and is 
a most singular remedy against poyson and the -ling of -corpions. 

Si8 



SWEET HERBS 

• • • 'l"iu' Iravc- nf Sain! Juhn'- WdtI m-vui i.. \,v jirii kr<l or 
pinki'd very ihi( k with lilllc Imk'- likf ilir \n>rr~. i>i a man'- 
>kin. It i> a -'.vtri-ii;n nnu-dy fur anv i ui in tin -kin." 

('onsidcrini,' tlic lia>is u|inn whit h main <>\ ilics( n)oili(inal 
plant- wtTf >flt'rto(l. it i- -urpri-inj;, nt tlial ^<> t\\\ Kut tliat 
so many lia\i- retained their am ient reputaii.m l)an(leiiMn, 
Ffdrehound, la'i|Ui>ri( e. Mandrake, and Mar-h Mallnw are -lili 
to lie had anioiij^ nii)dcin renicilics. 



SAGE 

A pcrenniul sul)->hriil>, aliiuii luo feet hi^h, cuhivatcd in j,'ardfns, Inn 
not naturali/fil in this enuntry Sniilliern iMnnpe 

Stem. Woody, one to two feel liii;li. 

Ia'iIVCs. (Irayish-i^reen, thick, ohlon^', entire. ( nrrui^'ateii. 

I'lo'urrs. Small, ^'apins,', t wo I i p|)e(l , 
Iilue varieijated with white ami |)urple, 
home on lon;j terminal spikes, in distim I 
whorls each cniu|M>sed o|' a lew llowiTs. 

Calyx. 'I'uhiilar, striated, two-lipped. 

Corolla. Hairy within, npper lip mn 
cave; the lower three iulicij. 

.Si, mil, IS. Two; t'llament short, at the 
summit an elont,'ated thread like iiodv. one 
end of which hears a oiu'-eelK-d anther. 

()r<ir\. Deeply t"our-parted, rijieninj; 
into lour .set'dlike akenes. 

.\ |ilea-ant odor and certain medic i- 
nai (pialitie- ha\e ^iven the Sa^e a hii.;li 
rank anioti.i^ Swfel Ilerhs. Although 
it- dome-tic u.-e- an- not -o many as 
t'ormeriy. it i- >iili Used to imjiart a ju'culiar llavnr to -au>ai;f, 
to the lire.— in<4 of roast jtoultr)', and to a certain kind of ( ju-e-i'. 

That dome-tic matirhi nicilici in whiili hone-i't and ( atnip hold 
an honored ])lace al-o include- llic Saj,'e. An infu-ion of the 

3>9 




Sa^^f. .S.i/; /.; ■',';.' ithtli 



If 



SWEET HERBS 

liavt'> mak<> an astrin^i'tit j.;arf;K', Sajjc tfu i- a<lmini-ur(<l fur a 
nervous lu-adac he, and a mi\tiirc- nf Sav;c ami liuncy i> a ^iHiitii- 
ftir (ankrri'd >ori' minitli. 

(u-rard, writinfi! in i5</>, siy-: "Saj^o is ^'ood fnr tlic luad and 
tlu' lirain; it i|iiii krn> tin- nirniury and llir ■~tn>c-. 'I"lu' jiiici' tif 
the li'avi'.^ niixi'd witii Imiu'v i> ^oixl fnr tli<»i' \\li<> -pit IiIo<mI. No 
man lU'td- in doulil of tlie wlioli'Minuiic^^ uf Saj^i'." 

THYME 

Thyimis ■•.•!ili;,)n's. 

Th ^•miis., ( hi^sical iiatiu- nf <lciul)ttul > ri^iii; ])i»>iMv drivilf- that 
,';ic |ii,ml ua^ u^cmI a-- an iiufii^' in (irc.k tt-ini)li<. 

A low, lialf-shruhhy perennial, wi'li a strong mint-like odor. The 
leaves and stems yield an oil from which by distillation is obtained the 
druji Thymol. ' 

Slrni. I'>e(l, base sometimes decumbent, one to two feet hinli; 
branches stiff, usually pubescent. 

I.iinrs. Small, linear to ovatedanceolate, acute, 
maririns more or le^s ri'volute. 

Ilnurrs. Small, iwolipjied, lilac or purplish, borne 
i'l whorls, forming; terminal interrui)ted spikes. 

Ciilyx. I'ive-loolhed and lwo-li])pe(l. 

Corolla. Small, lwo-li|iped: U])per li|i two-toothed 
and ertcl; the lower three-eleft and sjjreadinj,'. 

Sliiuinis. l''our, in two jKiirs, exserted. 

O'iiiry. I''our-partt'd, ripening into four seed-like 
aki'ues. 

I know a hank wherion the uiM ih.'-ie {.iP a-. 

— SlI.NKl.-il'i; \NK. 

Sweit Thvmc was hii;h!y jjrized by the R()man> 
who u>ed it in many \vay> for ^easoninj.; foixl. 
The Cireeks never wearied of -in.i^iuijr the i)rai-e-~ 
of the honev made from the Tliynu that !.!;rew on 
the llanks of Ilymi'ttus. ( )vid, \'iri,'il, and I'liny 
all -peak of Tiivme in connection with bees: no doubt the honey 
made from its llowers posse»t's a i)unj^eiU and aromatic llavor. 

5-'o 




Tlu lit'. / iiyiiiii 



SWEET MARJORAM 

Amnni: the (ircfk', Tliynic dfiT'li'il i;r;i< tl'ul t Iti; iin f "f the 
Atti( -tvlf anil wa- U-ido an iMiiMtni nt a(ii\i!\ ■'I'" -null 
111 Tliutic" wa-, tl»ri'f<)n\ an <\|iri— ■ion "i |irai-<', a|i|iiitii id 
ihu-f w jid-c -i\lr \\a> adniiralilr. In liir (l,i\~ n\ tliualrs. v ln-n 
aiiivity ua-a virlui' viry lii;;lily rati'il, la<lii"- I'nilirHiiiirtii kniu'lnl)' 
>( aif> willi the- I'ljiuri' of a \\iv Imvfrinji alxnit .i -prii^ nf 'riium-. 

TIk' ly|K' ami il~ \ariti;ati(l \aiiilii» an- u-td a- Koidtr iilanl- 
in iulli\ati-il ^inumU; tiuTf arc al-o variclii- wilii Krnat' It mm-. 

('rrfi)iii^; 'rii\nu', I liywiis srrpyllnni, i-innuiinn in njil garden-, 
and i< ]iri/A-d a- an iviT^rcfii id^inj^ and .i- i><\{r I'nr tiKkwurk 
and wa^lr jjiaii'-, fi>r llic criipiivj;, wiHMJy, liram iiini; -it ni- I'nrni 
di'iiH' tu-liiiin-. Tlif -jii-tii- lia- varii-ii intu many tnrin-. ulici-f 
nami'- a|i|)far in tin- 1 alaln^'iif-. All art' ari>maiii . 

At! I'nliii}^ ti) I)ani>li tradition, im Miil-ummi-r Ni'^^iil al l\' Kf 
o'tltKk till' kinii i)f fair\- land wilh lii- riliiuic di-|niit ilu-m-iKt- 
anmnji llu' lit-d- uf fra,i,'ranl wiKl 'I'lnnif. 



SWEET MARJORAM 

( ')7^.;i;.'Mi( ii!,ijiir.iih\ 

Oriqiiinini, (Irt'fk fniin linr,'^. an ilfvaticm or hill, .iihI t^'iiws, 
lii-auty llif I.t-aulv i.l" llu- hill- a nfcniu i- U< il- ii.iUm h.iliilav 

A [ifri'miial lurh oiif (d two ifil liiu'!!; 
hairy, Italy, nuuli liramluil. Mtdilir- 
ran^an rf^iimi. 

Stems. Manv, SDnifwliat wimih-. 

I.rnrs. Small, inal, t-niirt', trow did. 
s]irinklfd with ri'>i]i(nis ilnis, palcurtrii. 

l-lcurrs. 'i"\vi) li|i|ii'il, small, wliitf nr 
|)iiiki.-li, in ifdwdfti, r(iunili>ii ItTminal 
liii-Icrs, surnumdfd liy an invnhurf. 

Suds. \'fry small. 

Swffi Mai-jurani lia- a jilca-inu' '"I'T 
and a warm, aromalic . Iiilhri-li ta-lf, >■•■■< \\\.ry., >,:, cn.-.ur.im 
wliith niakt- il liiLdily f-i .■cmftl a- a 

M'a-imini.; for -oup-. -u-w-, nifat |iit-, a?id ilrf--int;-. In onr 
};ardcn> il niu-t Ijf Inalfd a- an annual, Ijitau-i- it winitr kill-. 

.s-'l 










SWEET HERBS 

Thf plant M-i-ms to liavc \n-vn . I<rti'«l I'V ilu- (irrck> and also 
l>v tlu' Rntnan^ as a dt'iuratinn ai marria^*' IVaM-, wlun it was 
WdVtn into wrtatli-- li' irown tlir scim^; niarriid (i>ui>lf. It is 
menliunid liuili l)\ \irnil and IMiny. 



SUMMER SAVORY 



Silliiri I'l Ihirtiiish. 
l;i^>iial iianu' of oli-i lire ii\i'ai'iiii». 

I'.un>|)( ■; spariiiL'lv nin wild 



Siiliirfi'-i, a 

Annual low IutIi; native l'> sDiithrr-i 

.S7fw. - Sk'ndiT, iTrct, l)rancliiii>,'. tm l«i iwtlv. iiulu> lii^li. 
Ixttves. Soft, til)li>iifj linear. 

h'limrrs. I'wn li|)|K(l, pink, purpli^h, or wliite, small, lillur liu-lrnd 
in the a\ils of the leaves or riinninj? into paniile spikes at the end ui the 
liranihes. 

Summer Savory, Salurti' Uortciisis, 
was ome in ureal repute as a remedy 
for many ailment>; its very pre>enie 
was considered a safe^ianl; "keep it 
dry l)y you all the year it you love 
yourself and }tiur ease," was the ad- 
viee of the a^nieiit herbalists. More- 
over, the pl.mt heloiiged to the sat\rs 
and was the e>pei ial ]iroperty of Mer- 
cury. All these mystical values 
have (le|)arted, and today Summei 
Savon is simply a slender-stemmed, 
weedv jjlant, extremely aromatic in 
stem, leaf, and llowers, wlio-e i)ulver- 
ized leave> and stems are found in 
anv drv conihination of Sweet Ilerlis 
sold in the >lK)ps. 
There is a perennial everj^reen 
species called Winter Savory Saliireia monlana. native to south- 
ern I'.urope whii h is also used as a seasonin}^ herh, the whole 




Sunim. r S. ivory. S.iturtiii 



plant being highly aromatic. 



SJa 



SWEET BASIL 



SWEET BASIL 

( >i /mil "I h'luH' II III- 
(hinllioi, f.rctk, ^IfHi; - 'lUr-l. 
All annual nf ,Mn nuly ira.^ranl luliau' . l.'ii'^ in mliisaii.m 



Shm Otif I') two urt Inuli, x-inarf. 
l)raiuliinn, hairy. 

I.iiiir^ Opipositc, ovalr-ol.li.nu'. 
sliKlilly Mrral.-, |Mti..lat.-; .lolh'l wnli 
many,' small, iran^Uiirnl oil-iilaiuU. 

l-imrrs. Whitf «>r l)liii>li, I'onif in 
leafy icrniiiial racemes or -pikii* made up 
1)1 s'ixllowtTtd wliiirN. 

(•,;/v.v. llairv, tw..-li|.iH'l; "I'l"'"' ''I' 

orhicuiar, oMuave; lower lip |our-tootlu<l. 

Corolla Hairy, two-lippe.l, one lip 

fciir to..iluil, leelh roundeil; otlu-- lip 

uiuliviiled l)iil erose. 

Sliimriis. Four, declineil; lower pair 
longer; the upi^T often with a pnKe>> at 
tliiir base. 

/'/.V//7. Four-del t; style ari^in^ from 
between the lolies; stigma iwo lobed. 
/•>«//. Four aki nes. 




Srtii t II.imI. I !■ i'lniin '■! Ill' I"" 



Sweet l{a>il wa> formerly ii^'.l a> we iHo Mi-nmiette, o ^ive a 
pleasmt lraj;ra!i. e to a l.nuMUei; al^. to ilavor M.up> ami ,HeaM,,n 
ally >ala.I~. Now, it i~ rarely ^vn, either in the llower or tlu' 
kitt hen garden. 

PEPPERMINT 

Mi'niha pi-pt-nl.i. 

Menllu,, (Ireek, from the name of th- r.yniph faMcl m l.ave lurn 
(halloed in'o niint by I'rnr-erpine. 
IVrennial by runners an<l rootsioeks, ^nAvinti in w. t pla.e>, heside 
running streams. Reo.Kni/ed by the jH^ppery ta..te o, the leaves. 
Euroijc, naturalised in America. 

523 



vmms-wimmT 



■^/r-fi'W^WI 



^T' m i'-'w^ ^r^'^i$mT^'^\miim 




"^^z-^d " r-tituM. 



■n^ 



MICROCOPY ReSOlUTK)N TEST CHART 

(ANSI and ISO TEST CHART No 2) 




1^ 

150 



1^ 

132 



if 1^ 

■■■ m Art 



2.5 
2.2 

1.8 




^ /APPLIED IM^GE 



'lb3 East Main Street 

f'ochester. New York 14609 USA 

(716) 482 - 0300 - Phone 

(716; 288 - 5989 - ran 



SWEET HERBS 

Sinii. S(|U;ire, i>iif tn tlirn- I'fi't lii.^li. 

l.nivrs. Two In tlirri' iiulu'S Iniij^, wrinkled, veiny, nlilon^ (ir lanceo- 
late, >hari)ly >errate, aeule, jmnelale with niiiniii' oil l;1o1iuK >. 

/•Vo-uVTs-. Small, paK-jmrjile or wliiti>li, forniinu lliii k, ileiise, olilnse 
sjiike^, liotli terminal and lateral. rret|Vi< nily liie lateral overto]i the 
terminal. 

C'lilvx. 'riibular, five-tootlud. 

L'orolhi. rurpli.--h, tuhular, border four-eleft. 

Stawiiis. I'oiir. 

(h-iirv. I'oiir-parted, develo]Mnn into four nut like akenes. 

There is im ditTuultv ;ii reromii/in-.^ I'epperir.inl. if one chews 
the leave>. for tiie inteii-i'l\ piinj^eiit. aromatic ta-te roenililin^ that 
of i)ep|)er i> iinmi>takal>le, and ciirioti>ly enou,<j;li it i> accompanied 
with a i)eciiliar seiisalioii of coldness. 

lVl)|)ermiiit rank- as one of Ihe mu>t imiiortanl idant- in the 
])ro(iuilion of e-sential oils. In the United State- it i- cultivated 
in central New York, nori. ern Indiana, and .-outhern .Midiii^an 
and i> res^arded ar> a vaiuaiile crop. The ])lant- are cut when jii-t 
cominL; into hloom and are cured like hay; they are then taken 
to the still- where the oil i> e\tracted iiy di-tillalion with >team. 
( )ne well-i^rown acre will produce sixty |)oimd> of oil. I'ei)|)ermint 
oil is u>ed in lonfectionery, very extensively in medicines, al-o lor 
the protluction of menthol and the cordial c/rwc ilc nwiillic. 

SPEARMINT 



Mt'ntl:,} \iridis. 

A ])erennial liy leafv stolons, Lirowini; in wet places in cultivated dis- 
tricts. Native both to I''.uroiie and .\sia and naturalized in the United 
States. Summer. 

.S7c)».— Scjuare, one to two feet hij^h, from creei)inj,' ro.it.-toeks. 

I.civrs. Ojiijosite, sessiK', two to three inches lon.ij, wrinkleil, veiny, 
obloni; or lance-ovale, coarsely serrate, rounded at base, acute. 

l-lowrrs. Small, pale-purple or whitish, clustered in axillary whorls, 
forming slender, mostly interrupted sjnkes both terminal and lateral. 

Cdlxx. Tubular, five-tootlied. 



■Miiiimtiiifiilrii 



SWEET FENNEL 



(.'nrnlh. Tuliiilar, Imrdcr fotir-i left, ui'i"r hiKi hniailf.-t. 

Sliiiiii lis. I'liiir, i(|iial, ( rtci. 

( )iiir\\ I''(iur-iiai"tril; iK vi'lnpinL; into I'mir >i r.l l;k ■ akrius 

S|H'armint ha- virtue- which have 
Iniii^ hrcii rcr(iL;iii/(<l. 'I he Ir'iit h 
(all it Mriiliir tic .\olrr l)<iii:c, ilir 
Italian- /■./•/'■/ .S'./;/A; \Lirli, aii'l liu' 
(icniiaii- /■ r.nicii Miir.r. 1 ii l in- 
Middle A,^'- it \va- a i harm a^ain-! 
till' liile nf -crpeni-. itirpioii-, and 
mad diiii-. It- ( iiliiiarv ii-e- were in 
a— i-t ill till- iiiakiii,^ nt' chrf-c. to lie 
|un with iic'iiiivriiyal iiiln juiddiiiL;-, 
and al.-o to In- linilcd \vitii j^rccn pea-. 

'I'hat u-c -till >urvivc- in l-.n-land. ^,, ,,,.,.„" ,/,„:•;„, .»m7, 
Si>rarniinl i> al-n ciiltivatrd tm \\v\)- 

IK'rniiiU farm- and tlu' iilaiit- di-lilli'd fur tluir (--rntial oil. 
Tlii- i- u-i'd chiLlly in imdirinc 

SjH'armint i> a cni]) in tlu' \iiinii\ ni" larLic i ilir-. wluic In-hlv 
lUl -pri.n- are u-cd in making ihr ••-rdnilivc and into\i( alinu 
drink knnwn a- mint-julcp."" It i- nmrc widt'ls u-cd a- an in 
jiri'dii'nl in mini -aiRi\ the familiar an (iniiianiinrni nt -prinn 
lamb. 




SWEET FENNEL 

liriii( iiliiiii viili;arc. 

Iiniiiiihiiii. l.alin, 1"!-.ipi fnnini. luiy; rrl'crriiii; t.. l!if o.l.,r win, li 
siii;m--l- l!iat 'if lu'W-'iviwn li;iy. 

Birnnial; Inlia'^c and fruit swcit, arnnialii, nudicinal. ami .-linui- 
latinj,'. 

.S7())/. Sinut, snicintli. f(Uir tt> six fici hiuh. 

I.cr.rs. Xunicn.us, three to I'our thn.- jiinnale, spread out into 
tnielv eut and almost hair like semiieiu-. 

/•YeuvT.v. r,riL,'hl -yellow, in an U'^ihel of Iimi to iwiMity ray-, witliout 
involucre. 



SWEET HERBS 

Ciilvx. — With limh indistinct. 
Petals. 'Viw, roiindisli. ohnvatc. 

.SVfJ. — Flat on ono side ami omvcx imi the otlur, seldom more than 
one-fourth of an iiuli lonj;. 

Sow fennel, -u\v sorrow. 

< iM) ri<ovi;Kii. 

'I'here'-- fennel for you ami ( olumlpine-. 

—"Hamlet." .\a I\'. N. 5, Sii,\Ki.si'i..\i^i;. 

(Iiristi'/ihrr. " N'o, niy ^ood Lord." 

Cinmt. "N'our :^<i,hI l.iml .' t Hi, liow ihi- smelU of fennel!" 

—"The C'a>e .Mtere.l," .\( t II, Se. 2, Hl.N JossoN. 

We liavc in S!iaki'>i)i'arc's time tlir i)laiiU'sl cvidrncf ilia' 
I'Vmic'l was the mo-rnizi'd cmhU'in of llaiu-ry. If it be true that 
Ophfliu's 111 >\\rrs were all seleilcd fnr their si^nifn-ancc', i)rrhai» 
it was not hy aciidcnt that she offers Kennel to her hrolher— who 
has just heard the try: '-Kaerles shall he kinj:, Laerte> kinj^!" 

If there was anv reason why Kennel should he connected with 
sorrow that elew i> ai)i)arently lost, hut the i)n)verl) remains. 

The use of Kennel as a Sweet Herb still ])ersists in (lermany, 
where it is used to tlavor fish sauces and also hread and cakes. 

Parkinson savs: "Kennel is of j,'reat u>e to trim up and -Irowe 
upon fish, as also to hoyl or ])ut amon.n fish of divers sorts, cow- 
cumhers pickled and other fruits. The rooles are used with Parsley 
rootes to he hoyled in hroths. The seed is much used to jiul in 
Pippin i)ies and divers other such haked fruits, as also into bread 
to give it the better relish." 

It is a good deal of a puzzle how Kennel, which, ujxm the whole, 
is rather inert as a drug, ever obtained the tremendous rejiutation 
which it enjoved among the ancients. The plant was believed to 
be an antidote to all kinds of poisons; to restore sight to the blind 
and strength to the failing body. That the aromatic seed- should 
be used to impart a tlavor to food is comprehensible; thai its jiliant 
stems with strong and delicate leaves lent themselves to the making 
of wreaths, and so were present at weddings and at funerals, is also 
clear; but whv it was sujjposed to do so many things that mani- 
festly it could not do is not so dear. 

526 



-""'fili'-iiMiniiinii ii'i 



SWEET FENNEL 




Swcxt l-'fimc'l. l-'anUitlum I'ltlf^arf 



SW EET HERBS 

Till' (irii'k iianif fo. I'Vnni'l is M;irai!ii>n. This fad tlimw- 
lij^iil upnii ihc historic myth liial ^ri'w up alxnit the -win luniur, 
l'hc'i(lii)i)i(lr>, ill' wiio ran to Si>arta to si-i'i< aiii lor Atlun- a'^aiii l 
till' IVr>iaii Ikvt wliiili tlirratriu'il tlu' roa-l. A- iliroddiu- itll> 
tlif >tor\-. alter two day- and two ni;;lit> I'iu'idipiiidr- rcii lud 
Si)arla, oidv to l)c told tlial tlic Sjjartaii- louid not i tuiu^ imiil allir 
tiiL' full moon. I)isai)i>ointr(l and (h-inartrni'd, hv turned lia< k lo 
carry tlic word to Atliins. ( tn iiis way lie met the <;reat ^od I'aii, 
wlio llro^1i^ed tlu' Aiiienians victory and j^ave iiim a> a iiledi;eot 
his iiropliety a stalk of tiie Fennel plant. The liattle was fou<4hl 
on Ihe I'Vnnel-field, Marathon, and the .u'odV word eaiin' true. 
Status of the vouth always represented him with a -talk of I'eimel 
in his hand. IJrownint; i)Uts the old Mory in W()rd> of woiidertul 
l)athos and jiower in his pocfn " l'iieidipi)ide^" : 

Sav I'.ui sailli: Li't this forcshowiiii; the |i1aco, he lln' pK'iij^i! 
(;ay, ihc iiheral liand licUl iml thi- lu-rlia^^c I hear - 
|.-,.,„nl — 1 gra>l)t-<l it atremhle with dew — whaleviT il IhicIc. 

Fijrht 1 shall with the f.ireiiiost, wherever this Frmirl may «r"W, 
round— I'an lu'l|)in>5 us — I'ersia to dusl and under ihc deep 
Wheliii her away forever. 

The ijlory of Fennel has passed from the •garden-, and few 
gardeners even k.'.ow il hy sif^ht. It live> in literature, i>ul no 
longer linj^ers beside the garden walk. 



DILL 

A nilhum s^rnvaik)! 

Aiirtltiim, Imrnini^, -timulatinfj;; referring to the Juii e- of the plant. 

An annual or biennial plant of the niafket -garden; much used in the 
makint; of pickles; punjjent. Summer. 

Sinus. Three U) four feet hii^h, erect, Iiranchin<;. 

/.<\nr.?.- -Finely dissected, bi or tri-pinnate, Kkuicus, leallets threarl- 
h'ke; ])etioles broad, clas])in;.; the stem. 

Flowers. -Yellow, borne i- lar-;e, flat terminal, comixuuid umbels 
destitute of both involucre and involucols; calyx-teeth obsolete. 



DILL 



tf 



Pcl'th. I'ivc, ytHiiw, iiu'urvri!. 

Slanuiis. Ii\( ; ,>iiL:irauc .>uriai-r m| >ii^nias larL^c. 

.SV(v/,v. hruad-.ival, llam-iu'd uiili .-liari) thivad like ilur>.il ii(li,'rs. 

Dill i- a rnhviM. wcoly plant i<\ -iniivj; aromatii.- ta-lcaml .ulnr, 
ami in fnrnicr day^ had a ij.wM npuiatitin nut nnl'. a- a driVn( t- 
ai,'ain~; witi lu faft, luit iNn a- a nn'an- nf wcirkinu -|ii 11- •'( l.Lu k.-t 
nui'^'ir. All it- \irliu-. lia\c d(|iarttd t>iila'. , r\i(|.i the lii.,:ul\- 
one uf aidinir in llir niakinL; i>t" a panic iii m' l^rand n t m unilieT 



i 



... _ ,y /I 










Wi 



^ 7 / '**rl«i.> 






llil!. l/l.//;»/i,' ^iw:,'./,/),!- 



pickle-. It |)n)l)alily (Ir-ccndcd in this humlilo oI'Vc cwn wliilr 
it- \vii( lural't irputation \va- at it- lieiiiht, for thrci' hundrfd year- 
a.i^i) it i- ri'icirded that Dill, ii" "added tn pic klfd ( lu nnilicr-. i^'avc 
the fold fruit a |)retty -pic ii' ta>te.*' I''.\(l n ]»rai-e- "(lenki-n- 
murialed with the -eeds nt' Dill." and .\ Ivli-on write-: " 1 am 
alwa\s |)leased w ith tlial ]>arlii ular tinii' of the _\far which i> ]iriiper 
fur the picklintr of I)ill and c ucurnlier-." 

The seeds are like carawav -eed- in tlasc^r. hiil not in -liajn'; 
ihe stem and leaves re-enihie those of Fennel, though ^mailer. 

■2<; 



SWEET HERBS 



PARSLEY 

Chrum l>ctri>scrinum. 
Ciiritm, from the country Caria in wcstt in A-u. 

Thi' common r.irsk'V of the market, |)riziil for ilir iilca-ail llavor of 
its foliage', u^'c(^ in cool^iry; occasionally runs wild. 

Stem. I'.rcct, oin' to tlircT feet. 

I.cnvrs. I'innati'ly comi)oini(l; leallcts cleft ami ini, 
h'lourrs. Small, f^reenish-yeliow, Lornc in compinind ui\lprl>; ralyx- 
tirth small. 

/'(7(//.s-. l'"ive; fruit ovate, riljbed. 

Wf cultivate the Parsley fDf its leaves, '.vhich arc in comiiKin use 
as a f^arnish f')r nvat dishes. Several (garden varieties are j^rnwu; 
the one with ( uric I and crunijjled leaves is ])rcferre<l as heinj,' mori' 
(leiorative than the others. The cultivated i)lant i^ rarely allowed 
to hloom, hut when it does it |)roduees an umhel of >ma!l, _\ellowi-li 
llowers, and, later, rather crowded umhels of tlat seeds. 

An old work on <rardcning, written about 1440, says that Pars]e\ 
was "much used in all .sortes of meates, both boyled, roasted and 
frved, stewed, etc., and beihjj green it serveth to lay ujjon sundry 
meates. It is also shred and stopped into powderecl beefe." The 
seeds of Parslev were also put into cheese to llavor it, and the 
anecdote is told that Charlemagne cmce ate cheese mixed with 
Parslev seeds at a bishop's palace, and liked it so much that 
ever after he had two cases of such cheese sent yearly to Ai\-la- 
Chapelle. 

The plant was used among the Greeks as a decoration at 
funerai> and to strew u|)on graves, hence came the saying, "to be 
in need of Parsley," signifying to be at death's door. This ap- 
parentlv made it a plant of ill rejiute, for Plutarch tells tlie story 
of a ])anic created in a Greek force which was marching against 
the enemv bv the soldiers suddenly meeting so'.k- mules laden 
with Parsley which they looked upon as an evil nen. 

The seeds arc ;;o slow of gi rmination that a Devonshire saying 

530 



PARSLEY 

riMinl-, tli.ii the I'ar-ltK Mcd )iiK'> to tlic Divil ;mil li.uk iiuMi" 
nine tiiiu'-' In i'>r( ii i niiu> up. 

(',ir;tw;i\ , ('■irnni rdriii, i^ iirnwii '"or it^ ^i'imI-, wiiiili ;iH' ummI in 
tl.iMirin^ l>rcai| .iml laki-, aU" in ( unlci linnn \-. It i^mw- a iont 
(ir two iii'_'li, ha- limly i ul, piiuiah 1\ i i>n)|iiiuiiil l'ilia,i;i-,anil >niall. 
white iliiw.i- in unilnl-. ll m i .i-ii 'iiall} run- wilil. 

( 'iiriandi-r. ( ' "■/(/(/i/'/c/ xili^im: i- al-o (ulti\atiil lor it< -ccd- 
which arc >till u-nl li\ ilruLi'^i-t- and i'>]\iv< liuncr-, and arc |nr 
haps ot'lcnc'-i t'.'und in htllc rmind pink and wlnic i aiidii-. 
'I'lic plant i- native In the Mrditerraneaii reijinn- and iti Liciiirai 
aiipiarani f rc-entllc- carawa}. It may no of interot to note 
that in the lii"ik <4 NuinlaT-. XI. 7. ManiKi i- (■otii[)ariMl to 
("oriandtr -(cd. 

Many ol' the Sweet Ilerli- nf Medie\al L'arden- iiave pa-sed 
out ot" < nltivation, modern ta>te tin'lini,' them hoth uni)i(a>ant 

and unde-Irahle. .Xmon.i; >u. h are I'.lecampane, (1 1 Kinii 

Ilenr\. S nalla^e, and Swi-el ("iieiy. \\t tlicv have iIk ir j.laie 
in an\ j^'arden which -etks to rei)nHiute earlier cop ■■■n- and 
rci)rcsenl former lasle-i. 



531 



(JLOSSAHV 



A( ri I . >ti.ir|i iniiiiii'.!. 

\|,\ |MI\ I . lilMMTli-i ll\ lUltl)Mli/<'il. • • , I 

\MS, A.l,s,.'n,-.rnl..l,n.uln-..n, Iruit.uHh.h.-,— 'n.l.tnn,,l...;.lv 

...•rT,''!^:::'--.-,. n ,,,.„.,.,..,,.>.....- ..>.-.... 

arr.iim<'.l Mn^;K at ilillrnnt luiv;'!!-. 
\\M\I ' 'i "111' '""■ \>'" ■ 'I'l''"'""' 

\^rili K. I'lu- ,art ul I'li.- Maimt. ihal |.r.„luM- i...lU'n. 

\ttN A l,ri-tU--liai.i'a ai.|'i'n.lan<-. 

A<Ii'. Thf annl.' 1. rnu.l l.y a Iraf ..r l.ra.ul, uah tlu- -Irn,. 

\\li 1 \i;v. Siuiali'il in tti<- asil. 

Am,. Thr c.Mitral lin. of atu .,:-an, ,.r -u|.|-M "1 a ^Prnp ..1 ...^an,, 

Hi \;.i i>, I'.ii'liiiH '••> i> I'rol.'iii;'- ! t'l' 

Hknki.KI.. lM.rni>lio; with l.m..- m, -liil hau-. 

lilKUS. A t'niit, wliMM' p.-riiai, i- llc-hy ,.r i^iilpy. 

HlKAMM. Of iwi) year-,' lUiraii. ■II. 

l\\ \1>K. 'Ilu- .■xi.amU'.l |„.rlioii of a liaf. 

H, X,-, . A mla.r.1 k-af for.n M.uatnl n.-ar or a,non« ,h. tl-uur^. 

;/,, ,„ ,,;,.. A.illarv l,u,K whi. h ,,.unta,u.ou-lv .Irta. h ,'--,n-,U.- an,l la,, 

,,, ilunioun.! and lu-,..in,. n.w ,.laiil,. 
CmvN. -rii" ,.ulr- llural .MUrU.i.-; it- Uav,,arr.allr.l -pal,. 
Cwii'ANfi \ri:. lifll -lia'iH'il. 
(■\i-ir.S(iNr. Krlatin^; i" ilu- -U'lii. 

CuvKK. A >n,all thin l.ra.i. !r.n„uni; -Iry and m.'n.l,rar,. .n,. 
CniMi- -Mardnallv ftiiifji-il with liair-. ■ , ,i . 
(^K,s.,;r,xMnL> I-Vr.i!i/cMlinthHmd./,.houMh.o,.r„n,,ol.h^ t. 

CuNni-lMU-MK. -:'..l'lr.i to'^.thiT kMli;thwi,r. 

5-;;NNKrnv,:. -h.- portion of a .tanun whi, h .onn.,t, th. two ..lU o, an 
antliiT. 

f ONVCirTK. — Rolli-a liM.rlhwiM-. 

(•(.HI) vn . -Ht-art-hai' .. ,., 

(-,"o,.,.v. -The itnuT whorl of th. .loral .-nvlo,..,; ..- k-av. -Ikd 

!>fia!s, 



GLOSSARY 



Cuhsmh. \ ll.il lui,)..'.! n.'Wtr .liHl.r. 
(■iiin\lli<'''l < i.iMiil" liWr. 

Dmt'IiVI M Ur, lining, uill. ll..- Muntni, .,>..n.l>„« 

,,,,MM,.M. <)i,.nmKn«uh.,U 1..^ v..K.- nr -lu „ a- .. , ..1->U „r ..ntl.. r. 

DiAiMl. T-.tluMl. Krll. .limU.l ,,ulu..nl. 

|)l\I.Hl'llc.l>. Coinl.inr.l in \\u< -.I- 

|„.K,.-...l-s. Wl.h luM l.in.l, ..f lluvvr,- ..n .r.uatr ,...>,.- 

,,U. X,l..v.l„,„n.m,,. .!u-m.,.U.l.-.U..rar..un.l.lulK.-,-..(.lH ,.M,I 

Kxsikh i>. l'r<>j'i''i'K- 

I'AlkiiHSK, I'a' ii'H ..uluanl. 

|.-,,KnM. CaialiU-i.f i.r.HliuiiiH friii! 

i.-iHKn \ -niall Il..u.r, usually on. ul a -I.-hm- .lu.tr.. 

,.■,„,,„,,. AMM^;U->an,.i..n,r„inul..vtluvr,UralM>tu,r. 

til AllKHlS. SllKMltl). 

\U \\> A 'liii-L . lusHT nf ll..wiT> on a >li..rt a\).. 

IlKWK A l.lanl will, no i..-,-Mfnt uun.ly .I.mu uIkav nr..u,..,. 

UviiKin. Airns- l.r.nl ,,1 luo -i^iiu-. 

IMIIHICATK. -()virUil'l>iii«. 

IsImJl-nJ^-A .irlu- "f '-., .un„un,Un, a llou.r .1..... „r a ->n,l.. 

,.J;.'I:;k. Sha,K-iliU..ala,„..-,u.a,i...>.al,un...l..n..r.han.M. 

and l>nia<U'>l at ihf l>as.'. , 

I.l.:.;rM... T.H- fruit nf tlu- l.r.i^umhwsx : l..r .•xa.ni.l.' a i.a-i-i. 
l.oiti.. Anv MHiunt <■{ an ..ruaii. 
Mil. Kill. 'iluMi-ntral lil. "f a U'af. 
Noi.i -n.o i-la.r on a Men. that nurinalls l..';u. a k..i 
OvvKV. Tin- part nf th. pistil that omtains th. nvuU-s. 
OVUIK— Tin- IhmIv that after f.rtili/ation l,<..n,fs th.- m-i- 

I'XNiriK - \ l.H.sc. irn-Kularly ...nipuun.! int1..ri-..r.u f. 

l-AiMTS. -IMu- n,.«lifuMl ralyx-li-Ml. <.f (■-"»/;,'5,/,r. 

I'K.uUNCl.K.- .\ primary llowt-r stalk. 

rKKKNMAl .— l.aslin« year aft.r y.ar. 

PKunrr nl-.wer).- Having l.th pi>tia,,,Uu,m.ns ^^^^^^_^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

I'liMANTll. -Tlu- llnral .■nvi'lopc, .unM^tmn -'i . .u> n 

present), whatever their form. 
riuicAKP. -The matured ovary. 

Vktm..- A .livision of the .orolla. ..i,„„nnal form in .loul.le 

I'KrM.<'n..-Keseml.rmga petal; used for an almormai 

llo\ver>. 
Pftioi F -The f<«)t-stalk of a leaf. . . , 

I hiiui.r.. 1 111 I n.,,,-,.r riin^istin^ ot ovar% , si\it, 

PlSTli.-The seed-hearing ..rgan of the lloNMr, eon>i>tin^, 

and slignia 
Pod.— Anv drv dehiscent fruit. 

534 



GLOSSARY 



|.,„,, s ri„ |,-,tiii/ini;i;..ii.i . • .nt.iiti.-.l in ll" .mtlirt 

l„ .un,. - ,1„. .UMnuhi,M..'ar-th, ..-U.... I., tl.-' 



Ki I I I'l VI I I 



H l'"ll 



K;:r n.. wn,i,.« ,,,..„,., ,.,.i.-..^«-h ■u,,,ii,-.u„ 

lisrlit. 
K.p.ii^i.'i k. --.imi'.i- rhi/i.Mii 
^, \,.| \ p.li.n.l. n-ni« ll..in ill. u>..uii.l. 
M 1 I .11 < >i\. 1.!. .1- 
V| I |, riir liiiciu-.l ..Mill' 

Si |.\i \ iii\i-ii.ii III' ■•• I ''b ^ 

^1 |.\i ..ii. l.iUf 1 -I'l.'i' 

s,i:i.Mi. 11,1 I'll; -I...11. i"'^' i-i"""v; i'"^^.'"' 

Sllli.t I '111' l-inli.i. |....l ■■! '>"■" 

S,s, -. 111.- ,1.11 ' Ml" 1"" I"'" . , 

s,,M.N. -i.l .'. l".llin!...n,n;;...;:..n-..l Oh-I'I.""- 

S| i,.\i \ I li.il ). 



;ll'i. Iiil 



I,,' ,,1,1, i" ,111 n 1,1. II ii'i; ' '■ ^ I .. 

,„ ,,,„, ,,, ,l„■l,i-!lHll..,u^;ll ulii. !ilinili/..l.,,n 1.;. '1. y\U-n i- 

UU-, linu llii' -liuni.i .nul tlu' 



s,M I l..nt',tlu 1.1,1 i..,ni,.ii ..I llu- l,i-!il ,-i 

,.,:;;'" M,,.„i„n- .inuiu,h.'u ,-i-'-'-i--i-">=f ""• 

-;iiiic i„,inl. 
\\,v,. Anv ilu„.Al„i.i-i.inK.,r.lr.iim..> .uri..u,,.hn« an . T^an. 



I ■ ,m; I,.., 1 . n, 1,1111 ir.M ',,11111 I'll ill I'"U''-ll- 

Ii,„;,ni,aliianir.,1r,,n,l,.ni;-M,il.li-lu.liu,Mn,..ii 1 

,,,..aUin^-ii.untm-aii..r,!in«....b.M-"un,i.Ui,.n,,l .all.Mli, InU. M 

„u ::::;i;;i" a; uu. I •,...-..- llu. ^h„ru.,u.ii ,iu-nM.-n, .ii^..^ 



^^/ ftfd^ mt M.a i^'- 



•'., ^ i: /. 



'm:^i. 



INDHX 



AiiRONi \, 1 :■'' 

uinlK-lhila, i.'i 
Ai aiilliacca', i-O 
Aiaiulius I-'amily. 420 

incilii-. 4-1 
Aihillca milli-f'iliiini. -\(>^ 

l)larTni( a, 4'iS 
Arluranllu-, 1 J,; 
Aroliil' . I'lS 
Aioiiilum iiajKllu--. r^~^ 
Ailiiiiilia. 2i),T 
AilainV NnVllr, 47 
Ailluniia, 20S 

cirrlio-^a. 20S 
Ailoni- a'^livali-, 1S2 
aut\niinali-. iSj 
Sjirinii, 1S2 
vi-rnali>. 1^2 
/F.^npoiliuni p.iildiiraria, .^,;o 
Ai»fraUiii\ iDiiy/oidi--, 50') 
Agnistriiina coronaria, i,i'> 
Aki'l)ia (|uimata, iSS 
Alfalfa. 254 
AlK'Ljhanv \"\nr. 2gS 
Allium, 50 
ii'l>a. 50 
cfriiuuni. 50 
!,c:li(i'nupra-uiii, 52 
AlstniMiuria, ()J 
AhiTiiantluTa. 1 22 
Altha-a (.riH inali.-, 2SS 

ri)~r.v. 2S5 
Alum R.ioi, 2,i4 
Al\'^-um maritimum, 214 
sixatili', 215 
Sweet, 214 
Yi-Uow, 21; 
AmaranUuea', iiS 



Aniar.inl''i. 1 iS 
I'amil) . I iS 
(;i..lif. I iS 
R.cl. iiS 
Amarantu- corc'.ali; . 1 i>> 
•^aiii^ilii U-. I 1^ 
lii( oli.r. I iS 
Aniar\ lliilai i:i , 'o 
Amarylli- lamilv. (>n 
Ainniuhiuin ahiium. ;i 1 

Wiiii^i'l, ;i 1 
AiiilK-lMp-i-, iiuini|ucfnlia, 2S0 

Will liii. 2S1 
Ani-ciiiia t,i!ii rnanmnlana. ;■,>-> 
Aiiai)liali> inar'4arita< ra, 510 
AiH-niiini'. 174 

cuniiiaria, 1 7 1 
Canlcn. 17 \ 
horU'ii-~i-. 174 
Jajiani'-i', 17; 
ia|)iinii .1, 171 
lu-miirM^a. 17'! 
paten-. 17(> 
penn-\K,inii a. 17') 

. I'npp\. I7t 

I pul-atilla. 17'' 

I Kue, 17') 

I Aneriuiiell.i thalii imiile-, 17(> 
1 Anetliuni i,'ra\ 1-1 lien-. 521) 
Anlheini- mtuia, 477 
nnl.ili.-, 4711 
lini t'lria, 47'" 
Aiitirrhitium, 401 

nia;u-. 4°' 

inauraii'li'ii'le-. 402 
Apio- lulii ">~,i. 25 1 
Apni \ nac e^e, , 17 
' Ap'>ti> 'Return ilistaehvuin, S 

5.V 



,^i,.i«lf<inr.:».. 



rSDEX 



Aquilt^;Ki ( ;in;ulcnsis, 162 
I aTiila, i')5 
( hrvsantlia. \(>(' 
fiiriiiosa, i()4 
f;laniluliisa, 1O6 
DXVMpala, i()() 
sihiriia, id'i 
Skinniri, i()() 
vulgaris, i(>o 
Arahis alhida, 219 

alpina, 2U) 
Aracfii', S 

Ararhis liy])i)ga'a, 255 
Arctotis t^ramlis, 47S 
ArgcmoiH- nuxuana, 202 

platyii-ras, 202 
Aristoloiliia inacrDplixlla, 105 
Aristoloi hiaica-, 105 
AriiuTia vulgaris, ,Vi5 
Arlfiiiisia alirolaiiuiu, 514 
ahsinthiuni, 514 
(Iraiunculus, 5''' 
Arum Family, 5 
As(k'|)iaci';L', ,^51 
.\s(U'pias incarnata, ,^52 

tubcrosa, ,v=;i 
Aspara^u^. HanU'ii, ■;,< 
nu'di'oloidis, 54 
ofluinalis, 5.? 
plumosus, 54 
Sijrcngcri, 54 
AspiTula, 41'' 

oili)rata, 41'' 
(iricnlalis, 41') 
AsU-r, 4«S 

China, 480 
criioidi's, 481^ 
\()v:i' Anglia-, 4S.S 
Sloki's's, 502 
Auhri'tia dcltoidca, 2icj 
Avcns, L<)iig-i)liinnMl, 147 

Baiiy's Hkkatii, I +0, 41-; 
Haclu'lor's Bulton, 1 19, 499 
Balloon Vine, 270 
Balm, Bee, ,^76 
Fragr.int, ,^76 



Balsam-Apple. 4,^5 
iialsim. C.ardrii, 277 
lial.~.iinina( la , 277 
ii.iiKina I'ainilv, w7 
Ba|)ti-ia auslrali-, 240 
Harharea vulgaris, 220 
Barberry l-aniily, 18S 
liarrenworl, Largi llo\MTe<l, 1S9 
Ifarldnia aurea, ,;ci) 
liasil. Swift. 52,^ 
Bean, C.i-lor, 274 
II\ai inth, 250 
Kidne\, 241; 
Saireil, 15,1 
Sov, 25 1 
wild, 251 
Beard 'I'ongue, )i i 
Hear'- Hree( h, 4-' 
Be<l-lra\v, 415 
Beet, I 14 

Belanuan<la ihinensis, ()_; 
Bellllower, Carpathian, 44c 
Creeping, 4.i^ 
I'amil), 4S7 
Japanese-, 444 
"Narro\v-lea\ed, 440 
Kanipion-like, 4,^8 
Bellis i)erenni>. 4"i 
Berberi<la(ea'. 1S8 
BiTganiot. WiUl. ,i7^ 
Beta vulgaris, i i 4 
Bethlehem Sage, ,^27 
Bignonia Faniilv, 418 
Bignonia<i ;e, 418 
Bindweed, Hedge, ,vs>) 
Birthwiirt Family, 105 
Bishop's Cap, 2.^,^ 
Bishop's Weed, .^io 
Bitter-sweet, Climbing, 269 
Bhukberry Lily, 95 
Blazing Star, .^ioij, 5 1 4 
Bleeding Heart, 20:; 
Bloodroot, 198 
j Bluebells, .^22 

Bluebells of Scotland, 442 
I Blue-eyed Mary. 405 
I Botconia cordala, 197 

538 



INDEX 



Boltoniu asttroi(ii"i, 4S() 

HontM-l, S'S 

Hora^f Family, ;j2 

Horaj^iiuuiic. s-- 

Hora^jo olVii inalis, ,;25 

l{()>t<in l\y, jSi 

Hdiini lilt; l^'"'- '.^*' 

B()U>>in!;aullia, 117 

Brarhyronif ilicriilifniia, 4')2 

Hras>i(a allia, 2iy 
iam[K'slris, 218 
nigra, 2ig 
dliraira, 217 
Hrowaliia dcmissa, ;,g2 
Brvimop^i^ iaiiiimsa, 4.i') 
Hiukwhial, 1 10 
Kaniily, 107 
IhillxHoiliuin virnuni, 5S 
lUitUr-anil-I'Kg^, 4°- 
Hultt.riU|), Double, 17S 
Hultirtly l-lowcrs, ,W4 
lUittcrlly IVa, 2,^1) 
Hultirlly Wcid, .^51 



Cabbac-.k, Ska, 217 

Willi, 217 
Caralia, 49° 
Calanipt'lis, 411) 
Calfiidula (ilTu iiiali>, 4'*>o 
California I'olipy, 200 
Calla I.ily. ^ 
Calliopsis, 48,^ 
C'allirrhoe inNoliu rata, 21)4 
Calli>l<'pliu^ diini-iisis, 4S() 
Callha iialustris, 18,^ 
Campanula lalyiantlunia, 4.^8 

( arjialiia, 440 

Chimn<.y. 442 

nifilium. 4,i7 

pfrsi(if<ilia, 44° 

pyramiilali^, 442 

rajjunculiiiiU's, 4,^8 

rolunilifolia, 44- 

traclulium, 442 
Campanulacex, 4,i7 
Campion, Rose, 1.^6 



,'74 



i>S 



Candytuft, Hitter, 214 
I'.MTureeii, 214 
I'urple, 21s 
C.uma, II' 

C.inierlpury Hell:-. 4,^7 
Cipparidai e,e, 221 
Cijiril'oliai ea\ (22 
('a|)>ii urn annuuni, \m) 
Caraway, 5,;i 
Carilaniine, 220 
Canlin.il-riower, 447 
Canlio-pirnuin li.ilii ai ahum, 27f) 
Carnation, 1,^2 
Carrol, Wild, ,^28 
("arum petro^eliiuim. 5,io 
Carvojilivllacea-, 128 
Carvopteri- nia>ta( aiitlni-^ 
Ca>-ia tloriliunda, 254 
Ca>talia (nlorata, 150 
Caslor-Hean, 274 
Catihtly, Sweet William, 
Catnip, ,v8i 
Celandine, 201 
Celastraeea-, 2<iQ 
Cela~trus Mandens, 2(11) 
Celo>ia (ri>tala, 120 
Centaurea eineraria, 502 
(vaiius, 4gi) 
}r\nino>earpa, 502 
montana, 500 
nio-( liata, 502 
suaveolens, 504 
(\ntrosema virginianuni, 2;q 
Cera>tiuni tonuiito>um, 141 
Chamomile, Yellow, 47') 
Cheesi'S. 2(»2 
Cheirantlius dieiri, 2i() 
Chelidonum majus, 201 
Clulone, s^lahra, 410 

ohli(|ua, 40<) 
Chenopodiaiea-, 1 14 
Clienopodiuni liotrys. 
Clliekweed, 142 

Mouse-ear, 141 
Chiiory, 504 
China .\ster, 4S6 
China Pink, i.^o 

539 



116 



j^i ■■■■■»■' '^'' ' ' 



INDEX 



Chinese l.:'.nlern, .?<)g 
CliioiKi'liixa lii(ili;i', ^^ 

sar(leii>is, ,^7 
Chives, 52 
Christmas Ro~c. iS( 
Chrvsantheimni aunuiii, 17,, 
halsaiiiila, -\- 2 
rarinatuin, 471 
c()('( iiiiuiii. 470 
ciirdnariuin, 47- 
frute-eciis, t7^ 
llariix. 47 1 
Kieled, 471 
leucaiitlieimini. 474 
parlheiiiiiiii, 47,; 
sej^elutn. 472 
Simitner, 471 
tiiecilor. 471 
uligino>uni, 47,; 
Ciehiirium intybur-, 5^4 
Cii;ar Plant, ;,i2 
Ciiinaniiin \ine. 51; 
CilKluefdil, 14') 
Cislacea-, 2cjS 
Citron, 4,u 
Citrullus vulgaris, 4;,4 
Chirkia elegans, ,:;20 

|)uicliella, ,^20 
Clematis Davidiana, 172 
Jaeknianni, 17 v 
Japanese, 172 
I.ari^e-llciwcreil, 17} 
I.ealher-leaf, 171 
])anieulala. 172 
viorna. 171 
vir^iniana, 170 
Wild, T70 
Cleoine |iuni;eiis, 221 
Clinihiiit,' liiller— weet, 2'')<) 
('linitiiiii; I-uniit'iry, 20S 
Clover, 242 

Alsike, 21,^ 
Crimson. 244 
Hop, 244 
Italian, 244 
Rahhit Tool, 2 I ( 
Red, 242 



I 



Clover, Sui'et, 247 

White, 24s 
Coli.i-a s(andens, ^(15 
Coekreomh, 120 
Cokhiimn autumnale, 5.S 
Cojeiis hvhrida. .iSo 

(iardeii, .v'^^ 
Collin>ia hieolor. 405 

vi'rna. 40; 
Cohnnhine. ido 
Color.ido, ifii 
pAiropean. I'o 
Feathered. 171) 
(loldin. I'll) 
Red, 162 
Silieri.iP, i(i'> 
WeMern, 1(14 
Commelina nudillora, 11 
ConiPielinacea', S 
Composila', 452 
Com])osite I-'amily, 452 
("one Flower, 462 

l'uri)le, 46,^ 
Convallaria niajali-. 5i 
Convolvulaeea', .^s.i 
Convolvulus, ,;5i) 
Family. .;5.i 
japoniea, ^'lo 
si'pium. \^i) 
triciilor, .^1)0 
Copa-de-( )ro, 200 
Coreopsis, 4S4 

lanceolata. 4S4 
Coriander, 5^1 
Cornllower, 4111) 
Coroniila vari.i, 2 (S 
Cosmos lii|)innalu-, 404 
Costmary, 472 
Cotton. 21); 

Faveliiler. 516 
Tree, 2Q.; 
Coventry Bells. 442 
Cowslip, iS; 

American, ,u.i 
Virfjinian. ,22 
Cras>ukuea-, 227 
Cre>s. Hitter, 220 



54° 



INDEX 



Crc", I-'.il-c Wall. :;ii} 

Ko, I , ji.) 

W.itir, jjo 

Wiiilir. 220 
Cnm>nn UilU, 2_vS 
{'riiuiin. '10 

auri'U-, S ) 
Mllurvi-, S() 

>.iliv,i--. Si) 
Spring, S() 
sii-i:iiui<. S(; 

VlTIUlS, Si) 

\,.r>iiol(ir. Si; 

CriiufiMit l-amily, 1 ^S 
Ctuun liii[Krial, 35 
Crui ifi'nu, 210 
Curnml)cr, 4;,2 

Willi, 4v^ 
Ciuunii> im-lii, 433 

7-alivus, 4,?2 
{"ururhita \n-[>" 429 
C"ui urhitacL-a-, 429 
Cuii-llowiT, 31)9 
("uplK'a inniM, 3'- 
Cv|irc>s \'ini', 35S 
Cvpripcdiuni, 100 

Daitodii., (12 

HiM)i)-I'itiii'>'i^ *''' 

SuplTll, 4') 

'rniMipii, '12 

\'an Si'Hi, (16 
Dahlia, 4()') 

Jiiari.v.ii, 406 

rn-ra, 4(>() 

varialiilis, !()<) 
Daisy. I'.nuli>li. 491 

(larlanil, (72 

()\-cyi-, 47* 

Shasta. 474 

S\\an Ri\ir, 4^2 
Datura fastuo>a. 31)0 

strannmiuin. 390 
Dauiiis laruta, 32S 



Diail-miilr. ;S2 
|)i Iphiniini. I'l; 

I (rlU.iri.l. 2 2-1 

I (i.iiilhiH l..irlialii-. I JS 

, ,ir\iiph\ llu-, 1 ;2 

I liini ii-i-. 1 ; J 

liluin.iriu-, \M 
Diirntr.i. 201 

I .iii.iilm-i--, 2C1 

t lu iil.iri.i. 20(1 

r\itriia, 20'i 

1'. irniD^a. 20S 

^pi I laljili>, 203 
I )i( lainmis allui-, 2''S 
Diijil.ili- purpuna. 405 
Dill. 32s 

DinsiDrr.i ill...rii ,ita, 51) 
DiiiMiirraiia', 5" 
Dip-aiaira-, 43^^ 
Dittanv, 2()S 

|)iiilri .llllriill Mrallia. S l.i 

1 )u!;lMiir. ("I'liiiniin, 330 

I'.imily. 317 
Doliihos 1, ,1,1.1!,. 250 

I tiirotiii um. 51 I 
I )ral,a, 211) 
Dusty Millrr, 302 
Dutrhni.inV I'ipr. 105 

I'.ciltA 1 KtA. 230 
I'.rhiuaira purpurra. 1<',? 
i;, hini>ry-ti> li,l,ata. i;3 
i;i hinop- r\allatu~, ,12 
r.i hiuni \ult;ari-. 323 
V'.'j.il I'lani. 4G0 
|-,i;v]itian I.ntu-. 133 
j'.niilia llaniinr.i. li)0 
I'.piloliiuni ant;u-tifiiliuin. 
I'.piuu'iliuni mai iMiithutn, iSi) 
I'.ninuru- roKu-lu-., 5') 
I-'.r\iiunum anirtln-'iuni. 3.-;' 
I-'.-ih-iliolt/ia i.ilifnriiira. 2C0 
lamnMii'is railii an-. 2i:ii 
|-'.upati,riuiii ai:rratiii'lr>. 3I1 

prrfiiliatiHii, 3 1 ^ 

purpurium, 31.1 
! i;ui)h<>r!>ia n.roilata, 272 

^4' 



•;iS 



,-:^Maum^ 



IWDEX 

Kuiiliiirliia hcttrophylla, 274 

ni:irniti;ita. 2-,o 

|)ulilurriiiKi, j;,? 
Ku|)hiirl)i;iii;i', J70 
I'".vcninn rriinni-c, ,^14 

r'aiiiily, ,^14 
I-;v(rla>linn, I'larly, 510 

Swiit, 51 1 

rxCOI'YKlM IScrl-lMTM, liO 

Falsr l)ran<>ii'^ Hcaii. S7') 
False Indip), Hluf, 2\o 
Fiatlicr (liranium, 1 I'l 
I'lnnrl, '^witt, 525 
l-ivirfiAV. 475 
FiRwort Family, 401 
Fin- Wen I, ,iiS 
Five Finmr, '4'' 
Flax. 25(1 

Com mi in, 250 

P'amily, 25O 

Flower iR, 257 

Perennial, 257 
I'leiir-de-lis, 7() 
Flower-of-an-Hour, 2()o 
FfFnirulum vulRare, 525 
F'lrRct-nie-not, ,^24 
Four o'clock, 125 

Family, 125 
F'oxglove, 405 
Fritillaria imperialis, .^s 

nieleaRris, ,u 
Fuchsia, ,ii^> 

cocci nea, ,;i.S 

niacros'.emma, .? if) 

tri|)hylla, ,siS 
Fumariacea', 20^ 
Fumitory, Climbing, 208 

Family, 20,^ 
Funkia, 4,? 

Ci Aii.i.AKDlA. 477 

iristata, 477 

|)uliliella, 477 
Cialantluis l''.l\vesii, 75 

ni\aiis, 74 
(lalium moUugo, 4'5 



C.as Plant, 26,'^ 
(iaura jiarvillora. iig 
Cicntian Famil> , US 

I'rinRed, .U5 
Cientian.i crinita, u5 
(iintianai ea-, U.S 
t ierail'ai ea-, 2'>o 
(leraniim, |-'amil>, 260 
(iarden, 2(>o 
inaciilatuiii, 2(11 
Roliertiaiuim, 2'ii 
( ieum, I }7 
( iilia iriiolor, ,^'l•S 
('■ill-over-tlM-(iroimd. ,^82 
Ciillyflower. 210 
(dailiohis, 8() 
( dolie I'lower, 177 
(Uolie 'riii>tle. Tall, .sI2 
(dory of the Snow, 37 
( ;na]ihaliuni, 311 
Ciodetia, ,?i(> 
(lold Flowtr, 21)6 
('.olden Feather, 47.? 
Clow, 46,^ 
Immortelle, 507 
MaiRuerite, 476 
('i..lden-r()<l, 41)5 
('iomi)hrena Rlohosa, ii() 
perennis. 1 20 
puUhella, 120 
( looher, 2-i^ 
Cioosefciot Family, 114 
C.ossypium arlioreum, 293 

herhaccum, 2<) ; 
Gourd, Bottle, ^u 

Family, 421) 
Ciout Wied, ,viO 
Grape, Frost, 282 

Northern Fox. 2S3 
Kiver-bank. 282 
Grape Hyadnth, ,^8 
Great Willow Herb. 318 
Ground Cherry, .^yg 
Ivy, ,;82 
Nut, 251 
G;im!">, c-:)! 
Gypsophila aculilifolia, 141 



542 



.jLT'i^'.JT^^e^. 



mik 



INDEX 



rjV[i-.ii|iliiLi rira^'rroiilt -, 1 |l 
p.mii uhitii, 140 

II AKl.lll.LI., IW 

Hs'lfiiiuin autumh.ilr, I'u 
IIi-li,iTHlii-niuin \uli;.iir. :i)>> 

iliMli-, 4S7 

<liHa|)ii.ilu--, 157 

latilliirii^, li7 

ornv.il'-, l'i"'J 

ri^iilu-, 157 

tul)crii-ii>. ((o 
Hi-liclirvsuiii arriiariuni. ;n 

lira(t<'aUini. 5)7 
IhlinpM-. la'vi-. (do 
Ililii'lriipf, S^'i 
lli-li(^tn>!iiuni |H'ni\iamini, S- 
Hrliptrruni Maiii^lc-ii. 5-7 
llcllitioru^ iiil^rr, iS ( 
IIriiici-(i(alli> tla\.i, !■') 

fulva, ;5 
11. n-anil-C ' ken-. 2 io 
Ilfpatica acuiil'ilia. 171/ 

irilolia, 171) 
Hcrl) RohiTt, 2(11 
Hispcrus niatronalU. 2i'> 
Hcuilu-ra -annuiiira, 2.;.^ 
Ilihiscii'^, 2.SS 

(sculi-ntu~, 2111 

lllDSlluUlii-. 2SS 

trionuni, 2i>o 
H.ili.vhork, 2S; 

TrailiiiK. 2()0 
IlMnf<ty. 21:; 
Il(incy-iu kli' l-'aiiiliv. 4:2 

Truinpit )2.; 
llii]), t'uinnvin, 10^ 

Iapam-;c, lot 
Hcirn of l'Unl>-. ;i)o 
Hi>rscra(ii>li, 220 
Hou<c!i-rk, 2;o 
Iluhhanl S<|ua-li, (20 
llunnilus jaiioniru-, io\ 

lupuhH, 10,; 
llunt^man^ V:.,:. 221 



ll\ai inlli. to 

( ir.ipi', ,v^ 

kMinaii. \2 
llvai iiitli Itran. 2-,o 
II ai iiillui- ailiulu-, (2 

laiiilii atis, (J 

iiriiiitali^, 4'J 
||\illnpil\ Iku (.!■. .^7 I 
1 1\ peril a( la-, 21)') 
lUpniium mu-crianuiii, 2i)'> 

111! i:is \\l \i' \, 21 ; 

-inipiTviri n-, 2' t 
iini'Mllala. 2I I 
ImiUMrlclk', ( ;.ili'un. V7 
linpalirn- l.al-ainina. 277 
fulva, 27S 
palli'la, 27S 
>ultani, 27S 
Imarvillca |)ilava\i. 4") 
Indian Shot, 07 
Ipoind'a liatala~, i^S 
Inina-ivA, ,;5'> 
hylirida, ,>5; 
I pandurala, ;57 

i|iianiii( lit, ,>?S 
Irr-ini II-rliMii, 12,5 
Iridacra', -() 
Iris, 71) 

Dwarf, K,:; 
I-aiuli-li, 84 
I'aniil>'. 79 
( liTiiian, 80 
Kcrmanica, So 
Japanese, 8} 
hevifiata. 84 
puniila, S^ 
I Spanish, 8.^ 

1 xiphiuni, 8^ 

xiphoiiles, 84 
I Ivy, Hoston, 2S1 
j Ciniund. ,;82 

I [apane>e, 2S1 

' I\ia. 11)2 

i 
I 

; I NCllll's l.\lil>l K, ^-o 
lerusaleiii Arli( Imke, 400 

54j 



_.;:^^,.HtUB0u 



■VWilJ 



<6*^:.: :i/2:j 



INDEX 



JiTtl--.ili'ni Cliiriv, jjo 

<);ik, llf> 
Jtuihviid, 27S 

J(K' I've Willi, 5'.i 

J()n(|uil, -2 
J.i^(|ili's Coat, 1 II) 

Kaisi imuumk, .(i)!) 
Kiiliiiv lUaii, 2t'> 
Kiii|>lnili;i aliiiilis, I'l 
Kmliia M iiparia, 1 1(1 
Kuil/u \'inr, 252 

l,\m \r.i;, ,;;;; 
l,ail\ '-- Sli|i|)ir, 100 
I,am;i,iria vulgaris, .(ii 
Laniiui" .illiuiu, ;,S- 
inarulaUim, ,^S2 
[mrpurriim, ^Sj 
I.ark>|)ur, i'>7 
I.athyriis latilolius, J.^S 

iiiloratus, 2,i5 
Lavatira tiimcstri'^, 2>)[ 
Li'.vcnilrr, Sea, •;.( J 

Swirt, ;,8i 
I.avrnilula vera, ,iS' 
I.iailwiirl Family, .^,; \ 
T.cf^uniiiiDsa', 2,^5 
lAMiparil's Hanc, 51 t 
Ix'liaihvs piniiata. (6 t 
I,i'S])i'ilr/.a Sii'lioliii, 24 i 
LiiKiijum wrnuiii, 70 
I-iatri^, 514 
l.iliaci'a', 14 
1, ilium, I i 

auralum. 2 t 
ranailcnsr, 27 
lamliihim, i'> 
(cipiiilor, 20 
I'li'gans. 20 
IIarri~ii. iS 
ja|)i)niiuni, 22 
loiii^illuruni, iS 
philaik-lliliiiuin, 20 
siKriosum, 22 
supcrhuni. 27 
tigrinum, 2O 



l.ilv, 1 t 

llirmucla, 18 
I'llai l-.liirr\ , ij5 
C'alla, 5 
Caiiaila, 27 
Clui kcii'il, ;( 
|)a>. |i, li 
I'.a-I.r. iS 
(;,. luli.l.il, 2- 
Ja|iaiir~i', 22 
l.cmiiii, 4() 
Mailc.mia, i'> 
Miailow, 27 
riantain, \:-, 
Kill, 20 
St. hruiiii'--, 5() 
SliDwy, 22 
'liurr, 2') 
Toail, 5S 

'I' JR-ll, 4'' 

'lurk's Cap, 27 
I'priglU, 20 
Watrr, 150 
Whilr, j(> 
Willi Villi. u, 27 
Wool I, 20 
I.ily "f llu- Nili', 5 
I.ily of tbr \'alli-y, 55 
Lima liiaii, 250 
Linacia', 25') 
l.inaria vi:liraris, 402 
l.inum, 2-,(> 

j;ranilillnruin, 257 
]RTrmu', 257 
usilati>simum, 2^h 
I,ivf-for-rvir, 227 
LiviTwiirt, 171) 
I.oasa I'amily, .ioi; 
I.,)a. .ai.c, .?0() 
Lohilia. Hlui', 44'^>- 4-t'' 
carilinalis, 447 
crinus, 446 
Family, 446 
Ciriat, 44S 
syphilitirus, 448 
LolK-liacia-, 446 
London I'riiif, 135 



544 



INDEX 






I,iiiii( c-r.i 1 ,i|irif.i!iiiin, \2 ; 
J.i|i.ini-i, {;•-, 
j^i|»>iii< .1, )J- 

[MTi( iMIUIUmi, \2!, 

>fin|i( rvinri-, i-'i 
l,<H>-(-,trit'f I'aiiiily, ,^io 

Ciiililin, U2 

rur|ili', ; lo 

S«:in|i, oio 

\\h..ilr,l, si:! 
l.ii\i-iii-.iMi-t, iS<). 
I.iiM -iii-.i-I'iill, 2'(< 

i..i\f-lir— lilicilmn, 1 II) 
l.unari.i liiiinii>. Ji 5 
I.iint;n(prt, SiiumiUi. ,-•-' 
l,il|iini', M.iin -lr,i\< ', J I'l 
I.upinu- |Milx |ili\ llii-. J I'' 
l.M hiii- I li.ili 1 ilonii .1, is.i 

(U'l.i rii-:i, I -,'1 

( iimii.tri.i, I ;') 

nus-( uiiili, I ;6 

j;itliiini>, I \lt 
l.vi iuni ( hinrn^i-, ,;i)i 

vulnarc, ,,()•; 
I,\(i)|icr,~i( uni I -.1 uli-iiUini, S'U 
l,\>inia( hia i Ktliniiilo, ,i |,i 

minmuilaria, .Vt.i 

(|iia(lrifiilia, ,u- 

vulf^ari-, ,U2 
l.\ thrac la-, ,; 1 o 
I.ylhruir. >aliiaria, ,;' = 

M \i)i)i :; I'amii V, -t> I 
Madi'ira \ini', 1 1 7 
Mallcnv, ('ciiiuiiiiii, Ji;J 

I-'aniilv. jS^ 

Mar>h, 2SS 

Mu-k, JC); 

I'oppy, jo; 

R.ist-, jSS 

Swamp KiiM', 2SS 

TriT. 20.; 
Maliipc Irifiila. 2()4 
Maltese Cro.-s, i •;; 
Malva iiKHi !iala, Jc)2 

r()tim<lil'"lia, 272 

hvlvfHtri;. 2Q--. 



Malva. la-. 2S; 
Man-'il-lhr-l.ailli, (57 
Maryiii rill . \- ( 
I ImMcm, 47') 
Maiit;nl.|. (So 

\l'l il AU. (Sj 

Ci.iii, 172 
I'nr'ih, 1^1 
Mar^li. iS; 
M.irjnratn. Su.ii, 5.'i 
Marvil ..'■ I'rni. ;.•, 
Malriinmiv \'ii\r, iu; 
Mallliiiila ini dn.[. 21 ) 
Mauraiuli:.. ( -• 
Ma\ I'op, Ji-'i 
Mavuiril, 477 
Miail>i\'. Salliiiii, 5S 
Miilii a^ii >a''\a, 25 \ 
MrliliM, While, 217 
M.lili.Ui-- all.a, 2t7 
I (ilVn inali-, 2 (S 

I Mi-nlha pcpirila, 52.5 
I \iiicli-, 52 ( 

Mciit/clia, .;ci) 
, Mcrlrn-ia \iri;inii a, ;,22 
i Mrxiiaii l-'ire I'laiil, I K) 
M ij^niiiultc, 222 
I'amilv, 2J2 
Milkuccil I-aiiiil\ . .^51 

( )raii}ic, .vii 
Mint K.iiiiily, ,;75 
Mira)iili- jalapa. 125 
Mill k (■\ prr~~, I 1') 
Miiiianki iiiil\nia, ,^76 

li-liilii-a, S7''^ 
M.nl ~li..ii(l, !fiS 
Monllinlia. i/i 
Munll-lliAMT, ,^56 
Ml riiiiifj-^iliiry, ^5,^ 
Mil" I'ink, -i'lt 
MiivirriiiiK Briilr, 4^0 
Miillriii I'iiik. 1 •;'> 
Muxari Imlryuiiics, -jS 

( iiiiini'i-um, .;() 
MuNknicliin. 4S,^ 
Mu>tanl, I'.hiik. -M(> 
Wiiitu, 211; 

545 



^J||la«Jh*B 



INDEX 



|ialu>tri^, i2 I 
M>rll.-. IrailiiiK. .( »7 

N\JAl>\('K.1':, ,i 
Sun i— ii>, 'ii 

llllllxM'Hiilllll, 'l'' 

Chimx' S.uriil, '"> 
iiniiniparahili^. '^> 
iiiii(|iiilla. '2 
r,i|Kr Whiw, '») 
IxKtinw, '>S 
I'.Hl's, f)H 
I'l.lyanlhus, ^(j 
))s*u<l<i-nar( i»iH, <i2 
ta/itia, i»» 
Nasturtium, 2')J 
arnii. %>, J,:o 
uIVk inali', Jio 
Ni-lunil)iuni, 15; 
indica, 15s 
luti'um, 15,^ 
Nciniiphila insinni'^, ,<7i 
Ni|Kta lataria, ,<H! 
j>lii lioma, .;H2 
Nfttli- Faniilv 10,^ 
Nimtiana, .;N' 
alYinis, .^8H 
aUit.. ,^8S 
SandiTx, ,^i)0 
ti)l)a(uni, M)0 
N'itTfnilKTuia, .^iw 
N'ijjillii (laniasd'na. 1S6 

hispania, 1S7 
Ni^^itshadt-, ,>o8 
Xi^'itsliack- Family, ,^S.^ 
Nyi taRinaii-a-, 1 i? 
Nvmpha'a odorata, 150 

luhorosa, 150 
Nvniplixacra-. 150 

OciMLM liASilJrl'M, 52,^ 

(Kni)thtra amivna, :\i(> 
hknni-;, ,^i ) 
frutii'osa, ,^15 

<)naj;ra hk-nnis, ,U4 

Onagraci\T, .^14 



Onion, r>>mmnn, 50 

WiM. <^o 
( (mini- rutundifi'lia, 2^J 
( »ran({<' Milkv^<<d. .VSi 
( »ri liidai la', too 
( )ri!ii>. l-'.miily. too 
( )riK.inum majorana, S^' 
( )rnitlicit;.ilum umh' Datum, 38 
( >r|)inf, (lardcn, 227 

l-'aniily. 227 
( >-.wtnii 'I'm, ,\'<* 
( Kali'lai I'a-. i^X 
( )\ali-i aiitciMlla, 25H 

stritla. 25H 

\i.ilaiia', 2s8 
( )\ I'.vc, 4')0 



r.\riiYS\Ni)K\ 275 
I'aMinia ailiif'iiia. 156 
hvlirida, 155 
mnutans, 1 5'> 
(ilVuinali'-. 15^' 
Pan-.y, 2i)() 

Paiiavir alpinum, igS 
nudiiauk', igS 
iirirntalf, :;J5 
riicras. K)^ 
somniftrum, ii)0 
PapaviTatta'. 1 "> 
I'aradi-ca liliastrum, ^f> 
I'ardantlnis sinensis, 95 
I'arsk'y, 5,^0 

Family, ,^2S 
I'arsni(), ,;2Q 
ras(|ui' Fk)\v(r, 17A 
l'a>~iniira rarula, ,^o8 

iniarnata, ,50ft 
Passitloraica', ,>o6 
Passkm Fknvrr, .506 

Family, ,?o6 
Pastinaia sativa, ,529 
Pta, Butltrlly, 2.59 
Cow, 254 
Kvcrlasling, 2,^8 
l-'iild, 240 
Cankn, 2,59 
Swt'i.;, 235 



546 



INDEX 



r<anul. 3«S 
I'fiirl, 'rill'. »f'? 
r<lar(»ipmim hurl'irum, J5'> 

ili);il.ili~. ;i I 
I'mtn, 15s 



Mdiil.in. I ^H 



i.H 



Whilifliiuirri 
rr|)|K rmiiii. ;;; 
I'lrilla iianUini n-.i~. .<H'J 
!'( ri|(l<Ma nr:ii a, J.Si 
ririwinklc. .M7 
l.arnrr. ,;jH 
Madatjaxar, ; (S 
I'lUinia, ^Hi 

h\t)ri<la, ,;^i 
riias*-<i|iis UinaUi^. 2^0 

vulKari», 2;i» 
l>;na>atil'- I'.vf, i.^S 
Phlox ilivari(ata, \t'\ 
l)runini<in<lii, ,^()4 
I'aniily. M'3 
panii ulata. ,;62 
rcrinnial, ,^')2 
suhiilata. .!,fH 
\Vil<l, .;64 
Physali- alktkinni. M><> 
rhvsii^tiKia virniniana, ,•,■,<> 
ri('k<rrl-\\Vi<l, 12 

Family. 12 
Pit-Plant, 112 
I'iiik. Bundi. 12H 
China, i.^o 
CIdvc, I,; 2 
Kaiiiily. 12.S 
Ciardi'n. i,i> 
(Irass, i,u 
("iroun'l. .^64 
Inilian, i;,o 
Mo^s. ,^f)4 
MulU'in, i,^() 
S(<iUh. i,i5 
Pipi' \'ini-, 105 
Pisum arvt-nsc-, 240 

sativum, 2,\g 
Pitcher Plant, 224 



riatvriKlon uran-iill'irum. til 
l'lun\liauiiian-.i-. , U 
PliimliaiS'" I a|>tn'i-. i >'> 
Pi.in«<itia. i; \ 
piilrmunian .1 . >'<} 
PuU-miiniiim 1 .iruli urn, •■,(>!) 

ri|)i.in', ;'») 
I'nlianllu-^ liiUri>^.i, 77 
piilyaiilhii", S ;"< 
I'lihUon.it I .r. I'j7 
pol\)ii.miiii. Iti.-liv, 107 
1 ii-|ii<l.iluin. l'>' 
(irirlU.lll'. lO'l 
~,irli.ilint n-i'. I "^ 
Siclwil'li, 107 
punclwii'l. C.ilH-. ^ 

Family. ; 
pontciliria nini.il.i. 12 
Pcinti'fliriac i-.r. 1 -' 
P(i|)|iy. Miiinc, iiJS 
I alil'irnia. 20a 
C'ciiiimnn. i<>o 
Corn. H)S 
Iiihiml. n)\ 
Matilij.i. 207 
I )|)ium, i(;o 
( )ri(ntal. n).i 
I'luTiu-, 11)7 

Si.irlrt. K)^ 
Shirley, MM 
I'(irtula<a ^ranilillor.i. 1 |H 

(iltraria. 1 |i» 
Portulaiada-. 1 )>^ 
P(itaminit>)n (li>lai liyuiii, ,1 
Potato, u.)7 

Sweet, 'i^)^ 
Potentilla lana'li n-i-, 14'' 
I'rimroM', .^40 

Chinese, i40 
Flveninu, ,?i4 
F'amily, .vV** 
Primula acaulis, .^40 
japonii a, u^ 
oITk inalis, :-,M) 
polyanthus, s.;S 
variabilis. .\.'-,^ 
Prinuilaiea-, ,^.;S 

547 



ifMBr-aitiii' - 



INDEX 

Prill. t\ IV.ilh.r, io<), il') 
I'mrari.i TIuiiiIh rui.in.i, J^J 
I'uliiiHii.iri.i ■<a<'h.iriil.», ;•)'' 
rur-l.ini' r.itiiilv, i »H 
|'\rillirum r'>^<uin, \'o 

UviiiMi Knitiv. 1 i'' 

Uanf^liM'l \V»><I, »Q-' 
K.muiii iiliii t;i'. 155 
U.imin" iilii- ;i>ri*. '1^ 
Kcrd.i iidiirala, Ji-' 
U.'l Harrow, ;;;.' 
Kluuiii rha|»ini. iini. 1 13 

lialinatiiiii, 1 1 i 
Kluiliarli, u-' 
Kiilianlia afrit ana, S 
Kiiiiui> i.piiiMUiiii-, -'7 t 
RcHkit, Daiiu'-, -M'l 
Swiit, 3I'> 
^■^|i(l\v, 2:0 
Kotkrusf I-ainilv, .'i).^ 
K..nimya Coiillrri, .'03 
Ki.:-a'ia', I »<> 
K ,-(■ Kainily, m'> 
k. niariiuis, .^Ho 
Ki. •i!ar\, ,!Ho 

N!ar-I\, vv> 
Riii.!,ura'. 415 
Kii. -..(kia laiini.iti, 162 
Kvi, . ('omnKin. :;<)'> 

I aiiiilv, .')'> 
Kul.l' IX, -!'''' 

s\( I'll) r>i AN, I.-.'. 

SalTri'ii, Mi-.iil'>\v, 5.S 

Sap . JH) 

lUtlililHin, ,;-''> 

Siaili'l, ,i7.^ 
St. J,.hn's-NV(.rl Ta-nily, 2i)(> 
Saliii«l<>^>'^ sinuat.., .^S; 
Salvia olTuinalis, 519 

paUns, ,<7'> 

Sunguinaria canadi.nsi>, 19S 



S.mlnliii.i ,li.iiii:iiM>ari-ii'. li'"' 
S.ipitnlai ' a', .'7'> 
^.ilHiiKiri,! i.lVuiti.ili^, \ ^'l 

i.iui.i»i>a. I to 
s.irrai' .li.i I'lirpiir'''. --1 
Sarra' ini.n ra-, J-' I 
Saluiii.i l'iirl>n^i>, SJJ 
Sa\"rv, Su'iinur, s,3J 
Sa\i(ran.i ' r,i"il"li.i. -Si 

\iruiiiiiii-i-. J i- 
S,i\ifraK.ii 'a'. JU 
Sa\ilr.i«t , l..irl\. :U 
|',iniil\ . iS- 
■Clii, U-l.aM'l, }<2 
S< .iliiiiu-, Sunt, 450 
Sihi/.aiiilHi> |iinn.itii . >'n 
Si ilia ainu-na, ,<<' 
au'uiniKili'. ;'' 

liif>ili,l, ,!.<> 

>iliiri<a, ,1'' 
virna. ,i') 
Si ilanianaita', i>7 
S. ri>lituil.iriana', 4°' 
S.-a llnlly, ,;, I 
Sea I.a\inili r. vU 
Sea Pink, .vi.S 
Siiluin aiTf, 2-'S 
Sliiiwy, 2J.'< 
-jii'i laliili', 2.'H 
tili|ihiuni, J.'7 
iiTnaliiMi, 22S 
Stni|KT\iruni tr. loivini, -\;o 
Slunitins; S ,r, ,i4,i 
SiU'.if arim-na, i.i.i 

pcniiula, I vi 
Silk X'im-. ,i52 
Snapiiraniin, 401 
Siu'i/c Willi, 4'' I 
Snuwilmp, C'liinniiin, 74 
Snuwllaki', SprinH, 7<' 
Sninv-.m-thi-M mntain, 270 
S.iapli -ry FaniiU, 27*) 
SnUuiaira'. ,i'*^.i 
Siilanuni 'luKamara, ,?i)S 
,.,, nluni, 40° 
psi ...li.-rapsiiuni, 400 
I iui)crosani, jy7 

548 



mumIh 



INDEX 



Si>utlirrti"'HNl, ;i ( 
S|M';irtiiinl. 5-M 
Spiilirwiiri. ^ 

Spill.iii.l I'l. r.ui I, II' 
Spiia-.i, 111'"'. W I 
Spiirur I'.imih, :'^ 
Miiunl.iin, J7> 
Whii lVi\\<rin«, -'7-' 
S.iuill. Silxri.in. ;'■ 
Sl.iitiv- l.m.iUi. v"*-' 
SMlT Tr-f r.iMill>. .''"» 
Sl.vr i>f lUilili-lutn. ;•"< 
St.ir 'I'hi^'l' . ; >i 
Slaliii', <<» 

ini ,iM.i, ; ;^ 
l.iiil'"li.i. ,;;» 
Si. Il.iri.i ui.iiniiu.i, i »; 
||,,|m-i.,i, 1 U 
llUlli.l. I (-• 
Slilili""rt, ('■..lil<n. I li 
Sll H k . 3 1 o 
Sliiki-i.i ' vaivr.i. 5'^-' 
St()iuir"|i, j-'S 
SiUMiry. ;oi 

Scnili")!-. ^' ^ 
Sunll'Avrr. ('..inini'ii. i; ; 

I'rn iiiii.il. 1^7 

Sui'il \l>-^um, 21 I 

Ha.-il. ;-\; 

Clovr, -'(7 

llirl.-. 517 

M.irior.iin, ^-'l 

I'll, 2,^ 

I'ouii.i, ;^"> 
SialiiiHi-. \^o 
Siill.iii. 5'.'-' 
N'i.ilit, ,;o-' 
William. i.'.>< 
WiUi.iiT Calibtl.-. '^'^ 

TaM-CI 11'^' MLi.vKK, 51'' 
Tan>y. 5i'i 
Tarrsg'"-., -'■<'■ 



Ta-Ml IloA.r. 100 
'I'l a I amih . .■'»; 

I 'I'la-l I .iiiiil;. , Iv' 
{ 'f,, ..ina ra.li' .inv I'"* 
! •l',.jf,-i, . , I. . la. (>.' 
|p,Uula, J** I 
-miiaia. i^l 
Trlanllii 1. 1, 1 -'-' 
Tirn^tru-mia' • > -'"' 

r<lr.iH"i".>. ' ''' 

'I'li.ilii iruiii. 17') 

ai|iiilrHil..liu!M. 17') 

(Ijiiiiuiii, I 7') 
ImUnaniiin, 17') 
Thi-tU-. I''ii' ■ <>' 
'I'lirifl. ; ,i 

■riiuiil" 'Hi.i -il.!''!. l-'^ 
I'lnmr. 5-'^ 

('tri|iinn. 5-1 

Swi rt. ;.''J 

Thuiu' .r|i\lliini, S-' 

\ulnari-, S-' 
Ti.iri'll.i. J i i 
TiKcr M'lU.r, .)-• 
TilliT l.il'. . -'1 
'l"i^;ri(li,i ii.Kiiii.i. <)-' 
T'Kid ll.i\. 1 i 
I i.i l.ih l.ii'.iii' -'■. =;''^ 
'1 .ai . ". .W'i 
■rum. It". ;"l 
■I'urriii.. I'.urniiii. 1 1 "> 
■rouilMiu -ii'it l-,imil\, .'77 
'I'r.iilc-. .iii'i.' \ir«ini.'i'.'- '"^ 

lluiiiiiii n-i-. I :> 
Trii vrti' liirla. .^^^^ 
■rrilliuin i;r,in.lill"rum. S-' 

Whil.-. 5-' 
Tril.mi.i 1 1'" u-nKrll"ia, .)'' 
Trdlliu- a-i.iiiiU'. 177 

ciiroiiau-. 177 
•IV.'iHf'.lum |..l.t.i.inum, 2h\ 
nuiju-. -•''-' 
niimi-. .'i'-' 
■I'ruinptl ll.ilT'Hiil. ''-^ 
Truml"! Il"«>r, ,i')0. l'^ 
I 'rulH-rii--"'. 77 

34^J 



r-'-uJ'^'^ 






INDEX 






Tulip, 2Q 

Tulipii (Icsntriana, 29 

suavcdkns, ,^4 
'I'urllf Head, 409 

Imhki.i.iki.k.k, ^28 
rnitatfa', 10,5 

\ali;ki.\n. Common, 420 

Family, 420 

Kid, 428 
\'ali-riana olVuinaHs 426 
VaUriana( I'a', 426 
WrlK'na, ,^72 

iivbrida, ,,72 

Saml, 126 
Vc-l)i'nacfa', ,^72 
Vcrnonia novihorarfii.sis, 
Vt-roniia loiiKillora, .1.14 

sijicata, 414 
Vervain Family, 372 
Vi'trh, Little, 252 

IVa-I.ikc, 252 
Vicia ccrnus, 252 

uri)l)oi<k'S, 252 
Vinra major, ,548 

minor, ,^47 

Rose, .S48 

msoa, ,^48 
Vine F'aniily. 280 
Viola cornuta, ,^02 

cuculata, 30,^ 

odorata, ,^02 

trieolor, 2gg 
\'iolarea', 291) 
Violet, Heddinn, 302 

Common Blue, .503 

I'.nglish, ,^02 

F'aniily, 299 



Violet, Horned, ,^02 

Sweet. ,^02 
\'iper's Huf^loss, ,^25 
Xirginia Cree|)er, 280 
Nirginian Co\v>lip, ,^22 
X'itaeea', 280 
\itis vulpina, 282 

lahrusea, 28? 

Wakk Robin. 52 
Wallllower, 219 
Wandering; Jew, 10 
Waler-Hau thorn, 3 
Water-leaf Family. ,^71 
Water Lily, White, iso 

Ciiaiit, 15,^ 
Watermelon, 4,U 
White Tansy. 465 
Wild Carrot'. .^28 
Wild Cuiumher, 4,55 
Wild Potato Vine, .^57 
Willow Herb, ,^iS 
WindlViwer, 176 
Wistaria diinensis. 252 
Woixlhine. 280. 42,^ 
W<Mxl Sorrel F'amily. 258 
W<K)lly Bull), 58 
Wormw(HMl, 514 

XkRANTHEMUM ANNUIM, 507 

Yam Family, 59 
Yarrow, 465 
Vueea filamenlosa, 47 
glauca. 48 

Zebrina pendui.a, 10 
Zinnia elegans, 493 



55° 



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FIELD AND WOOD 



Our Native Trees and 
How to Identify Them 

By HARRIET L. KEELER 

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^7' ■it-, 



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